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Polyhymnia

[unnumbered page: print, POLYMNIA de Reederykster. 2. Signed S. v. H.]

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POLYHYMNIA.
The Rhetorician. {Rederijkster}

The second Book.

Content.

Observation develops, youth's memory awakens
Sharpened on Reason, thus begins Polyhymnia,
First she teaches Physiology {Menschkunde}, so as to teach anatomy {kroostzweem}
From top to toe, and all that concerns it, in faces and nudes,
And their significance: to advise on the muscles,
And their movements, as far as concerns art.
She shows them proportion, which she raises up to the Sky,
And also errors, which one learns to condemn.
The human figure is the most important thing, on which our art is built;
Thus the young painter should learn her lessons well.


On the Print.

Here the Goddess is more attentive in her demeanour,
Grave Saturn rules her tongue in persuasion:
Her pupils are determinedly busy in learning,
In measuring, checking, and delineating the parts:
So as fundamentally to understand, what is appropriate for a man.
They strive too to recognise internal passions
By means of external appearance: and to separate,
What is to be censured, from what allures the eye.
They crease the forehead, as if they would give birth to a Pallas:
That is why this Goddess has a jewelled Crown.


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INTRODUCTION.

Now Polyhymnia will teach us physiology {menschkunde}, and beginning with Physiognomy {Kroostkunde} she measures out the whole of the body with her yardstick, and reveals which muscles move the parts. She will recommend shapeliness {welschapenheit} and a good figure to us; and explain how much labour one must expend, in order to arrive at a knowledge of true perfection. This Goddess, who rules over memory, and whom one always represents in the act of teaching, will best instruct youth in the things, that it is imperative to know, and never to forget. And observe whether she, who is the mistress of eloquence, has improved my style, and made this book worthy of her name.


FIRST CHAPTER.
Concerning likeness and unlikeness of traits.

Peoples' faces are rightly held to be their Noblest and most Beautiful parts, the most accomplished work of art, of all that is to be seen here below. Now it is a wonderful mystery of nature, that so many thousands of people all with different features: and that it is so rare that there are two faces, alike in all respects. [marg: People's faces are different from each other.] Nevertheless, being of one nature and form, they share a common structure. However in experience it is esteemed a greater wonder, that, among such great diversity, two be found, alike in every way. I wish nevertheless to tell of some examples, as recounted by various writers. [marg: Examples of some like each other.] There was, when the Queen of Syria murdered her husband Antiochos, an Artemos, who looked so much like the dead King, that he, at the request of the Queen, lay in the King's bed, pretending to be sick, all the Princes of the Empire, who came to see him, were deceived: and he made his Will, as if he were the King, and established such and such successors in the Empire, as he had agreed with the Queen; who succeeded, without anyone suspecting the deception.

They tell too of the Assyrian Queen Semiramis, that she was extraordinarily similar in face and manner to her son Ninus; and that she, after her husband's death, put on masculine dress, and performed the

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role of her son so well, that she maintained the Kingdom, and achieved great deeds under the name of Ninus, and reigned for forty years. I remain silent about the Servilius twins, of whom Cicero tells, and of the Plautine Menaechmi, whom neither mother nor wetnurse could tell apart. And of the sick twins told of by Quintilian: But what is more notable, in the time of Pompeius, it is said, there were two men in Rome, Vibius and Publicius, who both looked so much like him, that, if they wore similar clothing, one would have been in doubt, who was Pompeius. There was likewise a resemblance between his father {Pompeius} Strabo: and a cook in Rome called Menogenes: so that people called the cook Strabo and Strabo Menogenes. Also two slaves were sold in Rome, the one German, and the other an Asian, the one older than the other, yet they were so alike, that everybody was astonished to see them, all the more since they came from such distant homelands. It also happened, in the time of Augustus, that a youth lived in Rome, so very like the Emperor, that no one could tell them apart. But hereon hangs a comical tale: for having heard of this Octavian summoned him, and observing that in appearance and features {zweemende} they resembled each more than seemed possible, he jestingly asked the young man: Tell me, brother, when she was young, did your mother not at some time visit Rome? No, replied the youth, seeing what the Emperor was implying, but my Father was here often. It was certainly a good thing, that he had the good-humoured Augustus before him, who took this dig as a joke.

I saw also in London a certain Nobleman riding his horse through the City, who as he passed was ceremoniously greeted by many, and eventually followed by numerous common people, so that out of embarrassment he almost wished to hide himself; for they told him, that he was as like King Charles the second as could be. But we must not linger on this topic too long, [marg: Whoever wants more on this, see Pedro Mexia, in his various lessons. And Goulart in his wonderful Histories of our times. And Counsellor Heemskerk in his Batavische Arcadia. Twins.] I will finish with a last example, from K. Van Mander, and some others, which I cannot leave out. Frans and Gilles, sons of the Mostaerts of Hulst, twins, were so much alike each other, that even their parents could tell them apart. He adds as a distinguishing or telling evidence, this amusing anecdote: that once Gilles coming across his Father's work, as though he was a Painter, and seemingly good at it, whether through zeal or something else, sat on the stool, on which lay his Father's palette with paints, and it so happened, that his Father, returning and seeing his colours smeared and squashed, called up his son Frans, who was clean, and had not done it, then he called Gilles, who being frightened, had a good idea; they

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each put on each others caps, by means of which they were usually distinguished, Gillis gave Frans his cap, who went thus, as if he were Gillis, and presented himself to his father, and also appeared unmarked, so they both escaped punishment. Counsellor Heemskerk tells in his Batavische Arkadie, of two similarly identical sisters. And Goulart, in his wonderful Histories of our times, writes of like similarities of appearance between brothers, sisters, and among strangers too. But these things occur very seldom, and if it happens, one will find differences enough, whenever one sees such similar people as these next to each other.

In olden times the bronze portraits of Amphinomus and Anaptus were to be seen, two young brothers, who protected their parents on their shoulders from the erupting flames of Etna, the one carried the Father, the other the Mother in his back, in which not only their brotherly consanguinity was observable, but also the Traits {Kroost} of their parents; [marg: Two Sons, who resembled their parents, and each other.] for he, who bore the Father, seemed entirely to take after him, and the other was wonderfully like the Mother. Peoples' faces, said Pliny, have no more than ten, or thereabouts, particular elements, in which likeness and difference are to be found: such as the forehead, the eyes, and even though both eyes are supposed to be alike, I have seen ones that differ, this eye blue, and that one brown, the pupils, the eyebrows, the nose, the mouth, upper and lower lip, chin and the cheeks. [marg: Parts of the human face.]


SECOND CHAPTER.
Concerning Physiognomy {Kroostkunde}.

Physiognomy is the identification by means of individual particularities, observed in the faces or features of people, of their country of birth, descent, spirit and the inclination of their emotions; yes it goes further, and it is believed by many, the good and bad fortune, which hangs above a person's head, can be foretold. [marg: They differentiate country of origin,] One can usually very readily distinguish an Italian from a German, an Englishman from a Hollander, and a French from a Spaniard, yes with closer attention one can almost
tell citizens from nearby towns from each other. [marg: Descent.] Owing to descent one sees that all children receive some trait from their parents: so it is that in this the paternal characteristics, and in the other the maternal are most

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detectable. One usually recognises the Jew from a particular trait; and the Illustrious line of Austria by the projecting underlip. The ancient painter Philochares, painted two persons in one piece, and everyone was able to judge, that they were Father and Son: for even though one was old, and the other looked young, he had observed the characteristics and traits, so well in these very different faces, that everyone noticed them.

As regards the loftiness of the spirit, [marg: Spirit.] I find in this an endless field for subjective consideration, and obscure estimation; for who would we expect to find in a crippled Aesop, or hunch-backed Quevedo? Nevertheless one calls the face the mirror of the soul, and its greatness must be knowable from outward appearance. And thus an ingenious Painter, whenever he has some History before him, must with Poetic invention, make manifest the spirits of the persons, whom he will portray, and give the figure something, by which it is to be recognised; As grandeur to Agamemnon, cunning to Ulysses, steadfastness to Ajax, boldness to Diomedes, and wrathfulness to Achilles. The limping rascal Thersites, one must paint with all his stupidity and cowardice in his face. But to represent these signs of emotion, and to distinguish their individual characteristics, I direct practitioners of art to those, who have written about Physiognomy; and even more to their own observations. For who will, when he sees a person, whose face is broad and long, as if stuck on a board, and nose and cheeks as pronounced as each other, will not call them an Ox-head? or their eyes sleepy, and not call them a Donkey-head? unless one detected some aggression; for then one should rather identify them as a buffalo-head. In a calf-like face I see a dunce: in an Ape-like one a trickster, and in a sheepish one, a Sheeps-head. Nature has given to each Animal a trait corresponding to the nature of its tendencies. Thus a dog displays kindness and trust in its eye, as long as it is not debased by any wolfishness. The horse radiates pride from its eyes, pawing the ground when it has had its oats. The pig is base in eye and nose. And from the gaze of lions you know their uncontrollable fury. Concealed malevolence is at play in the bear: and the Noble features of the human face are more or less inclined towards all these many bestial characteristics. So that Paracelsus would seem to have been right, when he said, that one finds Dog-people, Cat-people, Wolf-people, Lion-people, and every kind of beast-people. But one finds these differences are most perceptible when the emotions are stirred: for then their faces are very much more like those animals, with which

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they share a nature, whether or not the cause of the stirring specifically relates to any particular animal. But more about this in the second consideration, regarding History in our Clio.

