UCL Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering



The ONG group at UCL is a world-renowned research team led by Professor Polina Bayvel. Learn more about our team.

Academic Staff


Prof Polina Bayvel - Head of the Optical Networks Group

Professor Polina Bayvel Head of the Optical Networks Group


Professor Polina Bayvel is the Head of the Optical Networks Group at UCL which she also set up in 1994. Her research interests are in the area of optical communications and include wavelength-routed optical networks, high-speed optical transmission, and the study and mitigation of fibre nonlinearities. She was one of the first to show the feasibility of using the wavelength domain for routing in optical networks, and designed wavelength-selective devices needed for their characterisation and implementation. More recently she has focused on the study of capacity limits in nonlinear optical networks and optical networks for the cloud. She has authored or co-authored more than 350 refereed journal and conference papers.

Polina Bayvel received her BSc (Eng) and PhD degrees in Electronic & Electrical Engineering from University of London, UK, in 1986 and 1990, respectively. In 1990, she was with the Fiber Optics Laboratory, General Physics Institute, Moscow (formerly USSR, now Russian Academy of Sciences), under the Royal Society Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship. She was a Principal Systems Engineer with STC Submarine Systems Ltd, London, UK, and Nortel Networks (Harlow, UK, and Ottawa, ON, Canada), where she was involved in the design and planning of optical fibre transmission networks. During 1994-2004, she held a Royal Society University Research Fellowship at University College London (UCL), and in 2002, she was appointed to a Chair in Optical Communications and Networks.

Professor Bayvel is a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS), Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng), Optical Society of America (FOSA), Institute of Electronic & Electrical Engineers (FIEEE), the UK Institute of Physics (IoP), and the Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET). She was the recipient of the Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award (2007-2012), 2013 IEEE Photonics Society Engineering Achievement Award, 2014 Royal Society Clifford Patterson Prize Lecture and Medal and in 2015 together with 5 members of her group, received the Royal Academy of Engineering Colin Campbell Mitchell Award for 'pioneering contributions to optical communications technology'. She was the PI of the UK EPSRC Programme Grant UNLOC (2012-2018), focused on unlocking - and maximising - the capacity of optical communications., and now leads the TRANSNET Programme Grant (2018-2024).

She was awarded CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) in the 2017 New Year's Honours List for services to engineering.  

Dr Lidia Galdino - Royal Academy of Engineering Fellow / Proleptic Lecturer

Lidia Galdino
Dr Lidia Galdino received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electronic and electrical engineering from the University of Campinas, Brazil, in 2008 and 2013, respectively. 

Dr Galdino commenced a lectureship and a Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship in September 2018 on the topic of "Capacity-approaching, Ultra-Wideband Nonlinear optical Fibre Transmission System".  She previously worked as a Senior Research Associate on the EPSRC UNLOC programme grant.

She is Associate Editor of Optical Fiber Technology and part of the Technical Programme Committee for IEEE Photonic Conference (IPC).

Dr Galdino was a co-recipient of the RAEng Colin Campbell Mitchell Award in 2015 for pioneering contributions to optical communications technology and named as one of the 2017 “Top 50 Women in Engineering under 35” by The Telegraph and Women in Engineering Society which features the U.K.’s top rising female stars of engineering.

Lidia is currently a co-investigator on the EPSRC TRANSNET project; a multidisciplinary research programme investigating intelligent resource allocation in dynamic optical networks

Publication Data:
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UCL Iris 

Awards and Fundings:
•    Royal Academy of Engineering Fellowship (2018-2023)
•    Top 50 Women in Engineers under 35, which “features the UK’s top rising female stars of engineering” (2017)
•    Co-recipient of Royal Academy of Engineering Colin Campbell Mitchell Award for “our pioneering contributions to optical communications technology” (2015)
•    Brazilian Science without Borders Fellowship to join the Optical Networks Group (ONG) at University College London (2013)
•    Ph.D. studentship funded by National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) 
•    Master’s degree funded by Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). 

