UCL Logo

This page shows the output of the Tobacco Research Group led by Professor Robert West in terms of papers in refereed journals and other written reports, books etc. since the beginning of the current CR-UK programme grant in 2007. In-press articles are listed first and then articles are listed in reverse data order. Authors who are CRUK-funded members of the Tobacco Research Group are shown in bold.

Citation Key findings
1. Michie S, Hyder N, Walia A, West R (In press) Development of a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in individual behavioural support for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors. It is possible to develop a reliable taxonomy of BCTs used in behavioural support for smoking cessation which can provide a starting point for investigating the association between intervention content and outcome and can form a basis for determining competences required to undertake the role of stop smoking specialist.
2. Wee LH, West R, Awang B, Shahab L (In press) Predictors of 3-month abstinence in smokers attending stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Unlike in western samples, strength of motivation to stop appears to predict success of quit attempts in Malaysian smokers attending smokers clinics whereas FTND, the most commonly used measure of nicotine dependence, does not.
3. Smit, E, Fidler J, West R (In press) The role of desire, duty and intention in predicting attempts to quit smoking. Addiction. Desire and intention independently positively predict quit attempts while duty appears to mitigate their effect.
4. Stapleton JA, Sutherland G (In press) Treating heavy smokers in primary care with the nicotine nasal spray: randomized placebo-controlled trial. Addiction. NNS is effective when given in primary care. The benefit appears to be lower than in a specialist clinic but similar to that with the nicotine patch in primary care. NNS appears to be especially helpful for more dependent smokers. Continuing treatment of those initially failing doers is not beneficial.
5. Hajek P, McRobbie H, Myers K, Stapleton JA (In press), Dhanji AR. Varenicline treatment for four weeks prior to quitting smoking reduces ad-lib smoking and increases smoking cessation rates. Archives of Internal Medicine Using varenicline for four weeks prior to a quit attempt can reduce the enjoyment of smoking and smoke intake during the pre-quit period and increase the 12-week abstinence rate.
6. Fidler J, West R (In press) Enjoyment of smoking and urges to smoke as predictors of attempts and success of attempts to stop smoking: a longitudinal study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Enjoyment appears to be the major barrier to attempts to stop whereas cigarette dependence as indexed by strength of urges to smoke are the main barrier to success of quit attempts.
7. Fidler J, Shahab L, West R (In press) Strength of urges to smoke as a measure of severity of cigarette dependence: comparison with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and its components. Addiction. A simple rating of strength of urges to smoke during a normal smoking day predicts success of subsequent quit attempt better than the FTND which is the current measure of choice for cigarette dependence.
8. Beard E, McNeill A, Aveyard P, Michie S, West R. (2010) Use of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for smoking reduction and during enforced temporary abstinence: a national survey of English smokers. Addiction. Online. 18/11/2010. Doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03215.x Use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to aid smoking reduction and in situation of enforced abstinence is common in England and is strongly associated with a recent history of quit attempts. Nicotine patch and gum are the most commonly used forms of NRT for these purposes.
9. Shahab L, West R, McNeill A (In press) A randomised controlled trial of adding expired carbon-monoxide feedback to brief stop smoking advice: evaluation of cognitive and behavioural effects. Health Psychology. Carbon-monoxide level feedback enhances the effect of brief quit advice on cognitive antecedents of behaviour change and smoking cessation rates but further research is required to confirm the longevity of this effect and its applicability to smokers with low self-efficacy.
10. Moody C, Mackintosh A, West R (In press) Adolescents' awareness of, and involvement with, illicit tobacco in the United Kingdom. Tobacco Control.doi: 10.1136/tc.2009.034967. Online. 18/11/2010 Even in a country, such as the UK, that is purported to have a comprehensive, well-resourced, illicit tobacco strategy high numbers of youth are both aware of and involved with the illicit tobacco trade, which threatens to undermine the progress made in reducing smoking prevalence
11. Berg C, An L, Kirch M, Guo H, Thomas J, Patten C, Ahluwalia J, West R (2010) Failure to report quit attempts: Implications for research and clinical practice. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 900-904. Doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.009 Failed quit attempts are quickly forgotten if they last only a short period of time. Almost two thirds of quit attempts that last between one day and one week fail to be reported after 3 month.
12. Michie S, Churchill S, West R (In press) Identifying evidence-based competences required to deliver behavioural support for smoking cessation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. DOI 10.1007/s12160-010-9235-z It is possible to identify competences recommended for behavioral support for smoking cessation and subsets supported by different types of evidence. This approach can form the basis for development of assessment and training of stop smoking specialists and is currently doing so in a national program in England.
13. Fidler JA, West R. (2010) Changes in smoking prevalence in 16-17 year old versus older adults following a rise in legal age of sale: findings from an English population study. Addiction,105(11), 1984-8. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03039 Following an increase in the legal age of sale from age 16 to age 18 in England a greater fall in prevalence was observed among 16-17 year olds than in older age groups, suggesting that such legislation may significantly reduce smoking prevalence.
14. West R, McEwen A. (In press) Cigarette addiction and the SNAP model of smoking cessation. Practice Nursing Most smokers experience discomfort about their smoking and at various times switch between not planning to stop, planning to stop, attempting to stop and thinking of themselves as having stopped. Transitions can occur between of these states and any other very rapidly.
15. Coleman, T., Agboola, S., Leonardi-Bee, J., Taylor, M., McEwen, A. & McNeill, A. (2010) Relapse Prevention in UK Stop Smoking Services: Current Practice, Systematic Reviews of Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness Analysis. Health Technology Assessment, 14, 1-181. D0I:10.3310/htal14490 Extending pharmacotherapy treatment (such as NRT, bupropion or varenicline) after smokers have stopped smoking using these drugs, is both effective and cost effective for preventing relapse to smoking. UK managers of the NHS SSS indicated that they were favourably inclined towards providing RPIs, but currently used ones for which there is no evidence of effectiveness.