That one can foretell something of a person's future good and bad fortune from their appearance, is an old belief: [marg: And foresee future good and bad fortune.] and the writer Apion tells us, that Apelles' portraits, done from the life, were so like, that certain Physiognomists could work out from them the previous and future histories of the people portrayed, their lives and deaths, and that this was subsequently found to be true. And indeed I have been told, that when King Charles the first, of England, sent his portrait, made by Van Dyke, to the Knight Bernini, for him to copy it in marble, the Physiognomists in Italy prophesied the King's violent death precisely, and did so solely on account of the truthful likeness of the Painting.

We shall, before we go any further, add here some observations by the ancients, concerning Physiognomy. Not because we believe that they were always reliable, but simply to awaken the spirit of Painting, so that by following these or similar discoveries, it can demonstrate its prudence. [marg: Signs from the forehead, the temples,] The lines and furrows in the forehead indicate delirium in a sick person, said Hippocrates. Fleshy and bulging muscles on the temples are, according to Scaliger, sure signs of stupidity, ignorance and aversion to the arts; but Aristotle said, that they indicated uncontrollable anger. [marg: Eyes,] He also said that blinking eyes were timid and fearful. The darkening {Verblauwing} of the eyes of the sick was a sure sign of death. But this feature, as also above regarding delirium, is part of suffering. Continual movement of the eyes, Aristotle attributes to cruelty, anger, and rapaciousness. [marg: Noses,] Those, who have flat thick and fleshy nostrils, like oxen, are spiritless, slow, timid, lazy, and deceitful. Whoever has a round fat nose, with small nostrils, like a pig's, is coarse. Whoever has a large well-shaped nose, round and blunt-ended, with nostrils of medium size, is generous. [marg: Lips,] Thin lips, soft and slack, where the upper hangs over the lower, according to Aristotle, also indicates generosity. But thin hard lips, raised a little at the side by the canines, or drawn in, indicates baseness, and one not disinclined to wicked and despicable deeds. But fat lips, where the upper hangs over the lower and gapes, evidences madness and coarseness of understanding. [marg: Tongue,] A long and pointed tongue shows cruelty and bad temper.

[marg: Neck,] A fat fleshy neck, said Scaliger, indicates no great intelligence.

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A veiny neck playfulness; a broad one; reliability, a round twisted one, uprightness; a long one, distrust; an immobile one, stubbornness, cunning and is feared by all. treachery: a slim one, thinking of deceit; one leaning forwards, meanness, negligence, or stupidity.

[marg: Legs.] Whoever has legs that are uncommonly fat and fleshy, on the ouside, with some bulging, is, according to Aristotle, hated and feared on account of his impudence.

I would like also, before leaving this matter, to insert here the complete description of Emperor Julian, the Apostate, as written by Gregory of Nazianzus. [marg: Emperor Julius. Hist: Eccles. Tripartita. book. 7.] I could see nothing good in the whole man, he said: For the neck scarcely moved. The shoulders appeared all hunched. His eyes would stand, and flit here and there, with a cruel glance. His feet were never still. His nose looked as if it would insult you. His mouth was scoffing and mocking. He had a very ill-mannered laugh, which burst out loudly. Indeed, he was such that, even when he was still young, Nazianzus, having carefully studied him, cried out: O quale malum Romanorum Respub. nutrit! O what a viper the Roman Republic nurses at her breast!

But in leaving these thoughtful observations (given that one man has a hawk's or a pug's nose, the other a dog's muzzle or a hare-lip, and the other cat's eyes, and even the Goddess Juno having been described by Homer as having white arms and ox's eyes) now someone must ask, what is the true form of a human? [marg: Which is the correct form of a human.] I reply first, that it is the form shared by all people, if they are not themselves evidently malformed. In whom the combination of the parts far exceeds our wonder, as (a) Vossius truly said. [marg: G V. in the knowledge of himself.] Correctness brought to perfection is perfect beauty: in which no can failing be observed, neither in the whole, nor in any part: and one can one more readily wonder, and praise and adore the perfections, than discover, as the correct rule, wherein that perfection lies. I believe, that our first parents Adam and Eve, were so: they who were shaped in God's uncorrupted image, and with no other Trait, inherited feature or characteristic but according to the wisdom of the highest of all artists. Something too will be added later concerning the various forms of humankind in the discussion of personal knowledge. And since we have made much mention of traits and physiognomy {zweeming- en kroostkunde}, it will not be inappropriate to follow this, by saying something about portraiture or the painting of likenesses.

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THIRD CHAPTER.
Of Portraiture {Konterfeyten}; or portraying peoples' likenesses.

Many have set about painting peoples' portraits from the life, and they have also often become so beguiled by it, that they have left the rest of art completely neglected: indeed they have fallen so shamefully, that they have not only been unable fix an arm or leg, but not even a sound shoulder onto the neck of their portraits {Konterfeytsels}. [marg: A good Portraitist ought at least to de able to draw a figure well.] It is certainly true, that the face is the most important part of a person; but this is not enough to excuse, being incapable in the rest; and they ought to have this verse from Horace read out to them:

An incompetent sculptor by Aemelius' place, will easily
Do soft hair or nails from life in Bronze
Perhaps; but as to the rest, which is worthy to be seen,
He cannot with any success give it the correct balance and bearing {welstant}


To be able to make a good face is very commendable, but to make a balanced {welstandig} figure with a merely competent face, is better. So now as regards practicing the art of portraiture, I would be very pleased, if we followed the Greek way, as Plutarch describes in the life of Cimon. We commission beautiful faces to be painted, and copied after life, he said, which have good grace, and should there be a single imperfection, or any ugliness found in it, then we are neither willing, that it is entirely left out, nor that too much attention to detail is employed, with regard to this same fault, so that it is included; on the one hand the Painting would be enhanced, and on the other, it would be spoiled. [to capture the perfections rather than the imperfections in Portraiture. 151. Letter.]

A good likeness in a good Portrait is admired by all the world, but the varnishing over of faults, according to the opinion of the Knight P. C. Hooft, is done most of all by the French. Y{our} E{xcellency}, he wrote to C. Barlaeus, portrays to me how things go with Painting in France; one always deprecates the beauty of a painted face, which comes from outside, through the enhancement, that is usually to the advantage, of charming women, in that country, by means of the flattery of Artists. For which reason Master Michiel Mierevelt, he added, never painted a face

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sent to him from there, other than with the excess of generosity, to which they are there accustomed. But other peoples do not notice these enhancements, if they are added to the work discreetly.

A little poem on this topic comes to mind, sent to me by a certain Lady, after seeing a certain Painting, of a not too beautiful Young Lady, enhanced a little by me:

If you depict a Young Lady, in her likeness,
More attractive than she is, making her too beautiful on the panel,
And she therefore refuses to accept the Painting,
Then bring it to my house, and receive the agreed fee.


To let it be known, that a little embellishment will not easily upset anyone; especially not young women.

