Michie S, Richardson M, Johnston M, Abraham C, Francis J, Hardeman W, Eccles MP, Cane J & Wood CE. (In press; 2013)The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically-clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. (DOI) 10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6

Behaviour-specific taxonomies

Michie, S., Ashford, S., Sniehotta, F.F., Dombrowski, S.U., Bishop, A. & French, D.P. (2011). A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours – the CALO-RE taxonomy. Psychology & Health, 26, 1479-1498. doi:10.1080/08870446.2010.540664

Michie, S., Hamoudi, Z., Zarnani, F., Tober, G., West, R. (2012).  Identification of behaviour change techniques to
reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Addiction. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03845.x

Michie, S., Hyder, N., Walia, A. West, R. (2011). Development of a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in individual behavioural support for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 315-319. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.11.016

General taxonomies

Abraham, C., Kok, G., Schaalma, H. & Luszczynska, A. (2010). Health Promotion. In P.R., Martin, F., Cheung, M., Kyrios, L., Littlefield, L., Knowles, M., Overmier, & J., M., Prieto (Eds.), International Association of Applied Psychology Handbook of Applied
. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [Chapter contains 40 illustrative behaviour change techniques grouped by change targets].

Abraham, C., Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27, 379-387.

Dixon, D., Johnston, M. (2010). Health Behaviour Change Competency Framework: competences to deliver interventions to change lifestyle behaviours that affect health. [Edinburgh: Scottish Government].  Retrieved from

Leeman, J., Baernholdt, M., Sandelowski, M. (2007). Developing a theory-based taxonomy of methods for implementing change in practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58, 191-200. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04207.x

Lowe, D., et al. (In press; 2010). Development of a taxonomy of interventions to organise the evidence on consumers' medicines use. Patient Educ Couns. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.09.024

West, R., Walia, A., Hyder, N., Shahab, L., Michie, S. (2010). Behavior change techniques used by the English Stop Smoking Services and their associations with short-term quit outcomes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12, 742-747. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq074

Relevant articles and monographs

Avery, L., Flynn, D., van-Wersch, A., Sniehotta, F.F., Trenell, M.I. (2012) Changing Physical Activity Behavior in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions. Diabetes Care, 35, 1-9.

Bird, Emma L.; Baker, Graham; Mutrie, Nanette; Ogilvie, David; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Powell, Jane Behavior Change Techniques Used to Promote Walking and Cycling: A Systematic Review.  Health Psychology, 2013
doi: 10.1037/a0032078

Brouwer, W., Kroeze, W., Crutzen, R., de Nooijer, J., de Vries, N.K., Brug, J., Oenema, A. (2011). Which intervention characteristics are related to more exposure to internet-delivered healthy lifestyle promotion interventions? A systematic review. J Med Internet Res, 13, e2. doi:10.2196/jmir.1639

Cella, D., Yount, S., Rothrock, N., Gershon, R., Cook, K., Reeve, B., Ader, D., Fries, JF., Bruce, B., Rose, M.; PROMIS Cooperative Group. (2007). The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): progress of an NIH Roadmap cooperative group during its first two years. Med Care, 45, (Suppl 1):S3-S11. doi:10.1097/01.mlr.0000258615.42478.55 [Example of international consensus methodlogy]

Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., Petticrew, M. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. British Medical Journal, 337, a1655. doi:10.1136/bmj.a1655

Dombrowski, S., Sniehotta, F., Avenell, A., Johnston, M., MacLennan, G., Araujo-Soares, V. (In press). Identifying active ingredients in complex behavioural interventions for obese adults with obesity-related co-morbidities or additional risk factors for co-morbidities: a systematic review. Health Psychology Review. doi:10.1080/17437199.2010.513298

Gardner, B., Wardle, J., Poston, L., Croker, H. (2011). Changing diet and physical activity to reduce gestational weight gain: a meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews [in press]. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00884.x

Gardner, B., Whittington, C., McAteer, J., Eccles, M.P., Michie, S. (2010). Using theory to synthesise evidence from behaviour change interventions: the example of audit and feedback. Social Science and Medicine, 70, 1618-1625. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.039