16. Agboola, S.A., Coleman, T.J., Leonardi-Bee, J.A., McEwen, A. & McNeill, A.D. (Epub ahead of print) Provision of relapse prevention interventions in UK NHS Stop Smoking Services: a survey. BMC Health Services Research. Doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-214. Most NHS Stop Smoking Services appear to provide relapse prevention interventions for clients despite there being no evidence that these are effective
17. Vangeli E, Stapleton J, West R (Epub ahead of print) Smoking intentions and mood preceding lapse after completion of treatment to aid cessation. Patient Education and Counselling. Doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.01.024 Relapse to smoking appears to occur mostly in the context of negative rather than positive mood and immediate urges to smoke. The intention is usually only to smoke for a limited time but buying cigarettes to relapse is common.
18. Powell J, Dawkins L, West R, Powell J, Pickering A (Epub ahead of print) Relapse to smoking during unaided cessation: Clinical, cognitive, and motivational predictors. Psychopharmacology. Doi: 10.1007/s00213- 010-1975-8 Saliva cotinine functions better than FTND as a measure of dependence in predicting short- and medium-term abstinence in unaided quitters. In addition, attentional bias to smoking cues and antisaccade errors (a measure of ability to control impulses) predict short-term abstinence. Low impulse control and cue reactivity also predict medium term abstinence.
19. McEwen, A., Condliffe, L. & Gilbert, A. (2010) Promoting engagement with a Stop Smoking Service via pro-active telephone calls. Patient Education and Counselling, 80: 277-279. Doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2009. 11.009 Calling smokers from GP lists appears to offer promise as a means of prompting quit attempts and ensuring that the chances of these quit attempts succeeding are maximized through attendance at NHS SSS.
20. Vangeli E, Stapleton J, West R (2010) Residual attraction to smoking and smoker identity following smoking cessation. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12, 865-865. Doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntq104 A significant minority of smokers who stop with the aid of group support in a smokers clinic report an attraction to smoking even years after they have quit and some retain elements of a smoker identity. Identity change appears in many cases to be gradual rather than abrupt.
21. West R, Walia A, Hyder N, Shahab L, Michie S (2010) Behaviour change techniques used by the English Stop Smoking Services and their associations with short-term quit outcomes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12, 742-747. Doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq074 There is wide variability in the behaviour change techniques used by the English Stop Smoking Services and this, and the number of sessions scheduled for treatment explains a significant proportion of the variation in success rates. In particular, emphasis in service treatment manuals on measuring CO, advising on use of medication, relapse prevention and coping and helping the smoker develop an ex-smoker identity were associated with higher success rates.
22. Shahab L, Mindel J, Poulter S, West R (2010) Hypertension and its identification among current, past and never smokers in an English population sample. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 17, 63-70. Doi: 10.1097/HJR.0b013e32832f3b42 The diagnosis of hypertension is picked up less frequently among smokers than nonsmokers. This is particularly important because receiving a diagnosis seems to motivate cessation.
23. West R, Ussher M (2010) Is the 10-item Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-brief) more sensitive to abstinence than shorter craving measures? Psychopharmacology, 208, 427-432. Doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1742-x. Single item ratings of craving perform at least as well as the 10-item QSU in terms of sensitivity to abstinence and reliability
24. Gardner B, West R. (2010) Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities. Tobacco Control, 19, 331-333. Doi:10.1136/tc.2009.033274 70% of English adults are in favour of raising the price of cigarettes with funds going towards tobacco control
25. Ashley,D.L.,O'Connor,R.J., Bernert,J.T, Watson,C.H., Polzin,G.M., Jain,R.B., Hammond,D., Hatsukami,D., Giovino,G.A., Cummings,K.M., McNeill,A., Shahab,L., King,B., Fong,G.T., Zhang,L., Xia,Y., Yan,Z., McCraw,J.M. (2010). Effect of Differing Levels of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke on the Levels of Biomarkers in Smokers. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 19, 1389-98. Doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0084 Lowering the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream smoke of cigarettes through the use of specific tobacco types and known curing practices can significantly reduce the internal exposure of smokers to this known carcinogen and thus possibly harm caused by smoking.
26. Shahab L, West R. (2010). Public support in England for a total ban on the sale of tobacco products. Tobacco Control, 19, 143-7. 2009.033415 Nearly half of the population support a movement towards a complete ban of the sale of tobacco in England with younger, female non-smokers in London expressing the greatest level of support.
27. Raupach T, Shahab L, Eimer S, Puls M, Hasenfuß G, Andreas S. (2010). Increasing use of nicotine replacement therapy by a simple intervention: An exploratory trial. Substance Use and Misuse, 45, 403-13. Doi: 10.3109/10826080903452496 An intervention aimed at increasing knowledge of nicotine dependence among participants of a cognitive-behavioural smoking cessation programme can lead to increased use of NRT products.
28. Hackshaw L, McEwen A, West R, Bauld L. (2010) Quit attempts in response to smoke-free legislation in England. Tobacco Control, 19, 160-4. Doi:10.1136/tc.2009.032656 The implementation of smoke-free was associated with a temporary increase in attempts to stop smoking that was similar across the social gradient.
29. West R, May S, McEwen A, McRobbie H, Hajek P, Vangeli E. (2010) A randomised trial of glucose tablets to aid smoking cessation. Psychopharmacology, 207:631-5. Doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1692-3 There is not unequivocal evidence that chewing glucose tablets aids long-term cessation but it may help in smokers who are also using NRT or bupropion
30. Georgiades C, West R. (2009). Time spent with urges to smoke and strength of urges as independent predictors of self-rated difficulty not smoking during abstinence. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 4, 48-51. Doi 10.1375/jsc.4.1.48 Time spent with urges and strength of urges are both independently associated with perceived difficulty not smoking during an attempt at smoking abstinence, whereas other withdrawal symptoms are not.