And it is certain that a beautiful face, imitated in the most beautiful way, is indeed a masterpiece. Regarding this Pliny was right to say, that it seldom happened, that Painters painted perfect beauty without falling short. Apelles, they say, coloured Alexander too brown. Lysippus caught the sweetness that was in his face well, by positioning his neck a little to the left. Neither Apelles nor anyone else could imitate the beauty of Demetrius: [marg: One cannot always flatter.] those who imagine that it is they who themselves enable the most beautiful faces (or flatter them) are completely off the track, for a beautiful skin  far exceeds paints; as we shall learn from Terpsichore. And as far as it concerns drawing, anyone properly practised in that, finds in a beautiful face such charming qualities, that they will acknowledge Pliny the younger's lesson most worthy: that is, that anyone who would do better, should be shy of deviating from the likeness to be represented. Thus too speaks Eunapius of those, who in portraying youthful beauty, seek to beautify it through artifice {kunstgreep}, so that they ruin the likeness, and even lose sight of the beauty of their models. [marg: Encouragement to observation.] Therefore, O Young Painters! let it not be enough for you, to represent the general form of your model, or of that person, whom you will portray; but to study, with a selective and meticulous eye, which beauties or particular charms, or what actual features you discover to be there, and then to copy those with all your might, by that means your face will live, and achieve a pleasing spirit. Think about what we have discussed in the Physiognomie, and about what you have in front of you, you will possibly discover charms, which others have missed. Do you not think, that Apelles must have looked most closely at the individual features, of those he portrayed, in order that the face-studiers {tronybekijkers}, called Metopocopi or Physiognomi, were able to have foretold, so well from his Paintings, as if from life itself, when the depicted person

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was going to die? yes indeed. It is not enough that one identifies the Philosopher Socrates by his bald head, flat squashed-in nose and bulging eyes. [marg: The particular characteristics.] Plutarch said that in general, Painters, who portrayed after life, paid diligent attention to the likeness of the face, the raising of the eyes, or lines of the forehead, by which one identifies peoples' moral nature. Attend therefore to those parts, as if you are tracing their moral nature, but with a painterly eye, more skilful in showing, than telling; so that, the hand as well as the mind, becomes fluent and skilled.

Whoever dedicates themselves to portraits, must direct all their effort, to awakening the power of their imagination. Like Domenico Ghirlandaio, who, when still young, not only copied what he saw in front of him, but also endeavoured to portray passers-by and acquaintances from memory by means of an assured imagination, so that one could recognise them. Francisco Mazzoli of Parma portrayed Emperor Charles life-sized from memory, to everyone's astonishment; and the Prince of the ancient Painters Apelles drew with a coal from the fire, on the wall, from memory, Planus the courtier, who from mockery had bidden him attend as a guest of King Ptolemæus, so that he was immediately recognised. Bartholomeus Spranger also painted young women in their absence; to the delight of their lovers.

But it is not only portraitists who need this power of imagination, [marg: A good Portraitist must have a powerful imagination.] for the whole of the Art of Painting is born from the internal imagination of Artists, like another Pallas from the brains of Jupiter. [marg: Examples of this.] Therefore one should not be astonished by the deeds of Freminet, who, in the presence of the French King, painted without drawing, here a hand, there a foot, elsewhere a face, and in the end unified it all into a well-composed figure: for a clever master has not only the sketch, but also a complete grasp of what he intends to do in his mind before painting it.

But to finish with portraiture, it yet remains, that one is sometimes obliged to paint persons, whom one has never seen. And even though this is our task in all Histories where, as if from personal acquaintance, with regard to which Clio has promised to give us some advice, we have to give the most important figures an unambiguously recognisable appearance, whereby they, by means of their actions, are identifiable on account of this or that, so it is that we cannot readily be criticised in this, since no one can remember their true likeness, their having being dead for many centuries; and here precise and Physiognomical information is required, that few people can give us concerning the absent or the dead, it is true that I have on occasion seen cases where recently dead persons

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were painted reasonably alike from the living testimony of those, who had to do with them in daily life; and it is of great help in this situation, if the least portrait, be it from when the sitter was young, even if it is a poor likeness, is available, which one can easily improve by means of a careful revision: otherwise one will be embarrassed, like the Greek Painter in the portrayal of saint Nikon, even though it turned out better for him, than he had feared. I shall add here what is said concerning that, in order to divert your spirit. [marg: Baronius An. Christi 998.] Malakenos Counsellor of the Lacedaemonians was very attached to Saint Nikon, and when he left him, and went to Constantinople, he promised Malakenos, that he would see his face again. But some time later Malakenos came to hear, that the Holy man had died, and so he mourned with all his heart: But on account of his conviction, and having a sound faith in the man's promise, he went to a Painter, describing to him his face and appearance, as well as he could, so that he could portray him in the Painting. But, even though he was a great artist, the Painter could not get it exactly right: and because Malakenos was greatly distressed on this account, it happened that Nikon appeared there, at once in the form, as if he were alive, charging the Painter that he should look upon him: and he, after this happened, turned again to his panel, [marg: Miraculous Painting.] in order to paint him, and he found him already there in the painting, all at once complete and true to life; seeing this great miracle the Painter, was amazed and astonished, and turned again to the Saint, in order to pay him reverence, and saw that he had disappeared; and so it was that Malakenos saw Nikon once more in this Painting, as he had foretold. But this is enough for us; you will read something else about a Painting in Melpomene, which lacks nothing in comparison to this one.


FOURTH CHAPTER.
Concerning shapeliness {welschaepenheyt, i.e. well-shapedness}, Analogie, or proportion, in general.

We have already said, that the true form of man, is one in which one can detect no recognisable sign of imperfection. Everyone could connive with Momus, and say that we are all misshapen: For this jester, and satirist of the Poetic Gods, scolded the Creator of mankind, not only because he had forgotten to put windows in men's chests, in order to be able to see their hidden intents, but said that their eyes should have been as able to turn inwards as well as outwards, to be able to observe, the faults they perceived inside them: and he wanted also to comment on the arrangement of the calves, saying that they should have been where the the shins were, so as protect the legs from blows and injury. We should give such critics no other answer, than to say that we would not grudge them these improvements to their own bodies, as long as they also considered claws and horns. And say with Albrecht Durer: forget these false imperfections, seeking to make something better than God, your efforts would be in vain. But this shapeliness in humans, praised by us and approved by all grateful souls, is of two kinds, first, and generally, that which one can everywhere be readily agreed by measuring the living figure, and which contrary to the opinion of Momus, is so perfect, and so properly put together in all its parts, that one can criticise nothing, and which, as the Knight Hooft sings, cannot be looked upon without wonder: [marg: Zegemond in Baeto.]

Look at yourself: you can readily understand, how your parts
Are put together, and that all cities
Which had they the power, and altered the placing
Of only one element, would regret that decision:
And it seems that the best, which their fault-finding pride
Wished to set right, was right, else the thing is spoiled.


But here it strikes me, how not only individual persons, but even whole peoples, seek through wrongheaded judgement, to improve upon this natural shapeliness, by means of art or through force. [marg: Despised by some peoples.] For it is said of the Cumanaeans, that they compress the heads of newly-born children between cotton cushions, so that their faces will be small, and thus, in their opinion, beautiful. The Tupinamba on the other hand prefer flat faces, and so, as soon as a child is born, they press in the nose with their thumb. The Western Peruvians, and the Cochins, and some other peoples in the East, have such a preference for long ears, that, from childhood onwards, they hang something heavy made of metal from them, so that eventually they reach to their shoulders. The inhabitants of the River Gabon, cut through the lower lip, so that they can put their tongues through. In eastern China, and western Florida, men do not wish to be troubled by beards, and thus they pluck them out hair by hair: Europe now follows this fashion, but to the greater benefit of barbers. The Monemugians set

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great store by ugliness, and for this reason they turn up their eyelids. The Azanegens prefer fat women, and particularly those with large breasts; and in order to promote this beauty, the breasts of girls, from seventeen years old, are bound with cord and cheerfully stretched: so that when they have borne children, they are fit to be thrown over their shoulders; for they carry their nursing children on their backs. The Chinese hold long hair and untrimmed nails on the left hand in high regard: they also value small feet, but only in women, whose feet, from when young, they so bind, and squeeze into small shoes, so that they are often rendered useless. Other peoples, such as those of Nueva Galicia, and others, cannot look at smooth skin, but they cut it, and stain the scars, so that they do not heal. The Javanese smear their bodies daily with yellow pigment: The Kaffirs or Hottentots do so with black, whenever they can get it, even if it be soot from cooking pots, when they come on board the Dutch ships; and they take this as a great favour from the cook. And so as to appear more beautiful, the wildmen of New France colour their faces red and black: and those of New Netherlands use patches of all kinds of colours. Others paint half of their foreheads, the one eye, one cheek, half of the chin, and one half of the body black, and give the other half another colour, so that two human halves appear to be joined as one. Finally it is said of the Cumanaean natives, with whom we began this account of the improvement of natural shapeliness, that on their feastdays they cover themselves with a gum. And by that means attach plumes and feathers of every colour; and thus transform into a new breed of owls. Certainly man differs little from a beast, if reason slumbers in him, or is dead. And even though entire peoples are afflicted with the aforementioned folly, those who use their natural intelligence, will turn away from these enhancements. One might well correct the faults, that occur in nature: but not in any other way, than according to the model of a proper shapeliness, which exists in the proper correspondence of parts, according to the requirements of the whole. For human shapeliness can also be various, as short and tall, slight and well-built. [marg: They can be short,] Augustus was short, but this shortness was so appropriately accommodated by the proportionality and symmetry of the parts, that it could be only be perceived by comparison with a taller man, standing beside him, [marg: Tall,] Tiberius was tall, with broad shoulders and chest, and the rest of his body in the same proportions. But however large be it dwarf or Giant, comparison or Analogy