Gatchel, R.J., Peng, Y.B., Peters, M.L., Fuchs, P.N., Turk, D.C. (2007). The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 581-624. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.4.581

Huttunen-Lenz, M., Song, F., Poland, F. (2010). Are psychoeducational smoking cessation interviews for coronary heart disease patients effective? Meta-analysis of interventions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 749-777. doi:10.1348/135910709X480436

Michie S, Johnston M, Abraham C, Francis J, Hardeman W, Eccles M, Richardson M, Cane J. (2012). An 87-item taxonomy of Behavior Change Techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Poster presentation, Society of Behavioral Medicine, New Orleans, USA, April 2012. Ppt slide available.

Michie, S., Abraham, C., Eccles, M., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., Johnston, M. (2011). Strengthening evaluation and implementation by specifying components of behaviour change interventions: a study protocol. Implementation Science, 6, 10. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-6-10

Michie, S., Churchill, S., West, R. (2010). Identifying evidence-based competences required to deliver behavioural support for smoking cessation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41, 59-70. doi:10.1007/s12160-010-9235-z

Michie, S., Prestwich, A. (2010). Are interventions theory-based? Development of a theory coding scheme. Health Psychology, 29, 1-8. doi:10.1037/a0016939

Michie, S., Prestwich, A., de Bruin, M. (2010). Importance of the nature of comparison conditions for testing theory-based interventions: reply. Health Psychology, 29, 468–470. doi:10.1037/a0020844

Michie, S., Abraham, C., Whittington, C., McAteer, J., Gupta, S. (2009). Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: a meta-regression. Health Psychology, 28, 690-701. doi:10.1037/a0016136

Michie, S., Fixsen, D., Grimshaw, J., Eccles, M. (2009). Specifying and reporting complex behaviour change interventions: the need for a scientific method. Implementation Science, 4, 40. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-4-40

Michie, S. (2008). Designing and implementing ‘behaviour change’ interventions to improve population health. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, 13, 64-69. doi:10.1258/jhsrp.2008.008014

Michie, S., Abraham, C. (2008). Advancing the science of behaviour change: a plea for scientific reporting. Addiction, 103, 1409-1410. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02291.x

Michie, S., Johnston, M., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., Eccles, M. (2008). From theory to intervention: mapping theoretically derived behavioural determinants to behaviour change techniques. Applied Psychology: an International Review, 57, 660-680. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00341.x

Quinn, F. (2010). On Integrating Biomedical and Behavioural Approaches to Activity Limitation with Chronic Pain: Testing Integrated Models Between and Within Persons.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.

Schulz, R., Czaja, S.J., McKay, J.R., Ory, M.G., Belle, S.H. (2010). Intervention taxonomy (ITAX): describing essential features of interventions (HMC). American Journal of Health Behavior, 34(6), 811-821. doi:10.5993/AJHB.34.6.15

Shepperd, S., Lewin, S., Straus, S., Clarke, M., Eccles, M., Fitzpatrick, R., Wong, G., Sheikh, A. (2009). Can we systematically review studies that evaluate complex interventions? PLoS Medicine, 6, e1000086. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000086

Taylor, N., Conner, M., Lawton, R. (In press). The impact of theory on the effectiveness of worksite physical activity interventions: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Health Psychology Review. doi:10.1080/17437199.2010.533441

Webb, C., Derubeis, R.J., Barber, J.P. (2010). Therapist adherence/competence and treatment outcome: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 200-211. doi:10.1037/a0018912

Welton, N., Caldwell, D.M., Adamopoulos, E., Vedhara, K. (2009). Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of complex interventions: psychological interventions in heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169, 1158-1165. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp014



Susan Michie¹, Marie Johnston¹², Charles Abraham³, Jill Francis², Wendy Hardeman⁴, Martin Eccles⁵

University College London₁, University of Aberdeen₂, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry₃, University of Cambridge₄, Newcastle University