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UCL European Institute



Brexit and empire: a long-term view

Can a long-term and comparative understanding of the nature of imperial identities shed light on some of the dynamics behind Brexit? The ways in which empires – and their collapse – transform their central regions as much as the colonies constitute a significant part of the story, argues Andrew Gardner, summarising an article recently published in the Journal of Social Archaeology.
Andrew Gardner (Institute of Archaeology)
20 February 2017

Starts: Feb 20, 2017 12:00:00 AM

The government's Brexit white paper: a missed opportunity

Nicholas Wright from the UCL School of Public Policy analyses the government's recent White Paper on Brexit.
Nicholas Wright (SPP)
17 February 2017

Starts: Feb 17, 2017 12:00:00 AM

The process of Brexit: What comes next?

In a new report published jointly by the UCL Constitution Unit and the UCL European Institute, Alan Renwick,  Deputy Director of the Constitution Unit, examines what the process of Brexit is likely to look like over the coming weeks, months, and years. Here he summarises five key lessons.
Alan Renwick (Constitution Unit)
8 February 2017

Starts: Feb 1, 2017 12:00:00 AM

EMU, citizenship and procurement

UCL European Institute

POLICY BRIEFING: European Economic and Monetary Union

EMU thumbnail

This briefing considers the governance of economic and monetary union (EMU). In particular, it explores:
• The current state of EU competences linked to EMU
• The use of instruments outside the EU framework
• The role of EU institutions
• The implications of banking union


TOPIC 1  The Economic and Monetary Union

UK FIDE Report

P. Eeckhout and M. Waibel, FIDE Report on the EMU, accessed 13/03/2014

I. Legislation
  • Article 122 TFEU
  • Articles 127 to 133 TFEU
  • Article 136 TFEU
  • Art 138 TFEU
  • Protocol (No 15) on certain provisions relating to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) Framework Agreement (Brussels, 9/05/2010)
  • Regulation 407/2010 establishing a European financial stabilisation mechanism OJ L 118/1 (12/05/2010)
  • Regulation 1093/2010 establishing a European Supervisory Authority (European Banking Authority), amending Decision No 716/2009/EC and repealing Commission Decision 2009/78/EC, OJ L 331/12 (15.12.2010)
  • Regulation 1173/2011 on the effective enforcement of budgetary surveillance in the euro area, OJ L 306/1 (23/11/2011)
  • Regulation 1174/2011 on enforcement measures to correct excessive macroeconomic imbalances, OJ L 306/8 (23/11/2011)
  • Regulation 1175/2011 on surveillance of budgetary positions and the surveillance and coordination of economic policies, OJ L 306/12 (23/11/2011)
  • Regulation 1176/2011 on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances, OJ L 306/12 (23/11/2011)
  • Regulation 1177/2011 on the excessive deficit procedure, OJ L 306/33 (23/11/2011)
  • Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) 2012 (Brussels, 02/02/2012)
  • Regulation 1219/2012 establishing transitional arrangements for bilateral investment agreements between Member States and third countries, OJ L 351/40 (20/12/2012)
  • Council Regulation 1024/2013 conferring specific tasks on the European Central Bank concerning policies relating to the prudential supervision of credit institutions, OJ L 287/63 (29/10/2013)
  • Regulation 1022/2013 amending Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 establishing a European Supervisory Authority (European Banking Authority) as regards the conferral of specific tasks on the European Central Bank pursuant to Council Regulation (EU) No 1024/2013, OJ L 287/5 (29/10/2013)
II. Case law
  • BVerfG, Outright Monetary Transactions, 2 BvR 2728/13, judgment of 14/01/2014
  • Case C-370/12 Thomas Pringle v Government of Ireland, judgment of 27/11/2012, not yet reported.
III. Literature
  • B de Witte and T Beukers, ‘The Court of Justice approves the creation of the European Stability Mechanism outside the EU legal order : Pringle’ (2013) 50 CMLRev 805
  • S Peers, ‘Towards a New Form of EU Law?: The Use of EU Institutions outside the EU Legal Framework’ (2013) 9 EuConst 37
  • D Howarth and L Quaglia, ‘Banking Union as Holy Grail: Rebuilding the Single Market in Financial Services, Stabilizing Europe's Banks and ‘Completing’ Economic and Monetary Union’ (2013) 51 JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 103
  • VSG Babis and E Ferran, ‘The European Single Supervisory Mechanism’(2013) 13(2) Journal of Corporate Law Studies 255
  • P Craig, 'Pringle and Use of EU Institutions Outside the EU Legal Framework: Foundations, Procedure and Substance' (2013) 9 EuConst 263
  • P Craig, ‘The Stability, Coordination and Governance Treaty: principle, politics and pragmatism’ (2012) 37 (3) ELRev 231
  • P De Grauwe, ‘Governance of a Fragile Eurozone’, 4 May 2011
  • P Craig, ‘EMU, the European Central Bank and Judicial Review’ in P R Beaumont and N Walker (eds), Legal framework of the single European currency  (Hart Pub. 1999)
IV. Other
  • Bank of England, The United Kingdom’s quantitative easing policy: design, operation and impact, Quarterly Bulletin, 2011, Q3
  • UK Prime Minister, ‘EU Speech at Bloomberg’, 23 January 2013
  • European Commission, Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL establishing uniform rules and a uniform procedure for the resolution of credit institutions and certain investment firms in the framework of a Single Resolution Mechanism and a Single Bank Resolution Fund and amending Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council, COM/2013/0520 final