31. Jarvis MJ, Mindell J, Gilmore A, Feyerabend C, West R. (2009). Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children. Tobacco Control, 18, 491-5. Doi:10.1136/tc.2009.031328 Even before the smoke-free legislation was enacted in England in 2007, smokers and non-smokers were increasingly making their homes smoke-free and this led to a reduction in smoke exposure to young children in those households
32. McEwen A, Straus L (2009) Counterfeit tobacco in London: local crime needs an international solution. Trends in Organized Crime, 12, 251-259. Doi: 10.1007/s12117-009-9068-y Local initiatives to deal with Kurdish refugee street sellers of counterfeit tobacco in Islington, North London, have been ineffective, with little agreement amongst local agencies as to what constitutes the 'problem', and with local shoppers giving a higher priority to other neighbourhood issues
33. Shahab L, McEwen A. (2009). Online support for smoking cessation: a systematic review of the literature. Addiction, 104, 1792-804. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02710.x Web-based, tailored, interactive smoking cessation interventions are effective compared with non-interactive, untailored booklet or email interventions but there are large variations across interventions
34. van Jaarsveld C, Fidler J, Steptoe A, Boniface D, Wardle J. (2009). Perceived stress and weight gain in adolescents: A longitudinal analysis. Obesity, 17, 2155-61. Doi:10.1038/oby.2009.183 Stress in early childhood may lead to higher BMI during adolescence
35. West R (2009). The multiple facets of cigarette addiction and what they mean for encouraging and helping smokers to stop. COPD: The Journal of Chronic Obstructive Disease, 6, 277-83. Doi:10.1080/15412550903049181 Cigarette addiction involves several components relating to different parts of the motivational system: cues driven urges to smoke, a need to smoke arising from 'nicotine hunger' and withdrawal symptoms, wanting to smoke because of anticipated pleasure, and positive evaluations of smoking including beliefs that it helps with stress and adoption of a smoker identity
36. Aubin H-J, Berlin I, Smadja E, West R. (2009) Factors Associated with Higher Body Mass Index, Weight Concern, and Weight Gain in a Multinational Cohort Study of Smokers Intending to Quit. International Journal of Environmental and Public Health Research, 6, 943-57. Doi:10.3390/ijerph6030943 High baseline BMI appears to be associated with recent quit attempts, high weight concerns and high cigarette consumption. Weight gain is associated with low income, being single and number of cigarette-free days, but not with baseline weight concerns and confidence in preventing weight gain. Quit attempts are more frequent in subjects with a high baseline BMI and low weight concerns.
37. Dawkins L, Powell JH, Pickering A, Powell J, West R (2009) Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence. Addiction, 104, 850-8. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02522.x Appetitive processes and related affective states appear to improve in smokers who remain nicotine-free for 3 months, whereas response inhibition does not. Although in need of replication, the results suggest tentatively that poor inhibitory control may constitute a long-term risk factor for relapse and could be a target for intervention.
38. Etter J-F, Stapleton J. (2009) Citations to trials of nicotine replacement therapy were biased toward positive results and high-impact-factor journals. J Clin Epidemiol, 62, 831-7. Doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.09.015 Trials on nicotine replacement therapies with statistically significant results tend to be published in journals with higher impact factors than trials with non-significant results (median impact factor=2.80 vs. 1.81, P=0.011).
39. Ferguson S, Shiffman S.Gitchell J, Sembower M.A. West R (2009) Unplanned quit attempts--results from a U.S. sample of smokers and ex-smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11, 827-32 Doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntp072 Approximately half of quit attempts made in the US do not involve any pre-planning and people who report unplanned quit attempts are more likely still to be abstinence at the time of being surveyed than those who report pre-planning
40. Fidler J, West R (2009) Self-perceived smoking motives and their correlates in a general population sample. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11, 1182-8. Doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntp120 Enjoyment and stress relief are the most popular reasons given for continued smoking by smokers in the general population, with men more likely to report enjoyment and women tending to cite stress relief. Smokers who report enjoying smoking and liking being a smoker are less likely to make a quit attempt.
41. Grainge M, Shahab L, Hammond D, O'Connor R, McNeill A. (2009). First Cigarette on Waking and Time of Day as Predictors of Puffing Behaviour in UK Adult Smokers. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 101, 191-195. Doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.01.013 Contrary to what is commonly assumed, the first cigarette of the day is smoked less not more intensely than subsequent cigarettes, which may have important implications for determining dependence, cessation and relapse
42. Kotz D, Fidler J, West R. (2009) Factors associated with the use of aids to cessation in English smokers. Addiction, 104, 1403-10. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02639.x In England, half of all attempts to quit smoking are aided by some form of pharmacological or behavioural treatment. However, the use of the most effective treatment option (the NHS-SSS) is low, despite it being free of charge. Factors associated with an increased use of aids to cessation were female sex, older age, more cigarettes smoked per day and planning a quit attempt. Research is needed into how to increase utilization rates, particularly among males and younger smokers.
43. Kotz D, Schayck O, West R, Huibers M. (2009) What mediates the effect of confrontational counselling on smoking in smokers with COPD? Patient Education and Counselling, 76, 16-24. Doi:10.1016/j.pec.2008.11.017 Confrontational counselling increases risk perceptions and self-efficacy, and decreases self-exempting beliefs (risk denial) in smokers with previously undetected COPD. These changes in mediators are associated with a higher likelihood of smoking cessation.
44. Kotz D, West R. (2009) Explaining the social gradient in smoking cessation: It's not in the trying, but in the succeeding. Tobacco Control, 18, 43-6. Doi:10.1136/tc.2008.025981 Smokers from lower social grades in England are no less likely to try to stop smoking than those from higher social grades but they are less likely to succeed if they try.
45. May S, Arnoldi H, Bauld L, Ferguson J, Stead M, McEwen A. (2009) How to measure client satisfaction with Stop Smoking Services: a pilot project in the NHS. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 4, 52-58. Satisfaction with stop smoking services can be reliably assessed using a newly developed scale designed for that purpose
46. McEwen A, West R (2009) Do implementation issues influence the effectiveness of medications? The case of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion in UK Stop Smoking Services. BMC Public Health, 21, 28. Doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-28 Making it more effortful and time-consuming to get a smoking cessation medication may reduce its effectiveness.
47. McEwen A, West R, Gaiger M (2009) Nicotine absorption from seven current nicotine replacement products and new wide-bore nicotine delivery device. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 3, 117-123. Doi:10.1375/jsc.3.2.117 A new wide-bore nicotine delivery device can provide high doses of nicotine with a rate of absorption slightly slower than nicotine nasal spray.
