-Ed Participle

A NONFINITE form of a VERB characterised by the -ed INFLECTION. It is used to express perfective aspect (the chairman has resigned), and the passive (the chairman was persuaded to resign).
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-Ed Participle Clause

A type of subordinate clause whose verb is in the -ed participle form, Tired of the long meeting, John left.
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Ellipsis occurs when clauses, phrases, or words are omitted from a sentence, but where the meaning is recoverable from the context. For example:

A: Can I have a glass of wine?
B: Yes you can [have a glass of wine]

The phrase in brackets is the ellipted material.


One of the NICE PROPERTIES of AUXILIARY VERBS, eg I do like carrots, I can speak French..
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A contracted form of an AUXILIARY VERB.

I have left ~I've left

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Exclamative Sentence

An exclamative is a sentence used as an exclamation. For example, How tall you've grown!

Exclusive Adverb

A type of ADVERB which excludes some possibility. For example, It was just Mary who saw me.

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Existential Sentence

A sentence that contains existential there, e.g. there is a man in the garden.

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Existential there

This element is used to introduce existential sentences. Eg There is a fly in my soup. Different from its ADVERBIAL (locative) use.


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A process in which a clause that acts as a Subject or Direct Object is displaced from its normal position, and is replaced by anticipatory it. For example:

That John isn't coming is clear ~It is clear that John isn't coming

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