UCL Institute of Health Informatics


CALIBER Publications


Subota A et al. Risk factors for dementia development, frailty, and mortality in older adults with epilepsy – A population-based analysis. Epilepsy & Behavior 2021; 120:108006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108006

Kuan, V. et al. Data-driven identification of ageing-related diseases from electronic health records. Sci Rep 11, 2938 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82459-y


Curcin, V et al. Special issue on Human Phenomics. Learning Health Systems. 4.4 (2020): Learning Health Systems. , 2020, Vol.4(4). Web. doi:10.1002/lrh2.10198

Banerjee A et al.  Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet. 2020. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30854-0. PMID: 32405103

Chung S-C et al.  Association between Angiotensin Blockade and Incidence of Influenza in the United Kingdom. N Engl J Med. 2020. May 8. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2005396 PMID: 32383830

Fan H et al. Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study.  BMJ 2020;368:m331 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m331 PMID: 32075790

Härmälä, S., O’Brien, A., Parisinos, C.A. et al. Development and validation of a prediction model to estimate the risk of liver cirrhosis in primary care patients with abnormal liver blood test results: protocol for an electronic health record study in Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Diagn Progn Res 3, 10 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41512-019-0056-7

Lai A et al. Estimating excess mortality in people with cancer and multimorbidity in the COVID-19 emergency. Available as a pre-print

Katsoulis M et al. Weight change and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in adults with normal weight, overweight and obesity without chronic diseases; emulating trials using electronic health records. Available as a pre-print

Rafiq M et al.  Allergic disease, corticosteroid use, and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma: A United Kingdom nationwide case-control study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2020. 145(3): 868–876. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.10.033 PMID: 31730878

Rockenschaub P et al. Opportunities to reduce antibiotic prescribing for patients with COPD in primary care: a cohort study using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).  J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Jan 1;75(1):243-251. DOI10.1093/jac/dkz411 PMID: 31598669

Rockenschaub P et al. Data-driven discovery of changes in clinical code usage over time: a case-study on changes in cardiovascular disease recording in two English electronic health records databases (2001–2015). BMJ Open 2020;10:e034396. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034396 PMID: 32060159


Alexander N et al. Discovering subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease using electronic health records. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association. 2019. 15(7): P485.

Banerjee A et al. Subtypes of atrial fibrillation with concomitant valvular heart disease derived from electronic health records: phenotypes, population prevalence, trends and prognosis. EP Europace, Volume 21, Issue 12, December 2019, Pages 1776–1784  https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz220

Bromage D et al. Metformin use and cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 2019. 18(1): 168. DOI: 10.1186/s12933-019-0972-4 PMID: 31815634

Chan MS et al. Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy of older adults with and without multimorbidity: a record linkage study of 1.1 million people in England. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2019, 1340–1351 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz052 PMID: 30945728

Denaxas S et al.  UK phenomics platform for developing and validating electronic health record phenotypes: CALIBER. JAMIA 2019 DOI: 10.1093/jamia/ocz105 PMID: PMC6857510

Denaxas S et al. Phenotyping UK Electronic Health Records from 15 Million Individuals for Precision Medicine: The CALIBER Resource.  In Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2019. 262:220–223. IOS Press. DOI: 10.3233/SHTI190058 PMID: 31329239

Denaxas S et al.  Analyzing the heterogeneity of rule-based EHR phenotyping algorithms in CALIBER and the UK Biobank.  Available as a pre-print at https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/685156v1


Dickerman B et al. Avoidable flaws in observational analyses: an application to statins and cancer. Nature Medicine. 2019. Oct;25(10):1601-1606.  DOI: 10.1038/s41591-019-0597-x. PMID: 31591592

Hopkins C et al. Antibiotic usage in chronic rhinosinusitis: analysis of national primary care electronic health records.  Rhinology. 2019. 57(6): 420–429. DOI: 10.4193/Rhin19.136 PMID: 31490466

Kuan V et al. A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service. The Lancet Digital Health. 2019. 7500(19), 1–15. DOI:10.1016/S2589-7500(19)30012-3 PMID: PMC6798263

Kunz H et al. Classification of atherothrombotic events in myocardial infarctions survivors with supervised machine learning using data from an electronic health record system.  In International Conference on Informatics, Management and Technology in Healthcare (ICIMTH), 2019.