48. McEwen A, Straus L, Croker H. (2009) Dietary beliefs and behaviour of a UK Somali population. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 22, 116-21. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.2008.00939.x Fruit and vegetable consumption is low in the Somali population in London and there is uncertainty about what constitutes a healthy diet. Cultural factors such as the traditional Somali diet, social associations of food and lack of appropriate information may play a role in this
49. Raupach T, Shahab L, Baetzing S, Hoffmann B, Hasenfuss G, West R, Andreas S. (2009) Medical students lack basic knowledge about smoking: findings from two European medical schools. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11, 92-8. Doi:10.1093/ntr/ntn007 Medical students in both the UK and Germany lack relevant basic information about smoking and health and the effectiveness of cessation methods.
50. Sanderson S, Waller J, Jarvis M, Humphries S, Wardle J. (2009) Awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease among adults in the UK. Patient Educ Couns, 74, 221-7. Doi:10.1016/j.pec.2008.08.003 Increased public awareness of the links between lifestyles and commonly feared diseases might help people understand the potential health consequences of their actions and encourage them to make much-needed lifestyle changes. Efforts are needed to improve public health messages about how lifestyle risk factors impact on the chances of developing these important diseases.
51. Shahab L, Hammond D, Borland R, Cummings K, West R, McNeill A. (2009). The impact of changing nicotine replacement therapy licensing laws in the United Kingdom: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey Addiction, 104, 1420-1427. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02641.x The addition of the licence for gradual cessation for some NRT products in the UK appears to have had very limited, if any, impact on the way NRT is used in the first year after the licence change.
52. Shahab L, West R. (2009) Do ex-smokers report feeling happier following smoking cessation? Evidence from a cross-sectional survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11, 553-557. Doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntp031 Ex-smokers overwhelmingly report being happier now than when they were smoking. This may be for many reasons, including self-justification, but it provides at least partial reassurance to would-be quitters that quality of life is likely to improve if they succeed.
53. Shahab L, West R, McNeill A. (2009). A comparison of exposure to carcinogens among roll-your-own and factory-made cigarette smokers. Addiction Biology, 14, 315-20. Doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2009.00157.x There appear to be no differences in the concentrations of the toxins between manufactured and RYO cigarette smokers controlling for confounders but women have higher concentrations of these toxins irrespective of the cigarette type smoked
54. Stapleton J. (2009) Do the 10 UK suicides among those taking the smoking cessation drug varenicline suggest a causal link? Addiction, 104, 864-5 Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02567.x The reported rate of suicides while using varenicline is no higher than would expected in smokers in general
55. Stapleton J, Keaney F, Sutherland G. (2009) Illicit drug use as a predictor of smoking cessation treatment outcome. Nicotine Tob Res, 11, 685-689. Doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntp050 Illicit drug use appears to have a significant detrimental effect on the success of an attempt to stop smoking. If these results are corroborated, clinicians treating smokers should consider developing new protocols to improve outcomes in smokers using illicit drugs.
56. Straus L, McEwen A. (2009) Somali women's experience of childbirth in the UK: the views of Somali health workers. Midwifery, 25, 181-6. Doi:10.1016/j.midw.2007.02.002 Mismanagement of female circumcision leads to problems at birth for many Somali women; the importance of Somalia's oral culture is not recognised when addressing communication barriers and continuity of care is lacking
57. Ussher M, Cropley M, Playle S, Mohidin R, West R (2009) Effect of isometric exercise and body scanning on cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Addiction, 104, 1251-7 Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02605.x Isometric exercise and a mental exercise that involves focusing attention on breathing and on different parts of the body while relaxing reduces desire to smoke compared with sitting doing nothing
58. Zhou X, Nonnemaker J, Sherrill B, Gilsenan A, Coste F, West R (2009) Attempts to quit smoking and relapse: factors associated with success or failure from the ATTEMPT cohort study. Addictive Behaviours, 34, 365-73. Doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.11.013 Quit attempts are less likely to succeed if they are made within 3 months of an earlier attempt.
59. Etter J-F, Lukas R, Benowitz N, West R, Dresler C. (2008) Cytisine for smoking cessation: a research agenda. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 92, 3-8. Doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.06.017 New studies are necessary to define the nicotinic receptor interaction profile of cytisine, to establish its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans, to determine whether animals self-administer cytisine, and to ascertain whether cytisine is safe and effective as a smoking cessation drug.
60. Fidler J, Jarvis M, Mindell J, West R (2008) Nicotine intake in cigarette smokers in England: distribution and demographic correlates. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 17, 3331-6. Doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0296 After adjusting for cigarette consumption, nicotine intake in English adults is greatest in middle age, males and those with highest levels of economic deprivation.
61. Fidler J, West R, van Jaarsveld C, Jarvis MJ, Wardle J. (2008) Smoking status of step parents as a risk factor for smoking in adolescence. Addiction, 103, 496-501. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02086.x Smoking behaviour of step-fathers is at least as strong a risk factor for smoking initiation as smoking behaviour of natural fathers.
62. Hall W, West R (2008) Thinking about the unthinkable a de facto prohibition on smoked tobacco products. Addiction. 103, 873-874. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02129.x Whereas a simple ban on the sale of smoked tobacco may be unthinkable, a de facto ban is achievable and a worthwhile goal by making use of smoked tobacco expensive, unrewarding and inconvenient and facilitating use of much safer alternatives.
