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Why we post: a global perspective on social media

How do people use social media in different parts of the world, and what are the implications? Professor Daniel Miller explains what a team of anthropologists found by sending 15 months each in nine small towns all over the world, comparing social media use. You can engage with their research through a variety of free online resources including UCL’s first massive open online course (MOOC) starting on 29th February, a series of open access books published by UCL Press, and a short video.
25 November 2015
Daniel Miller  More...

Starts: Nov 25, 2015 12:00:00 AM

Cameron - Banning Milk and Cheese

Pablo Echenique is one of the five Podemos members elected to the European Parliament in 2014, and currently running for parliament in the upcoming Spanish general election. On Monday 26 October, he was scheduled to talk at the UCL European Institute, however the event had to be cancelled when he ran into difficulties at the UK Border. Here, he explains the full story…
2 November 2015
Pablo Echenique

Starts: Nov 1, 2015 12:00:00 AM

Flights from Freedom

Eva Hoffman, former editor of The New York Times and Visiting Professor at the UCL European Institute, asks what propels individuals to turn to extremist movements and argues that we need to build a ‘culture of democracy’ with shared norms and ethics.
22 October 2015
Eva Hoffman More...

Starts: Oct 22, 2015 12:00:00 AM

Refugee protection

UCL European Institute

This section covers European countries’ treatment of refugees, irregular migrants and asylum seekers, and the case study of the Syrian crisis.



This policy briefing discusses key practical aspects of refugee protection, as well as questions of racism and xenophobia in Europe. In particular, it addresses:
• The lack of coordinated action on refugees in Europe
• EU asylum policy, in particular the Dublin regulation1
• The inadequacy of Europe’s responses to the Syrian crisis
• The need to consider human rights in discussing migration
• The impact of racism and xenophobia on migration debates



I. Key Reading
II. The Right to leave a country

Relevant Legal Framework

Institutional Reports

Academic Commentary

  • D. Kochenov, ‘The Right to Leave Any Country’ in R. Plender (ed), International Migration Law (Martinus Nijhoff 2012), accessed 2 March 2014.
  • C. Harvey and R. P. Barnidge, Jr, ‘The right to leave one’s own country under international law’, Global Commission on International Migration, September 2005, accessed 2 March 2014.
  • S. S. Juss, 'Free Movement and the World Order', (2004) 16 Int J Refugee L 289.
  • C. Dauvergne, ‘Sovereignty, Migration and the Rule of Law in Global Times’ (2004) 67(4) MLRev 588.
  • S. Jagerskiold, ‘The Freedom of Movement’ in L. Henkin (ed), The International Bill of Rights: The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Columbia University Press 1981) 166.
III. The right to seek asylum in Europe

Relevant Legal Framework

Additionally, in relation to EU Member States only:

  • Article 18 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (EUCFR).
  • Article 19 EUCFR.
  • EU Regulation No 604/2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person (‘recast Dublin Regulation’).
  • Council Regulation No 2007/2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (‘FRONTEX Regulation’).
  • Directive 2011/95/EU on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted (recast).
  • Council Directive 2005/85/EC on minimum standards on procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing refugee status.
  • Council Directive 2003/9/EC laying down minimum standards for the reception of asylum seekers.
  • Council Directive 2001/55/EC on minimum standards for giving temporary protection in the event of a mass influx of displaced persons and on measures promoting a balance of efforts between Member States in receiving such persons and bearing the consequences thereof.

For a general overview of the EU system, see:

Institutional Reports

Academic Commentary

  • E. Guild and V. Moreno-Lax, ‘Current Challenges regarding the International Refugee Law, with focus on EU Policies and EU Co-operation with UNHCR’, CEPS Paper in Liberty and Security in Europe no 59, September 2013, accessed 3 March 2014.
  • C. Costello, ‘Courting Access to Asylum in Europe: Recent Supranational Jurisprudence Explored’, (2012) Human Rights Law Review 287
  • V. Moreno-Lax, ‘Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy or the Strasbourg Court versus extraterritorial migration control?’ (2012) 12.3 Human Rights Law Review 574
  • G Goodwin-Gill, 'The Right to Seek Asylum: Interception at Sea and the Principle of Non-Refoulement', (2011) International Journal of Refugee Law 443
  • V. Mantouvalou, ‘N v UK: No Duty to Rescue the Nearby Needy?’, (2009) 72 Modern Law Review 815
  • A Fischer-Lescano, T Lohr, T Tohidipur, 'Border controls at sea: requirements under international human rights and refugee law', (2009) International Journal of Refugee Law 256
  • A. Edwards, ‘Human Security and the Rights of Refugees: Transcending the Territorial and Disciplinary Borders’ (2009) 30 Michigan J Int’l L 763
  • E. Guild, ‘The Europeanisation of Europe's Asylum Policy’ (2006) 18 Int J Refugee Law 630
  • G. Gilbert, ‘Is Europe Living Up to Its Obligations to Refugees?’(2004) 15:5 EJIL 963.

Case law


  • Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, 23 February 2012, App No 27765/09.
  • M.S.S. v Belgium and Greece, 21 January 2011, App No 30696/09.
  • N v UK, 27 May 2008, App No 26565/05.


  • Case C-79/13 Saciri and others, 27 February 2014, not yet reported.
  • Case C-411/10, NS v Secretary of State for the Home Department, 21 December 2011, not yet reported.
IV. News items, policy reports and other materials relating to the Syrian crisis