McCarthy FP et al.  Preeclampsia and premature cardiovascular disease in a large UK pregnancy cohort of linked electronic health records: a CALIBER study. Circulation. 2019. Sep 24;140(13):1050-1060.  DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038080. Epub 2019 Sep 23. PMID: 31545680

Pasea L et al.  Bleeding in cardiac patients prescribed antithrombotic drugs: electronic health record phenotyping algorithms, incidence, trends and prognosis.  BMC medicine. 2019. 17(1): 206.  DOI: 10.1186/s12916-019-1438-y PMID: 31744503

Pathak N et al. Validity of using UK primary care electronic health records to study migration and health: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet. 2019. 394: S75. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32872-7

Pikoula M et al.  Identifying clinically important COPD sub-types using data-driven approaches in primary care population based electronic health records. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2019. 19:86. DOI: 10.1186/s12911-019-0805-0 PMID: 30999919

Rafiq M et al. Socioeconomic deprivation and regional variation in Hodgkins lymphoma incidence in the UK: A population-based cohort study of 10 million individuals.  BMJ Open. 2019. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029228 PMID: 31542744

Rockenschaub P et al. Antibiotic Prescribing Before and After the Diagnosis of Comorbidity: A Cohort Study Using Primary Care Electronic Health Records. Clin Infect Dis. 2019. Oct 21;ciz1016. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz1016 PMID: 31631225

Shah AD et al. Natural language processing for disease phenotyping in UK primary care records for research: a pilot study in myocardial infarction and death. J Biomed Semantics. 2019. 10(Suppl 1):20. Published 2019 Nov 12. DOI:10.1186/s13326-019-0214-4 PMID: 31711543

Uijl A et al. Risk factors for incident heart failure in age and sexspecific strata: a populationbased cohort using linked electronic health records. European Journal of Heart Failure. 2019. DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.1350. PMID: 30618162

Williamson E et al. Risk of mortality and cardiovascular events following macrolide prescription in chronic rhinosinusitis patients: a cohort study using linked primary care electronic health records.  Rhinology. 2019. 57(4): 252–260. DOI: 10.4193/Rhin18.237 PMID: 30928998


Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2. PMID: 29966429

Chung SC et al. Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 5;13(9):e0202359. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202359. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30183734

Gho JMIH et al. An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England: incidence and predictors. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 3;8(3):e018331. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018331. PMID: 29502083

Papez V et al. Evaluation of Semantic Web Technologies for Storing Computable Definitions of Electronic Health Records Phenotyping Algorithms. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2018 Apr 16;2017:1352-1361. eCollection 2017. PMID: 29854204

Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. The diagnosis, burden and prognosis of dementia: A record-linkage cohort study in England. PLoS One. 2018 Jun 26;13(6):e0199026. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199026. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29944675

Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Identifying unmet clinical need in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using national electronic health records. PLoS One. 2018 Jan 11;13(1):e0191214. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191214. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29324812

Rapsomaniki E et al. Using big data from health records from four countries to evaluate chronic disease outcomes: a study in 114 364 survivors of myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2016 Jul 1;2(3):172-183. doi: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcw004. PMID: 29474617


Allan V et al. Are cardiovascular risk factors also associated with the incidence of atrial fibrillation? A systematic review and field synopsis of 23 factors in 32 population-based cohorts of 20 million participants. Thromb Haemost. 2017 May 3;117(5):837-850. doi: 10.1160/TH16-11-0825. Epub 2017 Feb 23. PMID: 28229164

Bell S et al. Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j909. PMID: 28331015

Denaxas S et al. Methods for enhancing the reproducibility of biomedical research findings using electronic health records. BioData Min. 2017 Sep 11;10:31. doi: 10.1186/s13040-017-0151-7. eCollection 2017. PMID: 28912836

Forssen H et al. Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods to Predict Coronary Artery Disease Using Metabolomic Data. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2017;235:111-115. PMID: 28423765

George J et al. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178945. eCollection 2017. PMID: 28598987

Hemingway H et al. ["Using nationwide 'big data' from linked electronic health records to help improve", 'outcomes in cardiovascular diseases: 33 studies using methods from epidemiology,', 'informatics, economics and social science in the ClinicAl disease research using', 'LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER) programme'] BMJ Open. 2017 Feb 17;7(2):e013100. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013100. PMID: 28151614