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of the parts makes for shapeliness. [marg: And in all dimensions.] Thus it seems that it can be various and, when concealed in nature, it will usually trouble our judgement, as Durer says: one sometimes comes across two very beautiful and attractive people, where the one has nothing in common with the other, neither in size nor in shape, and therefore it is not evident, which of the two is perfect. Our understanding is so dim, he added, who then will give an account of true beauty? but even though it is not apparent to us, it is nonetheless possible, that one of them excels the other in perfection. [marg: Albrecht Durer of Human Proportion in the third Book.] Elsewhere he said, that the parts of a figure from the head to the soles of the feet must be in harmony, be they rough or smooth, fleshy of thin, so that one part does not appear well-fed, and another starved; so that the arms should not be thin, and the legs fat, or the chest full, and the belly emaciated, or the head young and the body old, and so forth. The age of each figure should have appropriate features, a young person should be smooth, tender and even, and an old one on the contrary rough uneven and thin. Whoever desires praise, he added, avoids ugliness in his figures, that is, he purges them of all signs of ignominy, and strives after what is healthy and pleasing. And to this end he proposes, that one look at numerous living human figures, and gathers from them the most beautiful measurements. For art is steeped in nature, and if you draw from there, you will avoid many errors. This is nearly everything, that the great Albrecht Durer put in his Book of Proportions as guidance, I understand that death surprised him, while he was preparing this book. We conclude then that the shapeliness of bodies consists, in a certain Symmetry {Simmetrie}, which the parts have among themselves, and with the whole. And a body, which is beautiful in all its parts in this way, far exceeds the beauty of a single excellent part. All the parts of a statue are required to be beautiful, said Socrates, for we do not observe so closely the charming details of particular parts in collosi, as much as we attend to the shapeliness of the whole thing. Thus it is reprehensible that a master occupies himself with the attractiveness of the parts, and ignores the coherence {welstand} of the whole. Parrhasius esteemed this Category in art above all the others, and Polykleitos worked at nothing else so determinedly.

The second or artistic knowledge of shapeliness, or proportion of human parts, which one calls perfect beauty, exhausted the greatest masters of ancient times and made them sweat. [marg: An artistic shapeliness.] The great Apelles esteemed Asclepiodorus above himself in this science. He chose the most beautiful out of many beauties: though it was too much for anyone to discover in a lifetime. But after many researches and

[51]

much passage of time, eventually it was revealed and cultivated by the ancients, employing fixed rules (which the fall of the Roman empire has robbed from us) that gave their figures an absolutely beautiful proportion. Indeed so exact, that it was said, that, if you gave any two individual sculptors (and Painters were no less capable) only two identical fingers, or big toes, or any parts of a body, without knowing each other, they would have made two identical figures, knowing, from one part, how to find out the measurements of all the others. We will not forebear from considering (a) Lucian's story, which said, that Phidias, straightaway, at the first sight of a lion's claw, knew how large he needed to make a lion. [marg,: Known by the ancients by means of fixed rules. (a) In Hermotimo.] And also the surveyor Pulcher, who, when the Pontine people sent Caesar Tiberius a terrible claw, that was longer than a foot, Caesar paid him, to portray precisely, how large a body the dead hero, the owner of this tooth, must have had. But much more remarkable is the story of Diodorus Siculus, [marg: Strange examples of this.] telling how the two celebrated sculptors Telecles and Theodorus, sons of Rhoecus, made a statue of Apollo Pithius for the inhabitants of the Island of Samos in an unusual way: for although Telecles made one half of this sculpture on the Island of Samos, and his brother Theodorus made the other half at Ephesus, these two halves of the sculpture fitted so wonderfully well together, it was as if they had been produced by one master at one and the same time, and the Egyptian priests claimed, that this use of fixed rules in art was used by the Egyptians, long before the Greeks ever began to do it, Indeed that Egyptian artists, according to what the Priests say, did not measure figures by guesswork, nor by eye, like the Greeks, but when two artists had divided up the marble, which was to be used in their work, they agreed between the two of them an appropriate proportion {maetschiklijkheit} for the task, from the largest to the smallest part, and organised their undertaking according to a twenty-one point comparison with the measurements of a well-shaped person, in which they were so consistent, that they were never delayed by any gaps when fitted, but put together the individual parts of the whole work, within the timescale of several months and days; to the great astonishment of all who came to see, and observe.

But Calliope will add something else here, when she comes to discuss beauty. Let this merely be sufficient to awaken you, O Young Painters, to attract you to this noble art. We find at Rome and elsewhere evidence enough, that there used to be an artistic knowledge of proportion. And if we only but arrive at their unfailing knowledge, then will our eyes yet become capable of judging, and of avoiding the errors, that

[52]

are commonly produced when imitating ordinary nature, and thus will we begin to enjoy true proportion.


FIFTH CHAPTER.
Concerning anatomy; and first of the skeleton.

But before we proceed to the specific measuring of a human body, let us first anatomise this noble figure created by God. Proportion will be much easier to understand, if first one knows the individual parts, and their uses. I do not wish, O my Young Painters, to bring you into a maze, or to lead you too far astray, as has previously been done. Anatomy I leave to surgeons and physicians, but my lessons reach only so far as the Art of Painting. I want only to teach you what it is necessary to know, what is easily learned, and what produces great benefit. I shall first briefly describe to you a human skeleton, so that you may better learn to understand by means of a brief outline {schets} all the flexing of the parts. [marg: What a Painter ought and needs to know as regards the art of anatomy.] And as to what further concerns our instruction, I will present nothing other than a bloodless anatomy, and only indicate those tendons and muscles, which in the movement of the limbs, either contract or expand: and remain within the purely artistic physiology, neither cutting nor flaying. My Godly father Theodoor used to say: That Painters did not remain ignorant of those necessary things, which made a Painter intelligent, on account of too few books, or too few teachers, but only because they were frightened by how much there was to know and how long it would take to learn it. For who has the time or the inclination, as regards human anatomy, to work through all the writings of Vesalius, Du Laurens, or Cabrol? Van der Gracht shows the way better for physicians, than for Painters. Therefore since I wish that my Young Painter avoids all unnecessary labour, I will show them a shorter route, and put here for my Bees a flower filled with ready honey, which will be enough to fill up their greedy honeycombs. I shall teach them to set well-fed nudes in motion. But those, who through an individual inclination for a thorough grounding in this element of art, which still remains unsatisfied, can continue searching in the abovementioned writers, and many others.

For I do not wish that, through too much exactness in this science, one should get into a tangle, as has happened with many, who have made their figures, as if they were hard dried-out stockfish, or flayed

[Plate A.]

[53 G3]

Satyrs, or had so many knobbles, it seemed they were packed with onions; [marg: Anatomy misused,] but most of all that one correctly observes the movements of the Muscles of a figure in action, and that one places the fleshy swellings and contractions in their proper places. [marg;: And neglected.] It is not enough, that some trusting to their eyes, so delude themselves, imitating nature's fleshy and soft appearances, often producing abortions and sacks of salt on the panel: illustrious spirits have shown more prudence, and their knowledge of Muscles shines through in their works, however it is concealed. [marg: Example of well observed Anatomy at Rome in the Vatican.] The tumultuous Laocoon, however muscular and sinewy it is, nonetheless has a sweet fluency, as if the skin were soft: and the plump Liber, howsoever it is covered in fat, at least reveals the placing of the Muscles.

Cimon of Cleonia, a City in Achaea, was the very first of the ancient Greek Painters to represent the parts, muscles, and veins of human bodies, in his works.

Antonio Pollaiolo was the first, among the modern Italians, who distinguished the muscles with knowledge, having himself flayed many dead bodies, in order to learn from them. Rosso dug up the dead, and made a very beautiful Anatomy, also writing a book on the subject, but I have never, to my knowledge, ever seen it. Buonarotti also, while working on a wooden crucified Christ, began flaying many corpses, which afterwards served effectively to strengthen his Drawing. And the honour of the land of Cleves, or the Batavian Titian Jan van Calcar, helped Vesalius in his anatomising with his Drawings.

We will first of all describe the human skeleton, as we have drawn it in Plate A. in the first figure.

