iCST Individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy UCL



  1. Woods B, Aguirre E, Spector AE, Orrell M. Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;2:CD005562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd005562.pub2
  2. Spector, A., Thorgrimsen, L., Woods, B., Royan, L., Davies, S., Butterworth, M., & Orrell, M. (2003). Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia - Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 248-254. doi:10.1192/bjp.183.3.24
  3. Knapp, M., Thorgrimsen, L., Patel, A., Spector, A., Hallam, A., Woods, B., & Orrell, M. (2006). Cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia: cost-effectiveness analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 574-580.
  4. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the Social Care Institute for Excellence (NICE-SCIE): Dementia: supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. Clinical Guideline 42. London: NICE-SCIE; 2006. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg42
  5. Orrell, M., Yates, L., Leung, P., Kang, S., Hoare, Z., Whitaker, C.,  Orgeta, V. (2017). The impact of individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (iCST) on cognition, quality of life, caregiver health, and  family relationships in dementia: A randomised controlled trial. Plos Medicine,14(3), 22.
  6. Yaffe K, Fox P, Newcomer R, Sands L, Lindquist K, Dane K, et al. Patient and caregiver characteristics and nursing home placement in patients with dementia. JAMA. 2002; 287(16):2090±2097. PMID:11966383