SMARTnet Research Project

Comparison and Refinement of Hand Calculations with Computer‐aided Simulation Models towards a Reliable Method for Seismic Design of Rubble Stone Masonry Buildings with Cement Mortar.


17 November 2021

This project aims to contribute to the improvement and upgrading of the technological knowledge levels for rubble stone masonry buildings in seismic areas, through validated scientific research by means of the current state‐of‐the‐art for calculating and modelling.

Project at a Glance

I. Introductions and Context:

Definitions and predicted behaviour of two case study buildings

II. Literature Reviews:

a. Analysis methods

b. Mechanical and material properties

c. Determination of parameters for calculations and numerical models

III. Hand Calculations

Base shear seismic demand, in‐plane and out‐of‐plane verifications; by hand and spreadsheets

IV. Seismic Modelling

Base shear seismic demand, in‐plane and out‐of‐plane verifications; by software simulations

V. Discussions and Outputs

Applicability and reliability of the different methods, hand calculations and software simulations,

comparisons of the inputs and outputs, and publication of the research

Project Period

October 2021 – October 2022


  • UCL EPICentre
  • Smart Shelter Research, Netherlands (Project Lead)
  • Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • Kathmandu University, Nepal
  • Nagoya University, Japan
  • University of Bologna, Italy
  • ISISE, University of Minho, Portugal
  • Indian Institute of Technology Patna
  • Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
  • Int. Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad
  • Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences, China
  • Arup International, Shanghai
  • Royal University of Bhutan
  • North Caucasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Russia
  • University of Bristol
  • ETH Zürich
  • Arup International, London
  • University of Pavia, Italy