The human Skeleton consists principally of six distinct parts, that is the Head, the Trunk, two Arms, and two Legs.

The Head has 2. parts, that is
A. the Skull, Cranium, and
B. Jawbone, Mentum,
The Trunk or body has 3. parts, that is
C. the Spine, Spina.
D. the Ribs, Costae, and
E. the Hip, Ilium.
The Spine includes
F. the Neck, Cervix
G. the Back, Dorsum,
H. the Lower Back, Lumbi, and
I. the Tailbone, os Sacrum.
The Ribs are seven joined, and five short twelve altogether, whereof the following are
K. the Breastbone, Sternum,
L. the Collarbone, Claviculæ
M. and the Shoulderblade, Scapulæ.
The Hips have 3 parts, which are
The Hip Ilium, the Lower Pelvis Ischium,
and the Pubic bone Pubes; though
the two last are unseen.
Each arm has 3. parts, to wit
N. above the Elbow, Humerus
O. below the Elbow, Cubitus, and the
Hand. Below the Elbow there are 2

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bones, the Elbow Cubitus, and
P. the Hand, Radius.
The Hand has twelve small bones, the Fingers fifteen.
Each leg has 3. parts, as the
Q. Thighbone, Femur, which is below
the Hip
R. projecting , Trochanter Major, ending in
S. the Kneecap; Rotula.
T. The Shinbone Tibia, with
V. there are two Calfbones
W. the foot Tarsum has twelve small bones,
and the toes fourteen.

Who among you, O eager-to-learn Young Painters, will be able repeat these names and parts after one reading without hesitating? And whose head is so weak, that they cannot after reading through the names three times, remember seven. You would straight away grasp them, and know all the bones by heart, if you were simply to copy out the print once, and check through the names linked to the letters. And in a brief hour you will provide yourself with knowledge, which will stay with you all your life, and be of great service. And if an hour is not enough, give it a whole day. But I see that already, from the Cranium to the Tarsum, you know your lesson, and know each bone by its Roman and Dutch name. Good, now look back to the separation of parts. I measured this skeleton from the life, it was five Rhineland feet tall, but it was probably half a foot taller, which reduction is I believe, caused by the drying out of the Sinews in the Spine, and which thereby shortened it by 6 thumbs. I have divided it into fifteen parts, or large hands {groote palmen}, and established a measure, which is not to be discarded. First, from the top of the Skull to
1. Below the eyes. next
2. the end of the Neck, or on the flesh of the Shoulder.
3. Below the Breast protecting the heart.
4. Above the Breast protecting the stomach.
5. the End of the Ribs.
6. The Hip.
7. The Hip joint,
8. Quarter Thigh.
9. Half Thigh.
10. Above the Knee.
11. Below the Kneecap.
12. Quarter Shin.
13. Middle of the bone.
14. Above the Ankles.
15. Beneath the Soles.

Once you have this grasped this securely, we can learn about the Sinews and Muscles, which clad the bones. You will soon appear to be as learned, as many Surgeons.

SIXTH CHAPTER.
Concerning the Muscles and Sinews, and their operation, portrayed in Figures 2. 3. 4 in Print A and B.

We shall pass over the Muscles, that move the face, and begin with the Neck.

[Plate B.]

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a. Mastoidei, the Marbles, or nipple-shaped Muscles,    .
b. Splenii, the up-turners, or Splint-muscles           
c. Deltoids, the Triangle, or Supporting-muscles
(these turn the head in various ways: forwards, backwards, up and forwards.)
            .
d. Pectoralis, the Breast-muscle or pentagon   
e. Infraspinatus, Shoulderblade-Muscle or under-spine muscle               
f. Rotondus, the Rower or the Round,           
g. Latissimus, the Lat, or the broad one,                           
h. Trapezius, the Monkshood, or table-muscle moves the Shoulderblade        
(these turn the arm: backwards, further back, down as with the Shoulderblade, up, down backwards.)

i. Rectus, the Mattress, or Abs has three or four bands like a mattress.           
j. Sacrolumbus, the presser or Holy Back-muscle,           
(these press the ribs and force out the breath)

k. Serratus Major, the saw or sawing Muscle,
l. Obliquus, the Lopsided, or belt,   
(these pull the ribs outwards, to draw in the breath.)

m. Biceps, the Mouse, or two-headed,   
n. Brachiæus, the Mate, or the Arm-muscle   
(these flex the Elbow.)

o. Longus the Long
p. Brevis the Short   
(or the arm-twins, these straighten the Elbow)

q. Rotundus pronator, the Turner, or Buyer
r. Longior Supinator, the Returner or Seller
(these carry the forearm and hand: with knuckles up, with palm up)

f. Straightener of the three middle fingers       
s. Extensores, the Straighteners or stretchers   
t. Flexores, the Benders or pullers-in       
(surrounding or joining the hand.)

u. Major, the Sit-Cushion or Buttock,   
v. Medius, the upper buttock or hip muscle,   
(these stretch the Thigh straight out. those that bend are hidden internally.)

w. Triceps the three-headed pulls the Thigh inwards.
x. Longus, the hub? or the long       
y. Membranosus, the fleshy or the Dressmaker?           
(Move the Shinbone: inwards, outwards.)

z. Rectus, the Girl's cushion       
æ. Vastus Externus           
&. Vastus Internus.             
(these straighten the Shinbone, enclose the Kneecap, and bind with a broad and unified Tendon the Shinbone and the Thighbone.)

1. Semimembranosus, the in-bower, or half-fleshy,
2. Seminervosus: the half-nerved kneeler,       
3. Gracilis, the kneeler or small-muscle       
(The business of these is to flex the Tibia, or to make a bow.)

4. Externus, the out-bower,
5. Tibæus the Shin-muscle           
6. Poroneus the calf-muscle       
(these flex the foot.)

7. Gemelli the twins           
8. Soleus the Singleton           
(these straighten, or bend out the foot.)

Further to these K. the hefty breastbone. L. the Collarbones. R. the large bull or puller, or Trochanter Major. And T. Tibia, the Shinbone, down to the inner ankle are bare areas of bone, not covered with Muscle.

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What do you think, my Young Painters, will you find this lesson far too difficult? surely not. But so as to proceed sensibly, I advise that you write out this Table of muscles, and work out their movements, whether you use the old Latin, or modern Dutch names. Memorise them quickly by heart, and straight away mark up the muscles with letters, on the figures copied from all three sides, on either a larger or smaller scale. [marg: Consequences of the usefulness of Anatomical knowledge.] You will soon know their names and functions so well, and recognise them as securely by their appearance, as you do your playmates and school friends. Look! I see the least among you fully learned in our Anatomy. Be patient, this small effort will enable you to see in the future, while others remain blind. When you come to draw the excellent statues of the ancient Greeks, or look at living nude figures in the Academy, you will immediately understand, why it is that these muscles swell, and others remain slack. And if happens to you, that you are summoned by our illustrious sister Clio, to depict wrestling nudes, and all kinds of moving bodies, you will make life appear by painting them knowledgably. You will discover, that it is not enough, merely to copy a living person, as they pose in front of you: for as soon as they begin to tire, and need to hold the pose when fatigued, the muscles work wrongly {verkeerde werkingen}, to very bad effect, so that others, who do not know and understand muscles and how they work, will not be able to manage it. But you, who understands the requisite movement, will position the moving muscles in their proper places, and conceal the wrong working with judgement. And possibly, being drawn in by our introduction to this science, you will look more closely into the writers mentioned above, so as to judge knowledgeably how each muscle begins and ends. For we only teach the most important necessities: whosoever wants more, should set about helping themselves. For this you will find André Du Laurens most useful of all.

The great Clio will teach the sufferings of the soul, and the positioning {doeningen} of the body, and we will speak of the muscles and sinews. [marg: Concerning the action of the Muscles.] Whenever you make a figure, who moves the head violently, the Mastoids must contract upwards at the front, and the Splenii expand backwards. Allow the Deltoids to swell the arms in fighting nudes, Pectorals pull the elbow forwards, the Infraspinatus, Rotundus and Latissimus backwards; and the Trapezoid should be realistically expanded. Fill your figures with breath through the action of the Rectus, and the Sacrolumbus, or the Serratus Major and Obliquus. If you portray a drinking Centaur, lifting a heavy cup to his mouth, allow his Biceps and Brachiæus to swell out: and the Longus and the Brevis are expanded in a lifting arm. In a twisting hand the Rotundus Pronator, Longior

[57 H]

Supinator, and both Extensores, and the Flexors are employed, as where naked Giants pile mountains one on top of another, so as to climb up to heaven. In moving the legs Major and Minus straighten out the thigh; but the Triceps moves in back inwards. The Rectus and both the Vasti are expanded, when the shin is stretched out straight, but the four Postici, Externus, Gracilis, Seminervosus and Semimembranosus if one is bringing the foot up to the backside: and the Longus and the Membranosus, according to whether one is turning the shinbone inwards, or outwards. In a figure, standing on its toes, the Gemelli and the Soleus do their job powerfully: and the Tibiæus and the Peroneus in curling up the toes. Make sure, O Young Painter! that these things capture living nature, and learn how to put it onto paper in a charming and unstrained manner, then you will have enjoyed true utility from this knowledge. Now it is time, for us to deal also with human measurement.