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Professor Robert Killey - Professor in Optical Communications

Robert Killey
Robert Killey received his B.Eng. degree in Electronic and Communications Engineering from the University of Bristol, U.K., in 1992 and the M.Sc. degree in Microwaves and Optoelectronics from UCL, U.K., in 1994.

He received the D.Phil. degree from the University of Oxford, U.K., in 1998. His doctoral work was on InGaAsP Fabry–Perot optical modulators and their applications in soliton communications.

He has been a member of the academic staff at UCL since 2000 and is currently a co-investigator on the EPSRC TRANSNET project; a multidisciplinary research programme investigating intelligent resource allocation in dynamic optical networks

Dr Killey is an Associate Editor of the IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology and the IEEE Photonics journal, and has served on the Technical Programme Committees of OFC and ECOC. He was a recipient of the 2015 Royal Academy of Engineering 2015 Colin Campbell Award, and is a Senior Member of the IEEE.

Current research interests:

  • Modelling and experimental investigations of the effects of fibre nonlinearity on high bit-rate WDM data transmission
  • Simplified direct detection and coherent optical transceivers and the applications of digital signal processing for transmission impairment mitigation in high capacity optical communication systems

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Dr Domaniç Lavery - Royal Academy of Engineering Fellow / Proleptic Lecturer

Domanic Lavery
Domaniç Lavery received the MPhys degree in Theoretical Physics from the University of Durham in 2009.

Following this, he joined the Optical Networks Group (ONG) at UCL to undertake a Ph.D investigating digital coherent receivers for passive optical networks, which was awarded in 2013.

Dr. Lavery commenced a lectureship and a Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship in December 2016 on the topic of "Simplified Transceiver Architectures for High Capacity Optical Networks", having previously worked as a Postdoctoral Research Associate publishes regularly on the topic of optical communications.

He has worked on the Technical Programme Committee for several international conferences, including OFC and ECOC.

He is a co-investigator on the EPSRC TRANSNET project; a multidisciplinary research programme investigating intelligent resource allocation in dynamic optical networks.

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Dr Zhixin Liu - Lecturer in Optical Communications and Networks

Zhixin Liu
Zhixin Liu received the Ph.D. degree in Information Engineering from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, in 2012. Upon Ph.D. graduation, he received the Hong Kong Creative Fund and cofounded a start-up company. In 2013, he joined the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) at the University of Southampton in the UK and became a Senior Research Fellow in 2015.

In 2016, he joined the Optical Networks Group at the department of electronics and electrical engineering at UCL. Dr Liu is a senior member IEEE and senior member OSA. He receives OSA Outstanding Reviewer Award in 2018.

Zhizin is currently a co-investigator on the EPSRC TRANSNET project; a multidisciplinary research programme investigating intelligent resource allocation in dynamic optical networks

Dr Zhixin Liu has published more than 70 papers in internationally-leading journals and conferences, with several high-profile papers including Nat. Comm., Invited papers in Journal of Lightwave Technology and highly prestigious post-deadline papers in top conference of the field (Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC, European Conference of Optical Communications, ECOC). Being knowledgeable in both software (digital signal processing) and hardware technologies (optoelectronic devices and systems), Dr Liu endeavours to overcome fundamental limitations in signal generation, processing and detection. 

Research interests: 
  • Optical transmitters for short and medium reach optical communication systems using optical signal processing and photonic integration; 
  • Laser dynamics for generation of high-fidelity signals; 
  • Digital and analog signal processing for low latency and power-aware optical communications. 

Dr Liu’s research is funded by EPSRC, Royal Society, and industry partners including Microsoft, Eblana Photonics and Huawei Inc. For more information please visit www.zhixinliu.net 

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Dr Georgios Zervas - Senior Lecturer in Optical and High-Performance Networks

Georgios Zervas
Georgios Zervas is currently a Senior Lecturer in Optical and High-Performance Networks at University College London. He received his MEng degree in Electronic and Telecommunication Systems Engineering with distinction and PhD degree in optical networks from the University of Essex in 2003 and 2009 respectively.