63. Jarvis MJ, Fidler J, Mindell J, Feyerabend C, West R (2008) Assessing smoking status in children, adolescents and adults: cotinine cutpoints revisited. Addiction, 103, 1553-61. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02297.x The optimal cutpoint for saliva cotinine varies with sociodemographic group but overall is around 13ng/ml
64. McEwen A, West R, McRobbie H (2008) Motives for smoking and their correlates in clients attending Stop Smoking treatment services. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 10, 843-50. Doi: 10.1080/14622200802027248 Self-perceived smoking motives play an important part in the phenomenology of smoking behaviour in smokers clinic clients, and enjoyment and stress relief both figure prominently; however these motives do not predict relapse of attempts to stop which suggests that the mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence lie at a deeper level, outside the ability of smokers to introspect
65. McEwen A, Straus L, Ussher M. (2008) Physical inactivity of a Somali population in London. Journal of Public Health, 30, 110. Doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdm075 Low levels of physical activity are reported among Somalis in London; apparently due to changes in lifestyle since immigration and a misperception that 'sweating' has health benefits irrespective of whether it is produced through exercise or not (e.g. using a sauna)
66. McEwen A, West R, Gaiger M. (2008) Nicotine absorption from seven current nicotine replacement products and a new wide-bore nicotine delivery device. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 3, 117-23. Doi: 10.1375/jsc.3.2.117 Of current acute delivery NRT products currently on the market, the 4mg lozenge appears to produce the highest per unit plasam nicotine concentrations, the 2mg gum delivers the lowest concentrations and the nicotine nasal spray delivers nicotine the fastest. A new wide bore inhalation device, the Nicotine Cannon, could deliver nicotine rapidly in a manner that may be readily tolerated by users
67. O'Gara C, Knight J, Stapleton JA. Luty J, Neale B, Nash M, Heuzo-Diaz P, Hoda F, Cohen S, Sutherland G, Collier D, Sham P, Ball D, McGuffin P, Craig I. (2008) Association of serotonin transporter genes, neuroticism and smoking behaviours. Journal of Human Genetics, 53, 239-46. Doi: 10.1007/s10038-007-0243-1 Although neuroticism appears to be significantly associated with cigarette consumption and smoking cessation, genotype does not affect this relationship. This does not support initial interest in utilising 5HTTLPR genotypes in combination with neuroticism ratings for predicting outcome in smoking cessation clinical settings.
68. Raupach T, Shahab L, Neubert K, Hasenfuß G, Andreas S. (2008). Implementing a hospital-based smoking cessation programme: evidence for a learning effect. Patient Education & Counselling, 70, 199-204. Doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2007.10.005 Smoking cessation course staff may show a learning effect with time that leads to better smoking cessation rates, and smokers benefit from NRT in this setting if it is taken for a minimum of at least 5 weeks
69. Sanderson S, Humphries S, Hubbart C, Hughes E, Jarvis MJ, Wardle J. (2008) Psychological and behavioural impact of genetic testing smokers for lung cancer risk: a phase II exploratory trial. J Health Psychol, 13, 481-94. Doi: 10.1177/1359105308088519 Research into the risks and benefits for individuals of emerging lifestyle-related genetic susceptibility tests is important and feasible to carry out.
70. Shahab L, West R, McNeill A. (2008) The feasibility of measuring puffing behaviour in Roll-Your-Own cigarette smokers. Tobacco Control, 17 Suppl 1, 17-23. Doi:10.1136/tc.2007.021824 The measurement of puffing behaviour using a topography device is feasible but less practicable for roll-your-own than factory-made cigarette smokers
71. Shahab L, Hammond D, O'Connor R, Cummings K, Borland R, King B, McNeill A. (2008) The reliability and validity of self-reported puffing behaviour: evidence from a cross-national study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10, 867-74. Doi: 10.1080/ 14622200802027156 Smokers have a better perception of the puffing time and number of puffs taken than the intensity and depth of each puff or their actual smoke exposure
72. Stapleton JA. (2008) Breaking away from a narrow prescribing protocol for medicinal nicotine. Addiction, 103, 564-66. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02170.x Variations to the standard treatment protocols for nicotine replacement therapies have the potential to considerably improve smoking cessation rates.
73. Stapleton JA, Watson L, Spirling LI, Smith R, Milbrandt A, Radcliffe M, Sutherland G. (2008) Varenicline in the routine treatment of tobacco dependence: a pre-post comparison with Nicotine Replacement Therapy and an evaluation in those with mental illness. Addiction, 103, 146-54. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02083.x With group support varenicline appears to improve success rates over those achieved with NRT, and is equally effective and safe in those with and without a mental illness.
74. Thyrian J, Panagiotakos D, Polychronopoulos E, West R, Zatonski W, John U. (2008) The relationship between smokers´ motivation to quit and intensity of tobacco control at the population level; a comparison of five European countries. BMC Public Health, 8, 2. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-2. Extent of tobacco control activity in countries in Europe varies considerably, as does population-level motivation to stop. However, using existing measures it has not been possible to find an association between the two. This may reflect the measures of the timescales involved.
75. Ussher M, Aveyard P, Coleman T, Straus L, West R, Marcus B, Lewis B, Manyonda I. (2008) Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy: two feasibility studies. BMC Public Health, 8, 328. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-328. Pregnant smokers are likely to take up the offer of exercise classes and advice as a way of helping them stop smoking
76. Vangeli E, West R. (2008) Sociodemographic differences in triggers to quit smoking: Findings from a national survey. Tobacco Control, 17, 410-415. Doi:10.1136/tc.2008.025650 There are significant differences in reported triggers for quit attempts as a function of sociodemographic factors. Most notably, smokers with higher SES are more likely to report concern about future health whereas those from lower SES are more likely to cite cost and current health problems.
77. Vogt F, McEwen A, Michie S. (2008) What GPs can do to deliver more brief smoking cessation advice: an exploratory study. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 3, 10-6. Doi: 10.1375/jsc.3.2.110 Nearly one-third of patients recognized as smokers by GPs do not receive a smoking cessation intervention; two-thirds of these are judged to be inappropriate for such interventions
78. West R, Baker CL, Cappelleri JC, Bushmakin AG. (2008) Effect of varenicline and bupropion SR on craving, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and rewarding effects of smoking during a quit attempt. Psychopharmacology, 197, 371-7 Doi:10.1007/s00213-007-1041-3 Varenicline's superiority over bupropion in aiding cessation may be linked to its superior effect on craving relief and stronger action in blocking the rewarding effect of smoking should a lapse occur
79. West R, Stapleton J. (2008) Clinical and public health significance of treatments to aid smoking cessation. European Respiratory Review, 17, 1-6. Doi: 10.1183/09059180.00011005 Failure of a quit attempt after the mid-30s can be expected to cost 6-7 years of life so it is vital to treat every quit attempt as a precious resource.