SEVENTH CHAPTER.
Concerning the measurement of a human body.

Proportion in a human body, is a wonderful correspondence of parts, both between each and with the whole. Some believe, that the Ark, which Noah built following God's command, must have had something in common with the measurement of a human, stretched out on their back, For the Text states, the length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits: [marg: Noah's Ark according to the dimensions of a human.] which, according to our figure in print C, ought to make a figure or shape of fifteen hands in height, two hands and two thumbs broad, whether from behind or from in front, and one hand and two thumbs deep, that is from the sides. Now that this does not correspond to our figure is true, since it is in some places broader and in others narrower: but the Ark is made with straight lines, and if one reckons the broadest and narrowest parts of a human figure together, the correspondence may be found. But let us not waste time here with this: for I know that I must give Young Painters instruction short enough to fill them up, before they are aware of it. I will therefore demonstrate a proof using this little verse, in which a figure eight heads tall is described, divided into equal segments: [marg: Roughly the measurements of figures 1. 2, in plate C]

One measures, according to the old way,
A figure eight heads tall,
First from the crown to the chin,
Next to between the nipples,
And thirdly to the navel,
Fourthly to the genitals,
Fifthly to half-way down the thigh,
Sixthly to below the knee,
Seventh to the shin,
And eighthly to the end of the legs.


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A figleaf might serve us here, but we anatomise the naked truth. Further, we approve the sense of the following little verse, even though it appears strange:

A man's figure is properly
As tall as their alloted fathom.
The Middlepoint of his height is said to be,
His arse or his genitals;
But measured when he is stretched out,
Then the navel is the right spot.


A woman's upper body is a little longer, in proportion, to that of a man. But that is enough of verses, so long as you do not find the following ones too much:

In the hand or in the face
One has a tenth of the figure.
And this last:
A sixth part one must
Supply with the foot.


Believe me, young children can learn this sitting by the fire, but I put it here, since great masters sometimes behave, as if they did not know it.

Description of the Figures in plate C.

But we shall remove the trouble by judiciously measuring a figure from three sides. And first of all a man, who we shall make seven and a half heads tall. I shall divide his total height into fifteen half-head-measures or large Hands, and also indicate the breadth of those hands at the side. I find the total of fifteen very appropriate, even though I have read, that the ancients preferred to use twenty-one. What reasons they had for that, I leave to others to discover. We find, that substantially, our body now to be formed from fifteen principal parts: such as the head, the Chest and the trunk. Each leg into Thigh, shin and foot: and each arm into above and below the Elbow and the Hand; which altogether makes fifteen. The joints of the fingers in each hand also add up to fifteen. And each foot also has almost the same total. Therefore, as has been said, we identify each of these fifteenth parts as a Hand, which we further divide into four equal parts, that we shall call thumbs; each is as much as a sixtieth part of a figure's whole height. We divide each thumb again by ten, and call these small parts grains, so that the whole figure is therefore made up of six hundred grains. But these are mostly employed in measuring the thickness, for as regards height, we will use nothing but whole hands. So from the top of the skull

[Plate C.]

[59 H2]

To the eyes a hand.
To the throat 2.
To below the shoulders 3.
To the nipples 4.
To the short ribs 5.
To the navel and hip 6.
To the beginning of the buttocks 7.
To below the buttocks and genitals 8.
To the mid-thigh 9.
To above the knee 10.
To below the knee 11.
To above the thickest part of the calf 12.
To the thickest part below the calf 13.
Above the ankles 14.
Beneath the Soles 15.

                                                                Hand.   Thumb.  Grain.
The Foot's length                                            2        1        5
The arm from the Shoulder
 joint to the Elbow                                           2        2        4
From the Elbow to the
  joint in the hand                                            2                 3
To the end of the fingers                                  1        2        6

As regards the breadth, we say that from front to back in figures 3 and 4, in plate C. this breadth is

Above the Forehead                                         1        2
Above the Eyebrows                                         1        2        2
Beneath the Nose and Ears                               1        1        2
The Neck below the Chin                                            3        5
Above the Nipples, or from
  behind the Armpits                                         2        3        8
At the Gut                                                        2        1
Above the Navel                                               2        2        3
At the end of the Trunk                                     2        3        5
At the bottom of the
 Buttocks each leg is                                         1        1        3
The Thigh in the middle                                     1                  5
Above the Knee                                                          3        8
At the Knee                                                                3        5
Below the Knee                                                           3        1
Middle of the Calf                                                        3        8
At the thickest below
  the Calf.                                                                   3
Above the Ankles                                                        1        7
Below the Ankles                                                         2        1
Width of the foot                                                         3        7
The arm at its thickest
  above the Elbow.                                                      2        6
Above the Elbow                                                         2        4
Below the Elbow                                                          3
Just above the Hand                                                    2        4
At the joint                                                                 2
Breadth of the open hand                                            3        4

There remains the figure from the side 5. of which we say the breadth is

From the hairline
  to behind the crown                                         1        1        6
Above the eyebrows                                           1        3        1
Above the Nose                                                 1        2        3
the neck below the chin                                               3        9
The line above the breast                                   1        2        6
Above the Nipples                                              2                  4
The line below that                                             1        3        8
Above the Navel                                                 1        2        8
At the end of the Trunk                                       1        3        2
Thickness of the Leg
Below the buttocks                                             1        1        8
In the middle of the Thigh                                   1        1        6
The lower Thigh                                                  1                  7
Thickness of the knee                                         1                  1
Below the knee                                                            3        5
Middle of the calf                                                1                  2
Below the calf                                                              3        1
Above the Ankles                                                          2        4
The thickness of the arm
  at the Shoulder                                                 1        1
At the back of the armpits                                             3        8
At the Elbow                                                                 2        5
Just above the hand                                                      2
At the joint                                                                   1        4
The thickness of the hand                                              1        7

The figure that raises his hand to the height of his head, forms a circle, of which the Navel is the centre.

[Plate C.]

[60]

EIGHTH CHAPTER.
Description of the Figures in Print D.

Before one comes to the measurement of a female figure, the first question is, what is the relationship between the height of a man and a woman? Painstaking Albrecht Durer says this of it: when a man and a woman of any particular kind are set together in a composition, the height {linie} of the woman, from which she is to be measured, should be one eighteenth shorter, than the height of the man. Otherwise she would appear taller, than the man, because her body is softer and more fleshy, than is the man's. This is only the case, if they are to stand next to each other, otherwise if they are on their own, make them whatever size you like.

We divide this woman's figure into 7 and a half large spans {groote span = spread hand}, or, as with the previous man, into 15 hands, thumbs and grains as before. She is 8 of her own heads in height, or ten (*) faces. [SvH's footnote: That the face is one tenth part of the whole height concurs with Vitruvius.]

