Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience



Plasticity group investigates the extent to which brain areas supporting perception and action are shaped by experience, with particular focus on what happens to the cortical territories of the hand following arm amputation. The group is led by Prof Tamar Makin.

Tamar Makin

Group Leader



+44 20 7679 1160

Tamar Makin

Plasticity Research

We are the London plasticity lab, led by Prof Tamar Makin. We study the extent to which brain areas supporting perception and action are shaped by experience. In particular, we focus on the hand, which affords many of our physical interactions with the world. We investigate what happens to the cortical territories of the hand following arm amputation. We want to know why amputees experience vivid sensations of their missing hand many decades after amputation. We are also interested in how the brain best supports the acquisition of new skills necessary for the amputees to adapt to their disability, such as prosthetic limb usage. To understand these processes better, we combine experimental models, performed on healthy participants, and related clinical populations (e.g. individuals with congenital hand loss and the blind). Our research seeks to define the boundaries of plasticity - our brain's ability to adapt how it processes inputs based on changed experience.

Our major research areas are:


Group Members

Post-doctoral Research Fellows

Dollyane Muret

Dollyane Muret

I am a postdoctoral researcher, with a biology background. I did my PhD and a first postdoc on tactile perception and brain plasticity. I am interested in understanding how the usage we do of our different body parts (i.e., both in terms of movement and touch) affects brain organisation in adults. Specifically, I investigate how the loss or absence of a hand (i.e., in amputees) modifies the way the other body parts are used in daily activities, and how this modified behaviour impacts brain organisation. To this aim, I combine different methods, from psychophysics to neuroimaging, but also brain stimulation.

See more about me


PhD Students

Elena Amoruso

Elena Amoruso

I am a PhD student with a background in experimental psychology. I am interested in the role of adaptive behavioural strategies, which individuals develop to compensate for the missing hand, in driving cortical reorganisation. I use fMRI and TMS to assess cortical reorganisation and its causality with adaptive behaviour. To examine compensatory strategies and their behavioural effects,  I combine ecological tasks with psychophysical measures in individuals with congenital and acquired upper-limb loss.

Roni Maimon

Roni Maimon

I'm interested in integrating tools from different disciplines (cognitive psychology, neuroimaging, rehabilitation, computational neuroscience), in order to gain a better understanding of brain plasticity to benefit real people with real life problems. Specifically, I'm focusing on the issue of low prosthesis usage in individuals with congenital and acquired limb loss.

Victoria Root

Vicky Root

I’m a PhD student in Clinical Neuroscience at the University of Oxford. I am interested in the possible mechanisms behind the experience of phantom pain in acquired amputees. Specifically, I will be using an fMRI probability paradigm in combination with a predictive coding framework, to attempt to explain the chronicity of this condition. I am also interested in the reciprocity of the relationship between the primary sensorimotor cortices, and whether this can provide adaptive benefits to individuals.  

Hunter Schone


Hunter Schone



I’m a PhD student with the UCL/NIMH joint doctoral program. I am interested in how the brain changes to meet the cognitive and motor demands of wearable robotic devices. My current research focuses on how the brain facilitates congenital and acquired upper-limb amputees to control an artificial prosthetic hand. Using a combination of fMRI and motor paradigms, I hope to better understand how amputees learn to control prosthetic hands to inform the design of prosthetic devices and prosthesis training protocols. 


Dani Clode

Danielle Clode

I am a designer collaborating with the Plasticity Lab at UCL. My background is in prosthetic arm design and human extension exploration, and I’m interested in forming strong connections between design and neuroscience. My Masters degree project - the Third Thumb, is a 3D printed supernumerary robotic thumb, which is currently the main tool for a fMRI study on how the brain adapts to the usage of devices that augment the capabilities of the human hand.

Research Assistants 

Paulina Kieliba

Paulina Kieliba

I am interested in combining the strengths of technology and neuroscientific research to best help individuals suffering from motor deficits. In particular, I explore opportunities for improving the usability and design of artificial limbs. In my research, I am looking at the supernumerary robotic fingers as an alternative to traditional prosthetic devices. I study the changes in the sensorimotor systems associated with the usage of an extra fingers both in healthy participants and in amputees.

Maria Kromm

Maria Kromm

I am a Research Assistant in Cognitive Neuroscience at UCL. I am interested in the drivers and limitations of cortical reorganisation in individuals with congenital and acquired hand absence. More specifically, I am involved in research projects where we are investigating whether and how behaviour might modify sensorimotor organisation by means of neuroimaging and brain stimulation.

Yagmur Idil Ozdemir

Yagmur Idil Ozdemir


I joined the London Plasticity Lab as a Research Assistant after completing my undergraduate in neurosciences. I am interested in how the brain constitutes the body’s physical reality, how it formulizes to interact this reality with the outside world and how it optimizes these methods. To address these questions, I use tools from embodied cognition, information theory and computational motor control. I am committed to ethical data science and I am a (trying-her-hardest) programming enthusiast.