- Code of conduct study
The code of conduct on prevention of school-related gender-based violence: A study of policy enactment in Ethiopia - Jo Heslop, Jenny Parkes, Freya Johnson Ross, Firehiwot Alito, Ellen Turner (2019)
There has been very little research globally on the implementation of national policy interventions to address School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV). SRGBV describes physical, sexual and psychological acts of violence in and around schools, underpinned by unequal access to resources and power, and inequitable norms and stereotypes based on gender. A key intervention of governments around the world has been to develop Codes of Conduct for school communities, that set professional standards and hold staff and students accountable for SRGBV and other forms of misconduct. Yet there are few studies that look in depth at how these codes have been implemented in schools.
In Ethiopia, a Code of Conduct on Prevention of SRGBV in Schools was introduced in 2014 and has been rolled out in all regions across Ethiopia. In addition, a Violence Reporting Tool (VRT) was developed to gather data on incidents of violence in schools. In 2017, the Ministry of Education (MoE) and UNICEF Ethiopia prioritised a study to look in depth at how the Code was understood and used at national, regional, district and in particular at school levels.
The findings from the study will help to inform the MoE’s review of the Code and the reporting tools, thus having potential to make an important contribution to improving the safety of girls and boys in and around schools in Ethiopia. The study will also help to build knowledge globally about the challenges and potential for Codes of Conduct, and related work to prevent and respond to violence in schools.
- Rigorous review of global research
[English] A rigorous review of global research evidence on policy and practice on school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV)
[French] Analyse méthodique des données issues de la recherche mondiale sur les politiques et les pratiques de lutte contre la violence liée au genre en milieu scolaire (VLGMS)
Jenny Parkes, Jo Heslop, Freya Johnson Ross, Rosie Westerveld, Elaine Unterhalter | 2016
Approaches to addressing SRGBV
The review showcases the latest research evidence on approaches to addressing SRGBV. Research efforts around SRGBV to date have tended to focus on short-term, local level interventions with limited attention to policies and policy implementation processes.
The most promising interventions are multi-layered and address the links between violence, identities, social and cultural norms and intersecting structural inequalities. However, how to sustain and institutionalise work on gender and violence in schools and communities is less known.
The review found that a focus on resources and efforts is needed to build a robust evidence base that supports policy, practice, monitoring and evaluation at all levels.
- Scoping studies
Scoping studies were conducted in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Ethiopia and Zambia outlining existing research, policies and practices in each of the four participating countries to inform the next phase of the End Gender Violence in Schools initiative.
- [English] Addressing School Related Gender Based Violence in Ethiopia: A Scoping Study - Jenny Parkes, Jo Heslop, Freya Johnson Ross, Rosie Westerveld, Elaine Unterhalter (2017)
- [English] Addressing School Related Gender Based Violence in Zambia: A Scoping Study - Jenny Parkes, Jo Heslop, Freya Johnson Ross, Rosie Westerveld, William Nicholas, Elaine Unterhalter (2017)
- [English] Addressing School-Related Gender-Based Violence in Côte d'Ivoire: A Scoping Study
- [French] Lutter contre les violences basées sur le genre en milieu scolaire en Côte d'Ivoire : Étude exploratoire - Rosie Westerveld, Freya Johnson Ross, Jenny Parkes, Jo Heslop, Elaine Unterhalter (2017)
- [English] Addressing School Related Gender Based Violence in Togo: A Scoping Study
- [French] Lutter contre les violences basées sur le genre en milieu scolaire au Togo : étude préliminaire - Freya Johnson Ross, Rosie Westerveld, Jenny Parkes, Elaine Unterhalter, Jo Heslop (2017)
- [French] Lutter contre les violences basées sur le genre en milieu scolaire au Togo: étude préliminaire (document de synthèse) - Freya Johnson Ross, Rosie Westerveld, Jenny Parkes, Elaine Unterhalter, Jo Heslop, Dr Kossi Sénamé Dodzi (2017)
The findings from these studies have identified the major gaps and critical opportunities for better preventing and responding to SRGBV in the respective countries, and based on the findings, the most promising interventions will be promoted for action both at policy and programmatic levels.
- Country policy briefs
The policy briefs are aimed at strengthening understanding and engagement around crucial SRGBV-related issues and stakes in order to support and empower policy-makers at different levels and from different sectors.
- Cross-country report
Jenny Parkes, Freya Johnson Ross, Jo Heslop, Rosie Westerveld, Elaine Unterhalter (2017).
This report synthesises findings from four scoping studies of policy, practice and evidence on SRGBV in Zambia, Togo, Ethiopia and Côte d'Ivoire carried out in 2016 to 2017, with insights of relevance for any country seeking to strengthen their work to address SRGBV.
The research design offers a valuable framework through which to evaluate and strengthen national action on SRGBV through collecting evidence on: prevalence and patterns of SRGBV; laws, policies and plans; structures and partnerships; responses in and around schools; prevention through teaching and learning; and systems for data collection.
- UNGEI technical brief
Engaging communities in dialogue on gender norms to tackle sexual violence in and around schools (pdf) - Jo Heslop (2016)
This technical note was prepared by Jo Heslop for UNGEI. The document looks at how gender norms shape sexual violence, and why it is critical to incorporate dialogue and action on gender norms in SRGBV interventions. It also identifies promising approaches to addressing gender norms within programs aimed at ending SRGBV, and sexual violence in particular.
It aims to be a resource for organisations who work in, or are planning to implement programmes on SRGBV primarily at the district and sub-national level. Some of the learning can also be applied to inform national education policy around gender and violence.
Other key global publications
- UNESCO Global guidance on school-related gender-based violence (pdf)
- USAID Technical Brief: Addressing School-related Gender-based Violence reports on SRGBV (pdf)
- USAID Literature Review on School-related Gender-based Violence: How it is defined and studied (pdf)
- USAID Conceptual Framework for Measuring School-related Gender-based Violence