80. West R, Townsend J, Joossens L, Arnott D, Lewis S (2008) Why combating tobacco smuggling is a priority: Tobacco smuggling is killing many times more people in the UK than smuggling of all illicit drugs put together. British Medical Journal, 337, 1933 Doi:10.1136/bmj.a1933 Smuggling of tobacco and cigarettes is estimated to be leading to the death of some 4 times more people than smuggling of all illicit drugs put together, because of its effect in keeping the price down
81. West R, West A (2008) Vers un modèle synthétique de la motivation (théorie PRIME) et son application dans la compréhension des addictions. Alcoologie et Addictologie, 30, 37-45. The PRIME Theory of motivation offers a model that can draw together diverse aspects of motivation from analysis and rational choice, through plans, wants and needs, and impulses and inhibitory mechanisms. This model provides a more complete account of addiction that previous models.
82. Dawkins L, Powell JH, West R, Powell J, Pickering A. (2007) A double-blind placebo controlled experimental study of nicotine: II -effects on response inhibition and executive functioning. Psychopharmacology, 190, 457-67. Doi: 10.1007/s00213-006-0634-6 Nicotine withdrawal impairs capacity voluntarily to inhibit low level impulses
83. Etter JF, Burri M, Stapleton JA (2007) The impact of pharmaceutical company funding on results of randomized trials of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis. Addiction, 102, 815-22. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01822.x Published trials of nicotine replacement therapy funded by pharmaceutical companies have significantly larger effect sizes than others but all show clear evidence of effectiveness
84. Fidler JA, West R, Van Jaarsveld CH, Jarvis MJ, Wardle J. (2007) Does smoking in adolescence affect body mass index, waist or height? Findings from a longitudinal study. Addiction. 102, 1493-501. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01910.x Taking up smoking in adolescence is associated with lower BMI but no difference in height
85. Holloway E, West R (2007) Integrated breathing and relaxation training (the Papworth Method) for adults with asthma in primary care: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax. 62, 1039-42. Doi:10.1136/thx.2006.076430 The Papworth Method reduces symptoms of hyperventilation and breathing disorder in adults with asthma
86. May S, West R, Hajek P, McEwen A, McRobbie H (2007) Social support and success at stopping smoking. Journal of Smoking Cessation. 2, 47-53. Doi: 10.1375/jsc.2.2.47 There is no evidence to date that social support plays a significant role in aiding smoking cessation
87. O'Gara C, Stapleton JA, Sutherland G, Guindalini C, Neale B, Breen G, Ball D (2007) Dopamine transporter polymorphisms associated with short-term response to smoking cessation treatment. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. 17, 61-7. Doi: 10.1097/01.fpc. 0000236328. 18928.4c There is modest evidence of a medium-sized effect of DAT1 genotype on the ability to stop smoking early in a smoking cessation attempt. If the effect is real, and is strongest in the very early stages of smoking cessation, this suggests that the primary utility of DAT1 screening in this field will be in the identification of those most at risk of early relapse after quitting.
88. Shahab L, Hall S, Marteau TM (2007) Showing smokers with vascular disease images of their arteries to motivate cessation: a pilot study. British Journal of Health Psychology. 12, 275-83. Doi: 10.1348/135910706X109684 Personalised biomarker feedback can increase intentions to stop smoking and motivate smokers to engage in various smoking cessation behaviours if they have high self-efficacy
89. Stapleton JA, Sutherland G, O'Gara C (2007) Association between dopamine transporter genotypes and smoking cessation: A meta analysis. Addiction Biology. 12, 221-6. Doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2007.00058.x The DAT1 3'UTR VNTR polymorphism appears to be associated with smoking cessation. One or more variant 9-repeat alleles relative to the more common 10-repeat allele confers a greater likelihood of cessation, indicative of lower dependence on tobacco.
90. Straus L, McEwen A. & Croker H. (2007) Smoking prevalence and attitudes of a Somali population in London. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 2, 68-72. Doi: 10.1375/jsc.2.2.68 Smoking rates in the Somali population appear to be higher than in the UK general population and higher still among men over 40 years old and those that regularly use qat; there is little knowledge of smoking cessation services.
91. Aveyard P, West R (2007) Management of smoking cessation. BMJ. 335, 37-41. Doi:10.1136/bmj.39252.591806.47 The combination of behavioural support and medication such as varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy improves the chances of success of quit attempts by 300%; a smoker who tries to stop at least once a year using this method at the age of 20 has an 80% chance of becoming a permanent ex-smoker by the age of 40.
92. Tonnesen P, Carrozzi L, Fagerstrom KO, Gratziou C, Jimenez-Ruiz C, Nardini S, Viegi G, Lazzaro C, Campell IA, Dagli E, West R. (2007) Smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases: a high priority, integral component of therapy. European Respiratory Journal. 207, 390-417. Doi: 10.1183/09031936.00060806 Clinicians treating smokers with COPD should regard treatment for nicotine dependence as an integral and continuing part of their care plan, repeatedly offering behavioural support and medication
93. Ussher M, West R, McEwen A, Taylor A, Steptoe A. (2007) Randomized controlled trial of physical activity counseling as an aid to smoking cessation: 12 month follow-up. Addictive Behaviors. 32, 3060-4. Doi::10.1016/j.addbeh. 2007.04.009 Establishing a plan with the smokers to increase physical activity as part of behavioural support for smoking cessation appears to have no effect on long-term cessation rates
94. van Jaarsveld CH, Fidler, JA, Simon AE, Wardle, J (2007) Persistent impact of pubertal timing on trends in smoking, food choice, activity, and stress in adolescence. Psychosomatic Medicine. 69, 798-806. Doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31 81576106 Early maturing adolescents are more likely to exhibit unhealthy behaviours, especially smoking. This increased risk is maintained throughout adolescence suggesting that early maturation could be a cause of, or marker for, differences in lifestyle
95. West R, Zatonski W, Przewozniak K, Jarvis M (2007) Can we trust national smoking prevalence figures? Discrepancies between biochemically-assessed and self-reported smoking rates in three countries. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 16, 820-2. Doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0679 Self-reported smoking prevalence in national surveys underestimates true smoking prevalence by different amounts in different countries
96. West R, Zhou X (2007) Is nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation effective in the "real world"? Findings from a prospective multinational cohort study. Thorax. 62, 998-1002. Doi:10.1136/thx.2007.078758 When adjusting for likely confounding factors such as nicotine dependence, use of NRT without behavioural support is associated with an increased probability of long-term abstinence from cigarettes in smokers not taking part in clinical trials

Editorials, trial protocols and opinion pieces in refereed journals

Citation Key findings
1. West R (In press) The potential contribution of health psychology to developing effective interventions to reduce tobacco smoking. Psychology and Health. The field of Health Psychology is rich in innovative ideas and theories that can help explain smoking behaviour and develop interventions but as yet has not yielded interventions that are better than can be achieved by a simple model of smoking as involving a balance between concerns about the harms and costs of smoking and the desire (sometimes very strong) to smoke driven by pharmacological and social reward and punishment. Systematic reviews of key issues are needed to establish a firm evidence base on which to move theory and practice forward.