Jordan KP et al. Prognosis of undiagnosed chest pain: linked electronic health record cohort study. BMJ. 2017 Apr 3;357:j1194. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1194. PMID: 28373173

Koudstaal S et al. Prognostic burden of heart failure recorded in primary care, acute hospital admissions, or both: a population-based linked electronic health record cohort study in 2.1 million people. Eur J Heart Fail. 2017 Sep;19(9):1119-1127. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.709. Epub 2016 Dec 23. PMID: 28008698

Pasea L et al. Personalising the decision for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy: development, validation and potential impact of prognostic models for cardiovascular events and bleeding in myocardial infarction survivors. Eur Heart J. 2017 Apr 7;38(14):1048-1055. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw683. PMID: 28329300

Shah AD et al. Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022. PMID: 28254179

Shah AD et al. White cell count in the normal range and short-term and long-term mortality: international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts in England and New Zealand. BMJ Open. 2017 Feb 17;7(2):e013100. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013100. PMID: 28213596


Allan V, Banerjee A, Shah AD, Patel R, Denaxas S, Casas J-P, Hemingway H. Net clinical benefit of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care. Heart Online First, published on August 31, 2016. doi 10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309910.

Asaria, M A, Walker S, Palmer, S, Gale C, Shah A, Abrams K Crowther M, Manca A, Timmis A, Hemingway H, Sculpher M. Using electronic health records to predict costs and outcomes in stable coronary artery disease. Heart 2016 Feb 10. pii: heartjnl-2015 308850. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308850. [Epub ahead of print]

Daskalopoulou M, George J, Walters K, Osborn DP, Batty GD, Stogiannis D, Rapsomaniki E, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Denaxas S, Udumyan R, Kivimaki M, Hemingway H. Depression as a risk factor for the initial presentation of twelve cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial diseases: data linkage study of 1.9 million women and men. PLOS ONE 2016; April 22. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838

Pujades-Rodriguez M, Duyx B, Thomas S L, Stogiannis D, Smeeth S, Hemingway H. Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart 2016; 102(5):383-9, published online 9 Jan. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514

Pujades-Rodriguez M, Duyx B, Thomas SL, Stogiannis D, Rahman A, Smeeth L, Hemingway H. Rheumatoid arthritis and incidence of twelve initial presentations of cardiovascular disease: a population record-linkage cohort study in England. PLOS ONE 2016; March 15. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245

Rothnie KJ, Smeeth L, Pearce N, Herrett E, Timmis A, Hemingway H, Wedzicha J, Quint JK. Predicting mortality after acute coronary syndromes in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Heart 2016. Published online May, 13. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309359.

Sekhri N, Perel P, Clayton T, Feder GS, Hemingway H, Timmis A. R1 - A 10-year prognostic model for patients with suspected angina attending a chest pain clinic. Heart 2016;0:1–7. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308994.

Shah AD, Denaxas S, Nicholas O, Hingorani AD, Hemingway H. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016; 3(2): e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477

Timmis A, Rapsomaniki E, Chung S-C, Pujades-Rodriguez, M, Moayyeri A, Stogiannis D, Shah AD, Pasea L, Denaxas S, Emmas C, Hemingway H. Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy in stable coronary disease: comparative observational study of benefits and harms in unselected versus trial populations. BMJ 2016;353:i3163. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i3163 (Published 22 June 2016)

Walker S, Asaria M, Manca A, Palmer S, Gale CP, Shah AD,  Abrams K,  Crowther M, Timmis A,  Hemingway H,  Sculpher S. Long term health care use and costs in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a population based cohort using linked health records (CALIBER). EHJ: QCCO 2016; published online 20 Jan. doi:10.1093/ehjqcco/qcw003


Brauer  R,  Smeeth  L,  Anaya-Izquierdo  K,  Timmis  A,  Denaxas  SC,  Farrington  CP, Whitaker  H,  Hemingway  H,  Douglas  I.  Antipsychotic  drugs  and  risks  of  myocardial infarction:  a  self-controlled  case  series  study.  Eur  Heart  J  2015;  015  Apr 21;36(16):984-92.  doi:  10.1093/eurheartj/ehu263.