Following this, he held the positions of Research Associate and subsequently Research Fellow as a member of High-Performance Networks group at the University of Essex. He was appointed Lecturer in 2011. Following this, he held the positions of Lecturer and Senior Lecturer at University of Bristol until 2016 when he joined the Optical Networks Group at UCL. He also held the position of visiting Associate Professor at Keio University, Tokyo for 6 months.

He is the author and co-author of over 200 international peer-reviewed journals and conferences including numerous prestigious post-deadline papers at ECOC/OFC. He has also given numerous invited talks at several international conferences. He has been involved in several current and past EC and EPSRC funded projects as principal and co-investigator. He has been acting as a TPC member on international conferences and guest associate editor on IEEE JOCN. He has been involved in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Open Grid Forum (OGF) standardization fora.

Georgios is currently Co-Investigator on the EPSRC funded TRANSNET Programme. 

Contact email: 

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Research Team  


Paris Andreades

Paris joined University College London (UCL) in 2009 for an MEng degree in Electronic and Electrical Engineering, which he completed in 2014. Upon completing his third year of studies, in 2012, he started a 1-year placement at Cisco Systems in Silicon Valley, California, as a software engineer in the Enterprise Smart Solutions Engineering (ESSE) team. His final year university project was on optical interconnection networks, focusing on the design, verification and FPGA synthesis of a high-speed path allocation circuit for optical crossbar switches.

In 2014, he was awarded a PhD studentship and joined the Optical Networks group (ONG) at UCL. He is currently working under the supervision of Dr Georgios Zervas on low latency and scalable control plane design for photonic integrated packet switches.

Research Interests:

  • Low latency and scalable control design for optical packet switched networks
  • High frequency arbitration circuit design
  • Optical interconnection networks

Funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) DTA Studentship.

Project Title:
Low latency control plane design for optical packet switching in high performance networks.

Contact email: 

Joshua Benjamin

Joshua Benjamin
Joshua received his MEng in Electronic Engineering with Nanotechnology from University College London in 2013. Joshua is a member of the UCL-Cambridge Centre for Doctoral Training in Photonic Systems Development (now IPES), and completed his MRes degree in Photonic Systems Development in 2014. His research project at Cambridge involved determining the recovery time of a NetFPGA transceiver, when it is optically switched.

In October 2014, Joshua joined the Optical Networks Group at UCL as a PhD student. He is currently working under the supervision of Dr Georgios Zervas on Architectures for Photonic Switching in Data Centres and centralizing scheduling for High Performance Computing.

Research Interests:

  • Scalable high speed optical circuit switching technology
  • Optically Switched Networks
  • Algorithms for scheduling requests efficiently

Project Title:
Scalable scheduling algorithms for high radix optical packet switches

Joshua is funded by EPSRC through the UCL-Cambridge Centre for Doctoral Training in Photonic Systems Development (now IPES).

Contact email: 

Kari Clark

Kari Clark
Kari Clark received his B.Sc M.Phys degree in Physics from the University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K. in 2013, with 1st class honours.  His final year project focussed on using Schlieren imaging to photograph ultrasound.  In the year following the completion of his undergraduate degree, he completed two internships in industrial electronic engineering research.

He joined the Optical Networks Group at University College London (UCL) in 2014 to pursue the Ph.D. in optical communications.  His doctoral research focusses on using central optical synchronisation to achieve sub-nanosecond clock and data recovery times in future optically switched data centre networks.  

In 2016, he completed a 9-month internship at Microsoft Research Cambridge, applying his research in an industrial context.  In 2018, he was lead author on a post-deadline research paper at ECOC on sub-nanosecond clock and data recovery, and was judged the overall winner of the EPSRC Connected Nation Pioneers, a national competition for PhD students.

Research Interests:
•    Central synchronisation for optically switched data centre networks.
•    Optical clock distribution schemes.
•    Thermal sensitivity of delay of optical fibre and implications for synchronisation.
•    Multi-gigabit FPGA serial transceivers.