2. WestR, McNeill A, Britton J, Bauld L, Raw M, Hajek P, Arnott D, Jarvis M, Stapleton J (In press) Should smokers be offered assistance with stopping? Addiction. 105, 1867-2040. (Epub ahead of publication) doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03111.x There are several fallacies in arguments against helping smokers to stop such that it is unnecessary because most smokers stop without help, findings from randomised trials do not generalise to the 'real world' and aiding cessation is less cost-effective than other tobacco control measures. These are easily dealt with and once this is done it is possible to have a constructive debate about the role of cessation assistance in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy.
3. Aveyard P, Amos A, Bauld L, Britton J, Coleman T, Cocherty G, Godfrey C, Hajek P, Hastings G, McNeill A, Lewis S, Munafo M, West R (2010) Is the UK's coalition Government serious about public health? Lancet, 376, 589 Doi:10.1016/ S0140- 6736(10)61288-3 The UK's tobacco control strategy is evidence based and has yielded a 25% reduction in prevalence in the past 10 years but there is a risk that this is now being undermined by government cuts.
4. Stapleton JA (2010) The Scandal of Smoking and Mental Illness Addiction 105: 1190-1 People with mental illness have been neglected in tobacco control policies. The prevalence of smoking among people with mental illness is about 3 times higher than in the general population and dependence levels are also higher. Cessation efforts need to be re-directed to provide more help to those with mental illness.
5. Abraham C, Kelly M, West R, Michie S. (2009) The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Public Health Guidance on Behaviour Change: A Brief Introduction, Psychology, Health & Medicine, 14, 1-8. Doi: 10.1080/13548500802537903 Based on an analysis of the limitations of the available evidence base, research recommendations advise researchers on how to improve the quality of research into BCIs (including evaluations) and thereby advance the science of behaviour change.
6. Arnott D, McEwen A. (2009) Illicit tobacco: An international problem with an international solution. Addiction, 104, 155-7. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02407.x Trade in illicit tobacco results from a lack of control on the international movement of cigarettes and is run by criminal organisations with relatively sophisticated systems for distributing smuggled cigarettes. An effective solution to such a sophisticated international criminal trade will be provided by a protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).
7. Coleman T, McEwen A, Bauld L, Ferguson J, Lorgelly P, Lewis S. (2009) Protocol for the Proactive Or Reactive Telephone Smoking CeSsation Support (PORTSSS) trial. Trials, 10, 26. Doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-10-26. The PORTSSS trial will provide high quality evidence to determine the most appropriate kind of counselling which should be provided via the NHS Smoking Helpline and also whether or not an additional offer of cost-free NRT is effective and cost effective for smoking cessation.
8. Edwards G, Babor T, Darke S, Hall W, Marsden J, Miller P, West R. (2009) Drug trafficking: time to abolish the death penalty. Addiction, 104, 1267-9. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02625.x There are no moral or empirical grounds for retaining the death penalty for drug trafficking; it is important for researchers to join a concerted campaign to end this practice.
9. Gilmore A, Britton J, Arnott D, Ashcroft R, Jarvis M. (2009) The place for harm reduction and product regulation in UK tobacco control policy. J Public Health 31, 3-10. Doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdn105 For harm reduction to work in the UK, a nicotine product regulation authority is first needed. It goes onto explore how a harm reduction strategy might be further developed. It argues that the public health community needs to drive this debate because failure to do so would let the tobacco industry gain the upper hand.
10. Lindson N, Aveyard P, Ingram J, Inglis J, Beach J, West R, Michie S. (2009) Rapid reduction versus abrupt quitting for smokers who want to stop soon: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Trials, 10, 69 Doi:10.1186/1745-6215-10-69 We will conduct a non-inferiority randomised trial of rapid reduction versus standard abrupt cessation among smokers who want to stop smoking. In the reduction arm, participants will be advised to reduce smoking consumption by half in the first week and to 25% of baseline in the second, leading up to a quit day at which participants will stop smoking completely. This will be assisted by nicotine patches and an acute form of nicotine replacement therapy.
11. McEwen A, Percival J. (2009) Interventions to trigger quit attempts. Practice Nursing, 20, 120-5. Unsolicited practice nurse advice can be important in triggering quit attempts.
12. Stapleton JA (2009) Trial comes too late as psychiatric side effects end hope for rimonabant. Addiction 104, 277-8. Doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02487.x The first published trial of rimonabant for smoking cessation leaves many unanswered questions regarding efficacy that now may never be answered due to a significant incidence of psychiatric side effects.
13. McEwen A, Vangeli E. (2008) The Prescriber's role in Smoking Cessation. Prescriber, 19, 48-56. Prescribers need not engage in lengthy counselling sessions to help smokers to stop. They need only give very brief advice to stop accompanied by a referral to the NHS Stop Smoking Service. If that is not acceptable to the smoker then a prescription for medication should be offered.