Chung  S-C,  Sundström  J,  Gale  CP,  James  S,  Deanfield  J,  Wallentin  L,  Timmis  A, Jernberg  T,  Hemingway  H.  Comparison  of  hospital  variation  in  acute  myocardial infarction  care  and  outcome  between  Sweden  and  United  Kingdom:  population based  cohort  study  using  nationwide  clinical  registries.  BMJ  2015;351:h3913. [Epub  ahead  of  print].  doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3913

George  J,  Rapsomaniki  E,  Pujades-Rodriguez  M,  Shah  AD,   Denaxas  S,  Herrett  E, Smeeth  L,  Timmis  A,  Hemingway  H. How  Does  Cardiovascular  Disease  First  Present in  Women  and  Men?  Incidence  of  12  Cardiovascular  Diseases  in  a  Contemporary Cohort  of  1,937,360  People.  Circulation  2015;  132: 1320–8. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797.  

Rothnie  KJ,  Smeeth  L,  Herrett  E,  Pearce  N,  Hemingway  H, Wedzicha  J,  Timmis  A, Quint  JK.  Closing  the  mortality  gap  after  a  myocardial  infarction  in  people  with and  without  chronic obstructive  pulmonary  disease.  Heart  2015;  Published  Online First:13  Mar.  doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-307251


Chung  S-C,   Gedeborg  R,  Nicholas  O,  James  S,   Jeppson  A,  Wolfe  C, Heuschmann P,   Wallentin  L,   Deanfield  J,   Timmis  T,   Jernberg  T,     Hemingway  H.  Acute myocardial  infarction:  a  comparison  of  short-term  survival  in  national  outcome registries  in  Sweden  and  the  UK.  The  Lancet  2014;  383(9925):1305-12.  doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62070-X

Herrett  E,  Bhaskaran  K,  Timmis  A,  Denaxas  S,  Hemingway  H,  Smeeth  L. Association  between  clinical  presentations  before  myocardial  infarction  and  coronary mortality:  a  prospective  population-based  study  using  linked  electronic  records. Eur Heart  J  2014;  35(35):2363-71.  doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu286

Morley  KI,  Wallace  J,  Denaxas  SC,  Hunter  RJ,  Patel  RS,  Perel  P ... Hemingway H. Defining  disease  phenotypes  using  national  linked  electronic  health records:  a  case study  of  atrial  fibrillation.  PLoS  One  2014;  9(11):e110900-. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110900

Pujades-Rodriguez  M,  George  J,  Shah  AD,  Rapsomaniki  E,  Denaxas  S,  West  R  ... Hemingway  H.  Heterogeneous  associations  between  smoking  and  a  wide  range  of initial  presentations  of  cardiovascular  disease  in  1 937 360  people  in  England: lifetime  risks  and  implications  for  risk  prediction.  Int  J  Epidemiol  2014;  Nov  20. [Epub  ahead  of  print].  doi:10.1093/ije/dyu218

Pujades-Rodriguez, Timmis A, Stogiannis D, Rapsomaniki E, Denaxas S, Shah A, Feder G, Kivimaki M, Harry Hemingway H. Socioeconomic Deprivation and the Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in 1.9 Million Women and Men: Implications for Risk Prediction and Prevention. PLoSOne 2014; 9(8): e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671

Rapsomaniki  E,  Timmis  A,  George  J,  Pujades-Rodriguez  M,  Shah  AD,  Denaxas  S, White  IR,  Caulfield  MJ,  Deanfield  JE,  Smeeth  L,  Williams  B,  Hingorani  A, Hemingway  H.  Blood  pressure  and  incidence  of  twelve  cardiovascular  diseases: lifetime  risks,  healthy  life-years  lost,  and age-specific  associations  in  1·25  million people.  The  Lancet  2014;  383(9932):1899  –911.  doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1.

Shah  AD,  Bartlett  JW,  Carpenter  J,  Nicholas  O,  Hemingway  H. Comparison  of random  forest  and  parametric  imputation  models  for  imputing  missing  data  using MICE:  a  CALIBER  study.  Am  J  Epidemiol.  2014;  Mar  15;179(6):764-74. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt312.  Epub  2014  Jan  12.