I measure the height downwards from the Top of the Skull
To the forehead                                                  0        1        5
there to the brows                                              0        2        0
to under the nose                                               0        2        0
to under the chin                                                0        2        0
to the flesh of the
  shoulder                                                          0        1        5
to the hollow of the neck                                     0        2        0
from below the line of the shoulder to the
  third measuring line                                          0        1        0
to the Nipples                                                     1        0        0
to the short Ribs                                                 1        0        0
to the navel                                                        1        0        0
behind to the tailbone                                          1        0        0
down to the genitals                                            1        0        0
to the end of the buttocks                                    0        1        0
to above the knee                                               1        3        9
the middle of the knee                                         0        3        1
to thickest of the calf                                           1        0        0
to thickest below the calf                                     1        0        0
to thinnest part of leg                                          1        0        0
thence to below the soles                                     1        0        0
length of the foot                                                 0        9        0
the arm from the shoulder to the elbow                 2        2        0
from the Elbow to the joint in the hand                  2        0        3
from the joint to the end  of the fingers                 1        1        8

The depth of the Figure seen from the side

Above the eyebrow                                               1        2        4
the neck                                                              0        3        4
above the shoulder                                               1        1        8
above the nipples                                                 1        3        8
above the short ribs                                              1        3        0
at the gut                                                             1        2        2
above the navel                                                    1        3        2
at the end of the hips                                            2        2        0
at the end of the genitals                                       2        0        2
the thickness of the leg  below the buttocks            1        3        0
at the knee                                                           1        0        8
in the knee                                                           1        0        0
middle of the calf                                                  1        0        4
below at the thinnest                                             0        2        5
at the shoulder the arm's thickness from the side     1        0        4
at the bicep                                                           0        3        8
at the elbow                                                          0        2        6
below the elbow                                                     0        2        7
at the joint                                                            0        1        5
thickness of the hand                                             0        1        8

The breadth of the Figure seen from front or back

Above the eyebrow                                                 1        1        7
the neck below the chin                                          0        3        3
above the shoulder                                                 3        0        0
distance between the  shoulders                              2        1        6
the front of the armpits                                           2        0        9
the rear of the armpits                                            2        1        9
from one nipple to the other                                    1        2        4
below the breasts                                                   2        1        4
in the gut                                                               2        0        4
above the navel                                                      2        3        1
at the end of the trunk                                            3        0        8
below here the distance between the tops of
 the legs from each other                                        2        1        1
to the genitals                                                        3        0        9
the legs below the trunk                                          1        2        3
one measure lower at the thigh                                1        1        3
one measure lower at the knee                                1        0        0
at the knee                                                            0        3        6
middle of the calf                                                    1        0        0
below the calf                                                         0        1        6
below at the thinnest part                                        0        1        6
breadth of the foot in front                                      0        3        3
the arm at the bicep                                                0        2        7
above the elbow                                                     0        2        3
below the elbow                                                      0        2        9
above the hand                                                      0        2        3
at the joint                                                             0        1        6
breadth of the hand                                                0        3        0
the heel from behind                                               0        1        9

[Plate D.]

[61 H3]

This is enough for a demonstration, whoever wishes now to reassure his spirit further, then I advise, that they each, in the easy manner shown here, measure some figures from life. For then they will be made aware of and learn to distinguish, between a slight and a large body.

It is said that Slenderness suits a young girl, so as better to be able to wear the many and diverse ornaments, to which she is attracted, and our poet the lord Hooft, introduces her, in his Geeraerdt van Velsen, as a type of Amsterdam:

A Noble maid, that entering the flower of her youth,
The face sparkles: and the ripening of knowingness reveals in
The serious face, everything from wickedness to timidity:
The form of her body, neck and hip begin to swell,
And clues appear to show what is hidden in her heart,
A becoming self-assurance shines from the beautiful face;
Then pearls, gold and trailing dress. She is honoured by many,
And masked envy's defamation cannot portray her as less.


The preferences of lovers, as regards svelte slenderness, or robust stoutness in a girls body, can differ greatly, as Chaerea says in Terence:

The shoulders low, the breasts bound, and the body squeezed
So thin they look like a reed, which they hold to be beauty:
And a properly fed woman, they call an Amazon,
Or a Soldier-girl. But as to what mine looks like,
She is not in the new fashion, she is too plump or chubby,
She has honest colour, and well-nourished limbs.



NINTH CHAPTER.
Description of the little Children in Print letter E.

First of all I divide the above child, four heads in height, into 8 hands, each hand of four thumbs, and each thumb, as before, of 10 grains. But, as regards the height, so as not to create too much vain labour, I shall quickly pass over it.

[62]

From the top of the skull
downwards
To the ear and the eyebrow                                      1        0        0
to the hollow of the neck                                          1        0        0
to the nipples                                                          1        0        0
to the navel                                                             1        0        0
to the genitals                                                         1        0        0
to above the knee                                                    1        0        0
to the mid-shin and calf                                            1        0        0
to the soles                                                              1        0        0
the arm from the shoulder  to the elbow                     1        2        0
from the elbow to the hand                                       1        0        3
the hand                                                                  0        3        4
length of the foot                                                     1        0        8

from the side, the Child's breadth or thickness is:
Above the eyebrows                                                 1        3        5
the neck's thickness                                                           3        7
mid chest                                                                 1        1        2
above the nipples                                                      1        1        7
above the short ribs                                                  1        1        5
above the navel                                                        1        1        7
above the genitals                                                     1        2        3
the leg below the trunk                                              1        0        5
the knee                                                                   0        2        7
thickest part of the calf                                              0        3        0
thinnest below by the foot                                          0        2        0
thickness of the arm from the side at the Shoulder       0        3        0
the bicep                                                                   0        2        6
at the elbow                                                              0        2        0
below the elbow                                                         0        2        2
by the hand                                                              0        1        4
the hand                                                                   0        1        3

from the front to back, the breadth of the Child is:

Above the eyebrows                                                   1        2        2
the neck                                                                    0        3        5
halfway between chest and shoulder                            2        1        5
behind the armpits                                                     1        3        4
distance between the nipples                                      1        0        5
breadth at the gut                                                      1        2        5
above the navel                                                         1        3        6
above the genitals                                                      2        0        5
the leg below the genitals                                           1        0        0
at the knee                                                                0        2        6
the calves                                                                  0        2        7
at the foot                                                                 0        1        5
the foot from in front                                                  0        2        2
the breadth of the arm at the bicep                              0        2        1
at the elbow                                                              0        2        0
below the elbow                                                         0        2        3
in the hand                                                                0        1        5
the hand                                                                    0        2        1
the heel from behind                                                   0        1        5

You can increase the height of this young Child of four foot, to 5. 6. 7 and more head lengths, here we have brought together two who are five heads tall, one viewed from the front, the other from behind. It is enough, that you have learned here how to measure with Hand, Thumb and Grains. Whoever produces their most important works in this area of art, will see far enough through this lens, and it will be well worth their effort, to measure the principal parts of children living or dead; and to see, how much they shoot up as they grow. Children at three years old are, according to Pliny, half their eventual height, but full development arrives unevenly.

We find an almost identical method of measuring, to that we have used here, in the second book of Albrecht Durer's Proportion, except that he divides his hand, or yardstick, into ten, which we divided into four. His overall Numbers and his details do not compare exactly with ours. He also divides those smaller Divisions into three, and calls it a Trimulum, which I know to be very useful in precise measurement. This method of measurement is a great improvement upon that of his first book, where he clung to his 'Scheider' or 'deiler', which divided up the entire length of the figure, half, three- four- five- six quarters, and so on to infinity;

[Plate E.]

[63]

although we would not dissuade those, who prefer these rules, from following them. Whoever so wishes can also copy Durer's figures full-sized, and use his error-maker, his selector and his falsifier: [marg: In the third Book of his proportion.{french ed. 1557, III, fol. 104r}] also his curves, to be seen in the fourth Book. Certainly he has shown, that research into proportion was a serious matter for him. And he replied to those, who asked, whether so much trouble should be taken, and so much time expended, measuring all bodies in this way, when often one could make many figures in a short time? We do not insist on this, he said, but I teach, that by means of effort and painstaking, one can seek to obtain some certainty, founded on reliable reasoning; and anyone, who has achieved this certainty along with an assured hand, will not be anyone who lacks for measuring bodies. For eyes, being prepared by art, establish a Rule, and the hand follows art with a confident trust, and shuts out error. The consequence of this is skilfulness. And, being thoroughly imbued with knowledge, you will have no doubt about what to do, nor will you make a dot, or draw a line thoughtlessly. Such works of art, that in no way appear uneasy, but delightful and free, deserve praise and are declared good by all. This cannot not be done by anyone unskilled in the rules of art, even if they have achieved a freedom of hand. Indeed such a freedom is a vulgarity to be criticised, since it leads to error. And where we are going, we do not want to Young Painters led to take to side roads. We urge only that they draw some small figures on paper, be they from life, or after the best Statues of the ancients, divided up in our manner, in Hands, thumbs and grains: and only to do something in a painstaking way when need calls for it, which seldom occurs. Thus by means of this small opening up their eyes will find a rule, which will sufficiently support them, in the absence of Polyclitus, and enable them to see nature through enlightened eyes {verlichte oogen}. For anyone who does too much measuring, might lose themselves, Euphranor, who himself wrote on the science of proportion, was nonetheless criticised, because he made his figures too thin, and his fingers and knuckles too large, in which our old-time Germans, such as Israhel van Meckenem and Martin Schongauer have possibly surpassed him; for their nudes appear, as if they were starving. Having thus considered all this very thoroughly, I remain of my first opinion, that one must try to discover the compass in the eye, through the habit of paying attention; and that in making beautiful proportions, one will reach much higher by doing, rather than by talking: and that one will much more effectively bring one's sight to good judgement, through looking out for errors, than by always measuring. For measuring the parts

[64]

in order to name them, is more necessary for persuading the ignorant, than for helping oneself.

