Cardinal Numeral

A subclass of numerals which includes one, 1, twenty, a hundred.

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IIn English, case is illustrated by the PERSONAL PRONOUNS, where different forms of the pronoun indicate their grammatical relationship to the VERB. For example: (1) He is a plumber, He has SUBJECTIVE case. (2) I saw him, him has OBJECTIVE case.

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Central Adjective

A central adjective is one that fulfils all the criteria for identifying adjectives. These criteria are: being GRADABLE, having COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE forms, and appearing in ATTRIBUTIVE or PREDICATIVE positions.

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Central Determiner

A subclass of DETERMINER which includes DEFINITE and INDEFINITE ARTICLES as well as POSSESSIVE and DEMONSTRATIVE pronouns. Central determiners occur after PREDETERMINERS and before POSTDETERMINERS.

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Circumstantial Adverb

A collective term for MANNER, TIME, and PLACE ADVERBS.
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A clause is a string of words which expresses a proposition and typically consists of at least a SUBJECT and a verb: David sings, Yesterday we visited Canterbury. A SENTENCE contains one or more clauses. The sentence She retired early because she was ill contains two clauses, a MATRIX clause, consisting of the whole sentence, and a SUBORDINATE clause, because she was ill.

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Cleft it

A special use of the PERSONAL PRONOUN it which appears in CLEFT sentences: It was John who broke the window.
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Cleft Sentence

A sentence which is split into two clauses, placing emphasis on one part (the "focus"): It is her kindness that I will remember. Here, the focus is her kindness.
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Closed-Class Item

Word classes are of two types: OPEN-CLASS and closed-class. Closed-class items include AUXILIARIES, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, DETERMINERS and PRONOUNS. These classes consist of finite sets of words which can be exhaustively listed, and they do not admit new members.

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One of the NICE PROPERTIES of AUXILIARY VERBS. The DO AUXILIARY can replace the verb under ELLIPSIS. John wants to go to the cinema, and so does Mary.
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Collective Noun

A noun which refers to a group of individual people or animals: population, herd, flock, committee.

Common Noun

A noun which refers to common, everyday entities such as: cat, dog, sister, bucket, book.

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The form of an adjective or an adverb at the middle point on a scale of comparison. Comparison is expressed using an -er ending or with more:

Tim is taller than Mary
Amy is more industrious than Paul
John reads more quickly than David

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Comparative Clause

A type of subordinate clause which expresses comparison, and which is introduced by than or as:

She is older than I expected
She is (not) as old as I expected

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A constituent of a phrase which is required to complete the meaning of the Head. In a review of the book, of the book is the Complement of the Head review. Similarly, in detectives examined the scene, the scene is the Complement of the Head examined.

Complex Preposition

A two- or three-word preposition: along with, because of, due to.

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Complex Sentence

A complex sentence contains a main clause and at least one subordinate clause. For example, Your dinner is cold because you were late. The subordinate clause is because you were late.

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Compound Sentence

A compound sentence contains coordinated main clauses:
[Debbie bought the wine] and [Ben cooked the meal]

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Concessive Clause

A type of subordinate clause which expresses concession, usually introduced by although or though: He bought me a lovely gift, although he can't really afford it.

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Another term for AGREEMENT.

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Conditional Clause

A type of subordinate clause which expresses a condition, typically introduced by if : I'll be home early if I can get a taxi.

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An element which undergoes COORDINATION. In the following examples, the conjoins are bracketed:

[John] and [Mary]
The river was [wide] and [deep]
He [came home] and [lit the fire]

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Conjunct Adverb

Conjunct adverbs connect two sentences and indicate a logical relationship between them:

Your have not repaid your loan. Therefore, we cannot give you any more credit.

Other conjunct adverbs include: nevertheless, nonetheless, otherwise, in addition, on the other hand
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A CLOSED wordclass which includes COORDINATING words such as and, but, and or, and SUBORDINATING words such as because, if, and when.

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A constituent is a word or a group of words which acts syntactically as a unit. Constituents may be words, phrases, or clauses.

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Content Word

Another term for OPEN-CLASS words or LEXICAL words.
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Coordinating Conjunction

A type of CONJUNCTION which connects elements of equal status. The most common coordinating conjunctions are and and but. Also known as a COORDINATOR.
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Coordination involves the syntactic linking of two or more elements of equal status:

[John] and [Mary]
[up] and [down]
David [sings] and [plays guitar]

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Copular Verb

Copular (or linking) verbs link the Subject to the element that follows the them. This element says more about the Subject:

Jill is a lawyer
That sounds good

The most common copular verb is be.

Count Noun

A type of COMMON noun which is countable. Count nouns can be SINGULAR (dog) or PLURAL (dogs).
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