Shah  AD,  Bartlett  J,  Hemingway  H,  Nicholas  O,  Hingorani  H.  CALIBERrfimpute: Imputation  in  MICE  using  Random  Forest  (Version  0.1-6)  [Software].  2014. Online:  Comprehensive  R  Archive  Network. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/CALIBERrfimpute/index.html

Shah  AD,  Langenberg  C,  Rapsomaniki  E,  Denaxas  S,  Pujades-Rodriguez  M,  Gale CP,  Deanfield  J,  Smeeth  L,  Timmis  A,  Hemingway  H.  Type  2  diabetes  and incidence  of  cardiovascular  diseases:  a  cohort  study  in  1·9  million  people.  Lancet Diabetes  Endocrinol  2014;  Nov  11.  pii:  S2213-8587(14)70219-0.  [Epub  ahead  of print].  doi:  10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70219-0.  


Herrett  E,  George  J,  Denaxas  S,  Timmis  AD,  Hemingway  H,  Smeeth  L.  Type  and timing  of  heralding  in  ST-elevation  and  non-ST-elevation  myocardial  infarction:  an analysis  of  prospectively  collected  electronic  healthcare  records  linked  to  the national  registry  of  acute  coronary  syndromes.  European  Heart  Journal  –  Acute Cardiac  Care  (ACC)  2013:  2(3):235–45.  doi:10.1177/2048872613487495

Herrett  E,  Shah  AD,  Boggon  R,  Denaxas  S,  Smeeth  L,  van  Staa  T,  Timmis  A, Hemingway  H.  Completeness  and  diagnostic  validity  of  recording  acute  myocardial infarction  events  in  primary  care,  hospital  care,  disease  registry,  and  national mortality  records:  cohort  study.  BMJ  2013;  346:f2350.  doi:10.1136/bmj.f2350

Quint,  J.  K.,  Herrett,  E.,  Bhaskaran,  K.,  Timmis,  A.,  Hemingway,  H.,  Wedzicha,  J. A.,  &  Smeeth  L.  Effect  of  β  blockers  on  mortality  after  myocardial  infarction  in adults  with  COPD:  population  based  cohort  study  of  UK  electronic  healthcare records.  BMJ  2013;  Nov  22;347:f6650.  doi: 10.1136/bmj.f6650.

Rapsomaniki  E,  Shah  A,  Perel  P,  Denaxas  S,  George  J,  Nicholas  O,  Udumyan  R, Feder  GS,  Hingorani  AD,  Timmis  A,  Smeeth  L,  Hemingway  H.  Prognostic  models for  stable  coronary  artery  disease  based  on  electronic  health  record  cohort  of  102 023  patients.  Eur  Heart  J.  2013  Dec  17. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht533 [Epub ahead  of  print]

Shah,  A.  D.,  Herrett,  E.,  Boggon,  R.,  Denaxas,  S.,  Smeeth,  L.,  van  Staa,  T.,  .  .  . Hemingway,  H.  Accuracy  of  recording  acute  myocardial  infarction  events.  Authors' reply  to  Stevens  and  McManus.  BMJ  2013;346.  doi:10.1136/bmj.f3741


Boggon  R,  Timmis  A,  Hemingway  H,  Raju  S,  Malvestiti  FM,  Van  Staa  TP.  Smoking cessation  interventions  following  acute  coronary  syndrome:  a  missed  opportunity? Eur  J  Prev  Cardiol  2012  Sept  5;21(6):767–73. doi: 10.1177/2047487312460517.

Denaxas  SC,  George  J,  Herrett  E,  Shah  AD,  Kalra  D,  Hingorani  AD,  Hemingway H. Data  Resource  Profile:  Cardiovascular  disease  research  using  linked  bespoke  studies and  electronic  health  records  (CALIBER).  Int  J  Epidemiol  2012;  41  (6),  1625–38. doi:10.1093/ije/dys188.

Douglas  IJ,  Evans  SJW,  Hingorani  AD,  Grosso  AM,  Timmis  A,  Hemingway  H, Smeeth  L.  Clopidogrel  and  interaction  with  proton  pump  inhibitors:  comparison between  cohort  and  within  person  study  designs.  BMJ  2012;  345,  e4388–e4388. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e4388.

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