And for the present, my Young Painters, try harder in school, [marg: Academy drawings.]
to draw after old-fashioned sculptures, and living nudes. Compete with each other, for the crown of roses, and aspire to the wished-for laurels in the future.

Whenever autumn makes for short days and long evenings, and offers you the chance to draw nudes from life, pay very close attention, to the movement of the figure, draw it, before it gets fatigued, and relate the parts to each other well. Look out for foreshortening, place the shadows in the right place, and give everything the feeling of soft flesh. Many hope in this to produce wonders in art, but you have to expend time and labour on it, before you are able to join with nature in diligently imitating all her qualities. For even after years of drawing, if you do not develop the precision of your attention; and if you simply flit from flower to flower without judgement, you will certainly produce many drawings, but you will not become a draughtsman.


TENTH CHAPTER.
Concerning faults and ugliness.

And it is not enough, O Young Painters! to draw lots of male and female figures from life, sketching fat bellies {penszakken te berd brengen}, and using up your time. Is it because you know how to draw a figure from life, for otherwise it is better that you work from plaster or stone, so seek out a living figure, that is worthy of imitation, so that you do not fall into bad habits. Take care that impressions are not left on the Knees by the Garters, and that the Thigh muscles have their own proper form, as was observed by the ancients, and that the Shins and Calves are not misshapen by the pinching of the ties. This applies especially to womenfolk; take care that the belly and the haunches are not deformed by the pressure of clothing, and that the breasts are correctly positioned. And thus by the avoidance of mistakes, one shall discover beauty. Faults are commonplace, but beauty is rare, and allows itself to be recognised by none, except those who study to know it. Monsieur Puget de la Serre, translated by Heijman Dullaert, concurs absolutely with me, when in his Conduct of the good spirit he declares:

[65 I]

Let us speak only of the works of nature, there was never maiden born, excepting she, with whom God blessed us in the first cradle, whereupon he rested himself, who did not deserve some comment. [marg: No woman's figure that did not deserve some comment.] From that comes this, that the great painter, who intended to portray the beautiful Helen in his picture, selected the most beautiful young women from the city; so that his brush, from so great a number of beautiful faces, borrowing something from each, would bring together but one perfection. Which reveals to us the inability of nature, to produce a single faultless beauty. I have never seen a woman so beautiful, that she pleased all the world. There is always a tiny smudge, that fogs the clear glass of her mirror. This one has an upright figure, and is pale, and has an actual crease from her mouth to her ears. The other has a broad high forehead, a small mouth, and kind eyes, but next to them a flat snub nose, split like a water dog's. [marg: Examples.] To put it bluntly, none will charm in public: except with borrowed enticements, or purchased teeth. This one has attracted everyone with a pleasing face, but is deformed by a crooked back, and has a bosom like a full foodbag. I turn sadly to la Serre, however kind he is, in complete agreement. It was not our intention to describe ugliness, rather it was in order the better to represent the abovementioned concepts of beauty, that we felt we should say something about it. [marg: That Painters frequently allow their own faults to appear in their work.] The common saying is, that Painters frequently portray faults in their works, that they have in their own persons. Whether they are thin, fat, lame or deformed, or have a squint. The reasoning is supposed to be, that our inner inclinations can be directly related to our outward appearances. But what do we then say? That all beautiful people take pleasure in beauty, and all the ugly, on the contrary, in ugliness? Certainly not. For one frequently finds the opposite to be the case. Emperor Augustus was not the tallest, but nonetheless he had an aversion to dwarves, and a fear of the crippled. As Suetonius tells us, he held them to be mocking playthings of nature, and of evil portent, preferring rather to see, sweet chattering and well-formed little children from Syria, and pretty little moors from Morocco. Heliogabalaus on the other hand, being the most beautiful youth, that ever the sun shone upon, and who enchanted the eyes of all who looked upon him, had all those suffering from crippled feet summoned together in the baths. He had brought to him at his meal times eight bald-headed people, eight people with squints, eight deaf people, eight people with gout, eight black people, eight extremely tall people, eight impossibly fat people, and eight, who had great big long noses, in accordance with the Greek proverb

[66]

eight of each; Apant octo. He ordered some servants to find for him, at an agreed price, a thousand pounds of spiders' webs, and it is said, that they brought him a thousand pounds of them, at which he boasted, that he reigned over such a city, where there were so many cobwebs. And to stay with ugliness, I give the reader the following examples. Homer writes in the second book of his Iliad of a Greek counsellor thus: [marg: First little specimen.]

Thersites the loudmouth, abused the wise counsellor,
Had a squint, and was misshapen before and behind:
He had a pointed head, and scarce any hair on it.


Girolamo Benzoni tells in his description of the West Indies that, when at Cumana, he saw a wife of the most important Lord of that land, who was bringing to the Spanish Governor a gift of fruit, the like of whom in the fourteen years, he had ground out in the new world, he had never before encountered. After she had silently laid down her gift, he said, she sat down on a bench, so that we could wonder with pleasure at her beautiful ugliness. [marg: Second sample.] She was completely naked, except for her genitals, for married women cover these with a cloth called a Pampanila, but girls only with a band; she was painted black all over, and her hair hung to her waist, her ears were stretched so long, that they hung down to her shoulders, from the weight of the earrings, which were full of sticks, made from a very light wood called Kakoma. Her nails were extremely long, her teeth black, her mouth large, and her nostrils pierced with a ring, which they call a Karikori; so that it {she} seemed more a monster, than a human form. [marg: Third example.] If this is too barbaric for you, look at this charming Native, whom his Excellency States Counsellor Heemskerk, in his Batavische Arcadia, had his Shepherds and Shepherdesses observe, as they briefly refreshed their horses between courtly Hague and learned Leiden. And suddenly there appeared (he says) a dreadful woman; instead of powder, her hair, was dusted with innumerable scales of scurf. Her eyes, as if she had not properly slept, turned here and there with a loose langour, glowing red: And this redness, congested with a rim of liquid wax, ensured that all eyes, turned away from her, as if from nothing other, than the head of Medusa. Her entire face was cursed with purple coloured pustules: and her insolent nose seemed to threaten her prominent chin as if to impale it. And above the long-haired eyebrows, through negligent washing, a dijk seemed to stretch, between the billows of the thickly-wrinkled forehead. Between the gashes of her thick rolled-back lips, there remained here and there droplets of muddy thick beer, with which, at first

[67 I2]

waking up, it was her custom greedily to bathe her thirsty throat: so that her whole body, and most of all her bloated bosom, had swollen, to such an impossible fatness, that the one looked like a vast tun of beer, and the other an overladen cow's udder. This charming Hostess, a Tobacco pipe in her mouth, and a jug in her hand, swung corpulently into the waggon, and began with a hoarse voice, and a winking eye to regale the sweet company, sitting in the waggon, with the pipe smoke, and a mouthful of cheap brandy, provoking the modesty of the Shepherdesses, and the courtesy of the Shepherds, so that they immediately demanded that the waggoner stopped her drinking, and without delay relieved them of the presence of that sink of unworthiness. See there a delightful ugliness, of which Brouwer's works will supply sufficient, to outdo even her disgraceful accomplishments. But however fine they are, they disgust me, nonetheless I find that the greatest spirits sometimes take pleasure in such ugliness. Such as Sir Philip Sydney in the description of Mopsa: and Cervantes in the depiction of a certain Perlerina, whom he portrays in the following ornament:

Our Perlerina looks like a little pearl from the one side,
For she lost her left eye to the smallpox,
Her pock-marks are small hollows,
Graves to welcome the rabble of her lovers.
Her agreeable nose stands curling upright from propriety,
So that the mouth will not be fouled with snot.
Her mouth, when she smiles, spreads from ear to ear
And half of her teeth are not unbroken.
Her lips are quite large, enough to make a stew,
But although they move about heavily, they are still lips:
Their colour is blue and green, like jaspers in a garden.
And could I but accurately describe to you her build and her height
You would be astonished: but that is beyond my ability:
She is a little stooped, deformed, her knees in her mouth,
But were it possible to straighten her out,
Then her head would perhaps reach the ceiling.
And this beautiful pearl would long ago have given her right hand
To my Batchelor as a bride,
But alas she is crippled and stiff, her suffering nails
Which are broad, witness thus how charming they once were.


But I certainly think that with the depiction of these charming examples I have more disgraced than enhanced my work. It is best that following my own instincts I push on to the next part, and show some worthier Paintings. And for this no one is better to take our hand, than the great Clio.