14. Spirling L, Stapleton JA, Sutherland G. (2008) Suicidal ideation and varenicline: a possible case of mistaken adverse drug reaction? Clin. Psychiatry, 69, 1834-5. Suicidal ideation while taking Varenicline to stop smoking is likely to be attributable to tobacco withdrawal rather than an adverse drug reaction.
15. West R. (2008) Finding better ways of motivating and assisting smokers to stop: Research at the CRUK Health Behaviour Research Centre. European Health Psychologist, 10, 54-8. The Tobacco Research Group carries out a wide range of studies aimed at finding better ways of encouraging and helping smokers to stop. These include epidemiological studies looking at smoking and smoking cessation in the general population, clinical trials of smoking cessation aids, experimental studies looking at craving and withdrawal symptoms and how these can be mitigated, and qualitative research examining the process of smoking cessation.
16. Stapleton JA (2008) Breaking away from a narrow prescribing protocol for medicinal nicotine Addiction 103:564-565 Since first introduced in the early 1980's the prescribing protocol for nicotine replacement has remained unchallenged and under-researched. New data should promote further research to optimise smoking cessation with nicotine replacement.
17. Britton J, McNeill A, Arnott D, West R, Godfrey C. (2007) Assessing drug-related harm. Lancet, 369, 1856-7. Doi:10.1016 /S0140-6736(07)60842-3 Nicotine use, in the form of cigarette smoking, merits a higher ranking in the league table of addictive drugs than was proposed by Nutt et al in an article in the Lancet
18. West R (2007) Interventions to promote smoking cessation. BMJ Health Intelligence http://healthintelligence.bmj.com A range of interventions have proven effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in aiding smoking cessation and these should be routinely offered to all smokers
19. West R (2007) The clinical significance of 'small' effects of smoking cessation treatments. Addiction. 102, 506-9. Doi:: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01750.x An increase of as little as 1 percentage point in abstinence for 6 months (which would translate to 0.5 percentage points permanent cessation) is highly clinically significant
20. West R (2007) What lessons can be learned from tobacco control for combating the growing prevalence of obesity? Obesity Reviews. 8 (Suppl 1), 145-50. Doi:: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00334.x There may be scope to make a significant impact through providing better information and campaigns designed to change norms and raise public concerns about patterns of behaviour that lead to over-eating. However, even if that is successful, it is unlikely that the problem will be adequately addressed without more coercive measures directed either at consumers or suppliers, or both.

Book chapters, books and published reports
  1. Shahab L, West R. (In press) Smoking. In: D. French, A.A. Kaptein, K. Vedhara, & J. Weinman (Eds) Health Psychology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
  2. Shahab L, Fidler J. (In press). Tobacco-related disorders. in P Sturmey, M Hersen M. (Eds) Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology. New York: Wiley.
  3. West R, Shahab L (In press) Smoking cessation. In Killoran A & Kelly M (Eds) Effectiveness and efficiency in public health: systematic approaches to evidence and practice. Oxford University Press
  4. West R (2010) Why is it so hard to quit? The Advisor. Autumn 2010
  5. West R (2010) The role of mass media campaigns in evidence-based tobacco control. In Arnott D (Ed) All Party Parliamentary Group Report on Tobacco Control in England. London: ASH.
  6. West R (2010) Evidence-based tobacco control: why England still needs it and what it is. In Arnott D (Ed) All Party Parliamentary Group Report on Tobacco Control in England. London: ASH.
  7. West R. (2009) Experimental design issues in addiction. In Miller P, Strang J & Miller P (Eds) Addiction Research Methods. London: Wiley.
  8. West R. (2009) Possible application of PRIME Theory of motivation to promote safer driving. In Behavioural Studies in Road Safety 17. London: DfT
  9. West R, Stenius K (2008) Use and abuse of citations. In Babor T, Stenius K, Savva S, O'Reilly J (Eds) Publishing Addiction Science. London: ISAJE.
  10. May S, McEwen A. (2008) NHS Stop Smoking Service CO-verification Project - A Report for the Department of Health. London: Smoking Cessation Service research network (SCSRN).
  11. McEwen A, Arnoldi H, Bauld L, May S, Ferguson J, Stead L. (2008) Client satisfaction survey: pilot project report. London: Smoking Cessation Service research network (SCSRN).
  12. McEwen A, McRobbie H, Preston A. (2008) The Stop Smoking Handbook. Dorchester, Exchange Supplies.
  13. Shahab L, McEwen A. (2008) Online Support for Smoking Cessation - A Report for the Department of Health. London: Smoking Cessation Service research network (SCSRN).
  14. Shahab L. (2008). Epidemiology of tobacco smoking - a growing concern. In M. Miravitlles (Ed) Hot topics in respiratory medicine (Issue 8). Modena, Italy: FB Communications.
  15. Owen L (Chair), Beal J, Collett S, Fullard B, Kay E, MacDonald S, McEwen A. (2007) NICE - Smoking cessation training resource for the dental teams. CD-ROM. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
  16. Shahab L. (2007) Socioeconomic status and health. In S Ayers et al (Eds) Cambridge Handbook of Health Psychology (2nd Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. Watt R, Andrews F, Beal J, Bose A, Dyer T, Jenner T, Lowe C, McEwen A, Owen L, Read J, Slater M, Zoitopoulos L. (2007) Smokefree and smiling: helping dental patients to quit tobacco. London: Department of Health.West R, Shiffman S (2007) Smoking Cessation (2nd Editions). Oxford: Health Press.
  18. West R. (2007) The PRIME Theory of motivation as a possible foundation for addiction treatment. In J Henningfield, P Santora and W (Eds) Drug Addiction Treatment in the 21st Century: Science and Policy Issues. Baltimore: John's Hopkins University Press.
  19. West R, Hardy A (2007) Stigma. In S Ayers et al (Eds) Cambridge Handbook of Psychology Health and Medicine (2nd Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  20. West R, Hardy A (2007) Tobacco use. In S Ayers et al (Eds) Cambridge Handbook of Psychology Health and Medicine (2nd Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

This page last modified 1 December, 2010 by Mark Livermore

University College London- Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT - Telephone: +44 (0)20 7679 1720 - © 2012 UCL

Search by Google
Tobacco Group Diet and Obesity Group Cancer Screening Group