Project Title:
Source Synchronous Protocols for Future Low Energy and Latency Integrated Photonic Transceivers

Dr Zhixin Liu (previously Dr Philip Watts)

Kari is funded by Microsoft Research and Inphi Corporation.

Contact email:

Callum Deakin

Callum Deakin
Callum Deakin was awarded an MSc in Physics from Imperial College London in 2017 and joined the UCL-Cambridge IPES CDT soon after, completing his MRes in 2018. Research projects during his MRes included the development of perovskite-GaN hybrid materials for photonic applications and a study into the potential of beam steering switches for multicore fibres.

In October 2018 he joined the Optical Networks Group at UCL as a MPhil/PhD student. He is currently working on optical transceivers for data centre interconnections under the supervision of Dr Zhixin Liu.

Research interests:

  • Analogue optical signal
  • Optical frequency combs and their
  • Transceivers for data centre interconnections


Hubert Dziecol

Hubert Dziecol
Hubert Dzieciol graduated from Northumbria University in June 2018 with a bachelor's degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering.

His work focuses on investigating whether ultra-fast optical switching in combination with coherent detection and simplified digital signal processing will be an enabling technology for the continued scaling of data center network bandwidth.

Hubert’s PhD is part of the TRANSNET programme in collaboration with Microsoft Research in Cambridge. 

Contact email: 
Thomas Gerard

Thomas Gerard
Thomas was awarded an MPhys from the University of Manchester in 2015 with a final project investigating methods for improving the throughput of electron beam lithography. During this time Thomas spent one year studying at the University of California, Berkeley, where he also worked as a Laboratory technician at the Space Sciences Laboratory developing MCP photon detectors for the NASA ICON mission in 2017.

Post graduation, Thomas joined the UCL-Cambridge Centre for Doctoral Training in Integrated Photonic and Electronic Systems, where he is still an associate member having been awarded an MRes from UCL in 2016. While there, his research projects investigated optical switching in memristor materials, and acceleration algorithms for superresolution optical microscopy for Alzheimer’s research.

Thomas joined the Optical Networks Group at UCL as an MPhil/PhD student in October 2016 with funding from Microsoft Research. He is currently developing the physical layer of an all optical switch fabric for use in data centre networks. 

Research interests:
•    Optically Switched networks
•    High speed phase and frequency offset compensation for coherent receivers
•    Low power and cost effective transmitters for datacentre intraconnects. 

Journal Publications:

  • O.H.W. Siegmund, et al, Application of atomic layer deposited microchannel plates to imaging photodetectors with high time resolution, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 787 (2015) 110–113.
  • A. Mehonic, T. Gerard, and A. J. Kenyon, Light-activated resistance switching in SiOx RRAM devices, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 233502 (2017).
  • T. Gerard, S. Erkılınç, Z. Liu, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel and D. Lavery, A Low-Loss Split-Carrier Transmitter Architecture for Intra-Datacentre Communications, European Conference on Optical Communications (2018).
  • D. Lavery, T. Gerard, S. Erkılınç, Z. Liu, L. Galdino, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, "Opportunities for Optical Access Network Transceivers Beyond OOK [Invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 11, A186-A195 (2019).


Boris Karanov

Boris Karanov

Boris Karanov received his BSc degree in Telecommunication Engineering from Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria, in 2014. In 2016 he obtained his joint MSc degree in Photonic Networks Engineering from Aston University, UK; Osaka University, Japan and Technical University of Berlin, Germany under the Erasmus Mundus Masters framework.

His master's thesis on "Advanced Transmission Concepts for 10 Gbps Short Range Optical Wireless Interconnects" was developed in Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz-Institute (HHI), Germany. During his BSc studies he had a Monte Carlo methods-related internship in the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. During his MSc programme, he was an intern in the Lightwave Transmission Group in Mitsubishi Electric, Japan and worked on free space optics under Marie Skłodowska-Curie International research staff exchange scheme (MC-IRSES) in Jiaotong University, China.

In October 2016 Boris joined the Optical Networks Group at University College London, UK, as a PhD student in the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network (ITN) project COIN. As part of the programme, Boris spends half his time at Nokia Bell Labs, Stuttgart.

