A type of AUXILIARY VERB that is also a MULTI-WORD VERB:

I am about to leave
You have to sign the form

See also


Sentences are strings of words that usually express a proposition. They consist of at least one CLAUSE.
See also

Simple Preposition

A PREPOSITION that consists of a single word, eg. along the road.
See also

Simple Sentence

A simple sentence is a sentence which contains only one clause, e.g. John plays football for Liverpool.
See also


A value of NUMBER CONTRAST used when a single entity is being referred to. The converse of PLURAL.
See also

Small Clause

A small clause is a subordinate clause that contains no verb, as in It made John happy.
See also

Stranded Preposition

PREPOSITIONS are usually followed by nouns. Stranded prepositions do not, as in the following examples:

Carla has no one to go with
What are you listening to?


Subjects can often be described as the constituent that performs the action described by the Predicate, e.g. John kicked the ball. The Predicate is kicked the ball and John performs this action; so John is the Subject of this sentence.
See also

Subject Clause

A Subject clause is a Subject of a Predicate in the form of a clause. For example, To leave now would be rude. The Subject of would be rude is the clause to leave now. This is a type of subordinate clause.
See also

Subjective Case

The form which pronouns take when they function as Subject: he, she, it, we, they are subjective personal pronouns.
See also

Subject Complement

A Subject Complement occurs with a copular verb. It provides additional information about the Subject. For example, Alan is an artist. In this example the noun phrase an artist is the Subject Complement and it provides more information about Alan.


This term is the converse of superordinate. A clause that is lower on the clause hierarchy than another is subordinate to that one. Every other clause is subordinate to the matrix clause. One subordinate clause may be subordinate to another, for example in [I think [that you know [I like coffee]]], I like coffee is subordinate to that you know.
See also

Subordinate Clause

A subordinate clause occurs at a lower level than some other clause. For example, in I'll clean the bathroom if you clean the lounge, the if-clause is subordinate to the clause I'll clean the bathroom. Further subordinate clauses we distinguish are: relative clauses, that-clauses, small clauses, -ed participle clauses, -ing participle clauses, to-infinitive clauses, bare infinitive clauses, and comparative clauses.
See also

Subordinating Conjunction

Subordinating conjunctions introduce SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. Examples include: although, because, if , since, when, while, etc. Also known as a SUBORDINATOR.
See also


See also


In the sentence The cheetah is the fastest animal, the ending -est marks the superlative form of the adjective fast. The cheetah is being compared with all other animals and is being picked out for its ability to outrun all the others. Both ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS can be made superlative. Some words do not take the -est ending but require most as in the following example: She was once described as the most beautiful woman in the world.
See also


The converse of SUBORDINATE. A clause higher in the clause hierarchy to another one is superordinate to it. A matrix clause is superordinate to all other clauses.
See also

Syndetic Coordination

This term refers to COORDINATION that has a single COORDINATOR between the last two CONJOINS, as in John, Mary and Bill.
See also