TOPIC 2  Union Citizenship: Development, Impact and Challenges

UK FIDE Report

T Horsley and S Reynolds, FIDE Report on EU Citizenship, accessed 13/03/2014

I. Legislation
  • Directive 2004/38/EC on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States (‘Citizens’ Rights Directive’), OJ L 158/77 (30/04/2004)
  • The Accession (Immigration and Worker Authorisation) Regulations 2006, SI 2006/3317
  • The Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations, SI 2013/1391
  • Social Security (Habitual Residence) (Amendment) Regulations, SI 2012/2587
II.  Literature
  • J Shaw and N Miller, ‘When legal worlds collide: an exploration of what happens when EU free movement meets UK immigration law,’ (2013) 38(2) EL Rev. 137
  • S Reynolds, ‘Exploring the ‘Intrinsic Connection’ between Free Movement and the genuine Enjoyment Test: Reflections on EU Citizenship after Iida’ (2013) 38 EL Rev 376
  • N Shuibhne, ‘(Some of) the Kids Are All Right: Comment on McCarthy and Dereci’ (2012) 49 CML Rev. 349
  • A Tryfonidou, ‘Redefining the outer boundaries of EU Law: the Zambrano, McCarthy and Dereci trilogy’ (2012) 18(3) European Public Law 493
III.  Case law (EU only covered on this topic)
  • Case C-456/12 O v Minister voor Immigratie, Integratie en Asiel and Minister voor Immigratie, Integratie en Asiel v B, judgment of 12/04/2014, not yet reported
  • Case C-457/12 S v Minister voor Immigratie, Integratie en Asiel and Minister voor Immigratie, Integratie en Asiel v G, judgment of 12/04/2014, not yet reported
  • Case C-40/11 Iida v Stadt Ulm, judgment of 08/11/2012, not yet reported
  • Case C-434/09 McCarthy [2011] ECR I-3375
  • Case C-256/11 Dereci and Others v Bundesministerium für Inneres [2011] ECR I-11315
  • C-162/09 Secretary of State for Work and Pensions v Lassal [2010] ECR I-9217
  • Case C-34/09 Ruiz Zambrano v ONEM [2011] ECR I-1177
  • Case C-145/09 Tsakouridis [2010] ECR I-11979
  • Case C-135/08 Rottmann v Freistaat Bayern [2010] ECR I-1449
  • Case C-480/08 Teixeira v London Borough of Lambeth and Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] ECR I-1107
  • Case C-310/08 London Borough of Harrow v Nimco Hassan Ibrahim and the Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] ECR I-1065
  • Case C-127/08 Metock and Others v Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform [2008] ECR I-6241
  • Case C-209/03 Bidar [2005] ECR I-219
  • Case C-200/02 Zhu and Chen v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2004] ECR I-9925
  • Case C-456/02 Trojani [2004] ECR I-7573
  • Case C-138/02 Collins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions [2004] ECR I-2703
  • Case C-413/99 Baumbast and R v Secretary of State [2002] ECR I-7091
  • Case C-224/98 D’Hoop [2002] ECR I-6191
IV.  Media