Current research interests:
•    Impact of spectral broadening on nonlinearity compensation
•    Optimum detection techniques for the nonlinear channel
•    Application of deep learning techniques in optical communications

Contact email: 

Vaibhawa Mishra

Vaibhawa Mishra
Vaibhawa Mishra completed a Master of Technology in Tezpur University, India and holds a Master of Science in Electronics. Currently, he is a Research Associate at University College London in the Optical Networks Group (ONG).

He started his career as a research professional with the Central Scientific and Research Institute, India. He has also worked work private companies in India. With around 6 years of experience, he has developed a special interest in the field of Reconfigurable Computing, FPGA based system design and prototyping and has delivered number of successful products to industry.

He then joined University of Bristol as a research assistant and worked in the EPSRC funded project, Synthetic On-Chip and Off-Chip Optical Network Systems (SONATAS). While working there, he developed his interests in network on chip and optical networks. He has learned about their many practical applications, especially in programmable hardware to interconnect high-speed, low-latency opto-electronic systems. In continuation with the above-mentioned research, he joined University College London in December 2016 and is currently working on the European Commission funded project, dRedBox: Disaggregated Recursive Data-Center in a Box.  

Research Interests:
•    FPGA based Embedded System Design
•    Hw/Sw Co Design; Digital Image /Video Processing
•    RTL Coding and Verification
•    High Level Synthesis
•    Device Driver and BSP Development, Reconfigurabe Computing System: Partial Reconfiguration
•    High Perforamane Networking/Computing: Network Function Virtulization, Network on Chips, Data-Centers
Visit Vaibhawa's personal webpage

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Xun Mu

Xun Mu graduated from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in China as a BEng in Optoelectronic Information Engineering in 2015.

Xun Mu

Afterwards she obtained the MSc degree in Nanophotonics from University of Strasbourg in France. In 2017, she joined UCL to pursue the MRes degree in Integrated Photonic and Electronic System. 

From October 2018, Xun has been a part of the Optical Networks Group at UCL as a PhD candidate, under the supervision of Dr Georgios Zervas.

Research interests:
  • Scalable and Intelligent Optical Network Systems
  • Designing and modelling of scalable space division multiplexed technologies
  • Specialty SDM fibres and switches with Artificial Intelligence methods 

Contact email: 

Daniel Semrau

Daniel Semrau
Daniel Francis Semrau obtained his undergraduate degree in Electrical Engineering from Technical University Berlin (TUB) in 2013. During his studies he worked as a student research assistant at TUB at the Institute of Photonics on nonlinearities in multimode fibres with Prof. Dr. K. Peterman.

In 2015 he received an MSc in Photonics Networks Engineering from Aston University, Birmingham, UK and Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.

Daniel conducted his master thesis on eigenvalue communication supervised by Prof. Dr. A. Maruta, at Osaka University, Japan. In December 2015 he joined the UCL Optical Networks Group, as a PhD student under the supervision of Professor Polina Bayvel.

He recently was awarded the IEEE Photonics Society Graduate Fellowship award.

Research interests:

  • Channel modeling and ultra-wideband transmission for long-haul coherent optical communications

Contact email:

Eric Sillekens 

Eric Silikens
Eric Sillekens is a PhD research student in the optical networks group at Univesity College London (UCL) and is supervised by Dr. R. Killey.

Eric is working to holistically optimise long-haul fibre transmission systems, where his interest is in coded modulation and machine learning. He has designed modulation formats with a trade off between fibre nonlinearity and shaping gain.

Eric received his BSc and MSc in electrical engineering from the Eindhoven University of Technology in 2012 and 2015 respectively, with his research focussed on advanced coded modulation for optical fibre transmission systems.

