For further information on socio-economic inequalities in health alongside information on urban health policies, please visit the suggested links below.

Research Projects

  • The SOPHIE Project (2011-2015)

    • SOPHIE examines the impact of structural policies on health inequalities in Europe by developing innovative methodologies to evaluate these policies.
  • The DRIVERS Project (2007-2013)

    • The DRIVERS research project seeks to address the strategic determinants of inequalities in health by focusing on three key drivers of health inequalities: early childhood development, fair employment and income and social protection.
  • DEMETRIQ: Developing methodologies to reduce inequalities in the determinants of health

    • DEMETRIQ aims to evaluate the impact of a broad spectrum of social, economic and health policies on the pattern and magnitude of health inequality.
  • GRADIENT (2009-2012)

    • GRADIENT aimed to address the lack of knowledge surrounding how to tackle inequalities in health, insuring that political momentum is maintained and that operational strategies can be developed to make progress on this issue. The focus of the research project was on families and children.
  • The EURO-GBD-SE Project

    • EURO-GBD-SE is a collaborating partner of the Global Burden Disease group, specifically analysing socio-economic inequalities in health. EURO-GBD-SE aims to identify the determinants and risk factors associated with variations in the magnitude of health inequalities between European countries.
  • The Euroregio III Project (2009-2011)

    • Euroregio III explored and assessed the use of structural funds for direct health investment from 2000-2006 and 2007-2013. In particular, Euroregio III focuses on how to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability for direct health system investments using Structural Funds in the next funding cycle, 2014-2020. 
  • EURO-URHIS 2 (The European Urban Health Indicators System, Part 2)

    • EURO-URHIS 2 is developing, testing and validating comparable urban health indicators for over 40 European countries.
  • The Eurothine Project

    • Eurothine investigated health inequalities in various European countries to provide actionable information to aid European and national policy-makers.
  • The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project

    • The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project sought to rectify the lack of socio-economic data in U.S. public health surveillance by developing geocoding surveillance and area-based socio-economic measures.
  • Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Geografia: Geography of health status - An application of a Population Health Index in the last 20 Years.

    • An adequate approach to health variations demands actions directed at their causes; these include inequalities in terms of environmental living and working conditions and accessibility to essential resources, goods and services and lifestyles differences. Those policies capable of influencing those determinants include, obviously, the health system, but they are, mainly, out of its scope and are characterised by social complex interventions. After extensive research, today is accepted as a fact that health is more than the result of individual biology or genetics, behaviours or lifestyle options. Health is also determined by conditions and characteristics of individual variables; income or educational levels, family history and birth and growing conditions or the living and working conditions are also relevant.
  • Healthy Seuxal Project, Juntos Pela Saude

    • The Healthy Seuxal Project municipal action on the health and wellbeing of the population. This project creates, develops, and evaluates health dynamics, getting everyone involved together in the spirit of partnership, co-operation and citizenship.

Research Groups, Institutes and Networks

  • MEDEA (2009-2011)

    • MEDEA is part of the Spanish Biomedical Research Network on Epidemiology and Public Health whose aim is to analyse socio-economic and environmental inequalities in small areas of cities in Spain and Europe.
  • UCL Institute of Health Equity

    • The UCL Institute of Health Equity seeks to reducing health inequalities worldwide by studying the social determinants of health. In particular this institute seeks to increase health equity by focusing on influencing global, national and local policies, advising on and learning form practice, building an evidence base and by developing capacity.
  • EuroHealthNet

    • EuroHealthNet is a network of organisations, agencies and statutory bodies in Europe working to promote health and equity by addressing factors that determine health directly or indirectly.
  • Equity Action: The Joint Action on Health Inequalities

    • Equity Action focuses on developing capability across member states with a particular focus on: developing knowledge for action on health inequality, supporting the engagement of member states, regions and other stakeholders in action to tackle the socio-economic inequalities in health, shared learning between member states and other actors, and supporting the development of effective action to tackle socio-economic health inequalities at the EU policy level.
  • Inequality Watch: The European Observatory of Inequality

    • Inequality Watch is a network of associations and research centres to observe the state and evolution of inequality in Europe.
  • WHO European Healthy Cities Network

    • The WHO European Healthy cities Network consists of European cities that are committed to health and sustainable development. The overarching goal is health and health equity in all local policies, focusing on caring and supportive environments, healthy living and healthy urban design.
  • Biomedical Research Centre Network for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP)

    • CIBERESP examines the magnitude and distribution of health issues based on segregating factors such as geography, culture and gender (please note this website is in Spanish).
  • Portuguese Network of Healthy Cities

    • The Project Healthful Cities is a movement of world-wide importance, based the concept of Health for All.
  • Brussels-Capital Health and Social Observatory: Health Atlas

    • An interactive tool for monitoring 145 districts in Brussels. This Atlas includes maps, charts and graphs illustrating the state of neighbourhoods with different themes, including demography, the labour market, housing and so forth.

Organisational Websites


  • State of the World's Cities 2008/2009: Harmonious Cities (PDF)

    • The State of the World's Cities was conducted by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) and focused on the importance of the spatial, social and environmental aspects of cities and their inhabitants.