TOPIC 3  Public Procurement Law: Limitations, Opportunities and Paradoxes

UK FIDE Report

B Doherty, FIDE Report on Public Procurement, accessed 13/03/2014

I. Legislation
  • Public Contracts Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/5)
  • Public Contracts (Scotland) Regulations (SSI 2006/1)
  • Directive 2004/17/EC coordinating the procurement procedures of entities operating in the water, energy, transport and postal services sectors, OJ L 134/1 (30/04/2004)
  • Directive 2004/18/EC on the coordination of procedures for the award of public works contracts, public supply contracts and public service contracts, OJ L 134/114 (30/04/2004) *
  • Commission Regulation 1336/2013 amending Directives 2004/17/EC, 2004/18/EC and 2009/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council in respect of the application thresholds for the procedures for the awards of contract, OJ L 335/17 (14/12/2013) **
II. Case Law (EU)
  • Case C-159/11 Azienda Sanitaria Locale di Lecce and Others v Ordine degli Ingegneri della Provincia di Lecce and Others, judgment of 19/12/2012, not yet reported
  • Case C-306/08 Commission v Spain [2011] ECR I-04541
  • Case 274/09 Krankentransport Stadler [2011] ECR I-01335
  • Case C-203/08 Sporting Exchange Ltd (‘Betfair’) v Minister van Justitie [2010] I-04695
  • Case C-406/08 Uniplex v NHS Business Services Authority [2010] ECR I-00817
  • C-451/08 Müller v Bundesanstalt für Immobilienaufgaben [2010] ECR I-02673
  • Case C-428/07 Horvath v Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs [2009] ECR I-06355
  • Case C-305/08 CoNISMa [2009] ECR I-12129
  • Case C-206/08 WAZV v Eurawasser [2009] ECR I-08377
  • Case C-412/04 Commission v Italy [2008] ECR I-00619
  • Case C-532/03 Commission v Ireland (Irish Ambulances) [2007] ECR I-11353
  • Case C-295/05 Asemfo v Tragsa [2007] ECR I-3034
  • Case 220/05 Auroux and Others v Commune de Roanne [2007] ECR I-00385
  • C-260/04 Commission v Italy (Gaming Licences) [2007] ECR I-07083
  • Case C-382/05 Commission v Italy [2007] ECR I-6657
  • Case C-399/98 Ordine degli Architetti delle province de Milano e Lodi v. Comune di Milano [2001] ECR I-5409
  • Case C-107/98 Teckal Srl v Comune di Viano and AGAC [1999] ECR I-08121Case
  • Case C-79/94 Commission v Greece (Greek Bandages) [1999] ECR I-01071
  • Case C-324/93 R v Secretary of State for Home Affairs Ex Parte Evans Medical [1995] ECR I-563
  • Case 45/87 Commission v Ireland (Dundalk Water) [1988] ECR 4929
  • Case C-31/87 Beentjes v Netherlands [1988] ECR 4635
III. Case Law (UK)
  • R on the application of Midlands Co-operative Society v Tesco Stores Limited  [2012] EWHC
  • AG Quidnet Hounslow LLP v Hounslow [2012] EWHC 2639
  • R (on the application of Midlands Co-operative Society Ltd) v Birmingham City Council [2012] All ER (D) 181
  • JBW Ltd v Ministry of Justice [2012] EWCA Civ 8
  • Brent London Borough Council v Risk Management Partners Ltd [2011] UKSC 7
  • R (Chandler) v Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families [2010] LGR 1
  • Severn Trent v Dur Cymru Cyfyngrdig (Welsh Water) Ltd [2001] EuLR 136 
  • Norweb plc v Dixon [1995] WLR 636
III. Policy

UPDATE:  Please note that The European Parliament and the Council have both, as of 11/02/2014, adopted the Commission’s new proposed directives for the reform of public procurement

*Replacing Directive 2004/18/EC (PE-CONS 74/13 and 5862/14 ADD 1);
**Replacing Directive 2004/17/EC (PE-CONS 75/13); together with a directive on the award of concession contracts (PE-CONS 73/13 and 5860/14 ADD 1 REV 1).

The new directives will come into force 20 days after their publication in the Official Journal (OJ).