Research interests:

  • Coded modulation Transceiver digital signal processing Machine learning


  • Sillekens et al., “An Experimental Comparison of Coded Modulation Strategies for 100 Gbit/s Transceivers”, Journal of Lightwave Technology (2016)
  • Sillekens et al., “A Simple Nonlinearity-Tailored Probabilistic Shaping Distribution for Square QAM”, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018)
  • Sillekens et al., “Experimental Demonstration of Geometrically-Shaped Constellations Tailored to the Nonlinear Fibre Channel”, European Conference on Optical Communication (2018)

Contact email: 

Xianhe Yangzhang 

Xianhe Yangzhang received his BEng degree in Electronic and Information Engineering from Beihang University, China, in 2014. Between 2014 and 2016, he undertook his MSc degree in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany. During his MSc programme, he did his research internship and MSc thesis on Nonlinear Fourier Transform (NFT) and its applications to fibre communication.

He officially joined ONG on 27 September, 2016, his area of work is the further study of NFT and development of a novel coding scheme for fibre communications. He is currently on secondment at Nokia Bell Labs in Stuttgart, until July 2019.

Research interests:
•    Nonlinear Fourier transform and its application to fibre communication 
•    Capacity of fibre channels and networks 


  • M. I. Yousefi and Yangzhang, X. Linear and nonlinear frequency-division multiplexing. In Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Düsseldorf, Germany, Sep 2016. 
  • Yangzhang, X., M. I. Yousefi, A. Alvarado, D. Lavery, and P. Bayvel. Nonlinear frequency-division multiplexing in the focusing regime. In Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, USA, Mar 2017. 
  • Yangzhang, X., D. Lavery, P. Bayvel, and M. Yousefi. Impact of perturbations on nonlinear frequency-division multiplexing (invited). J. Lightw. Technol., 36(2):485–494, Jan 2018. 

Contact email:

Wenting Yi

Wenting Yi
Wenting Yi received the BEng degree in Electronic Information Engineering from Nanjing Forestry University, China, in 2017. The following September, she joined UCL to pursue an MSc in Wireless and Optical Communications. For her thesis, she worked with Dr Robert Killey on low-complexity heterodyne optical coherent transceivers. 

In September 2018, Wenting joined the Optical Networks Group at UCL as a PhD candidate. Under the supervision of Dr Robert Killey and Prof Polina Bayvel, she is currently working on coherent and direct detection optical transceivers for long-haul and short-reach links, focusing on advanced signal formats and digital signal processing. 

Research interests:

  • Coherent and direct detection optical receivers
  • Advanced optical signal formats
  • Optical signal propagation in dispersive nonlinear fibres
  • Long- and ultra-long-haul links, and short reach, metro, access and data-centre links
  • Digital signal processing algorithms, e.g. Kramers-Kronig scheme, digital back propagation, constellation shaping, machine learning

Project title:
Low-complexity high-throughput optical fibre transmission systems

Dr Robert Killey and Prof Polina Bayvel

Huawei Technologies

Contact email: 

Hui Yuan

Hui Yuan
Hui Yuan received his BEng degree in automation from Beijing Jiaotong University and MSc degree in communication networks and signal processing from University of Bristol.

In November 2015, he joined the High Performance Group at University of Bristol to pursue a Phd degree.

In December 2016, he transferred to the Optical Networks Group (ONG) at UCL as a PhD candidate under the supervision of Dr Georgios Zervas. In April 2018, he became a research assistant in ONG and he is currently investigating the performance of SDM-WDM based Data Centre Networks and disaggregated Data Centre Networks.

Research Interests:

  • Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
  • Routing and Spectrum Allocation (RSA) algorithms
  • Data Centre Network Topologies
  • Optically Disaggregated Data Centre Network


  • H. Yuan, M. Furdek, A. Muhammad, A. Saljoghei, L. Wosinska, and G. Zervas, “Space-Division Multiplexing in Data Center Networks: On Multi-Core Fiber Solutions and Crosstalk-Suppressed Resource Allocation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10, 272-288 (2018) 
  • G. Zervas, H. Yuan, A. Saljoghei, Q. Chen and V. Mishra, “Optically disaggregated data centers with minimal remote memory latency: Technologies, architectures, and resource allocation [Invited],” in IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. A270-A285, Feb. 2018.

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Visiting and honorary staff