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1559 5 July Philip II leaves the Netherlands; Margaret of Parma appointed Governess General.

1562 Easter First public Reformed Protestant Sermon in Flanders. Formation of the noble 'League of the Great' under the leadership of William of Orange and Egmont, which heads the opposition against Granvelle.

1564 Withdrawal of Granvelle.

1566 April Presentation of 'Request' by noblemen (bound together by the Oath of the Nobles) to Governess-General; called themselves 'the Beggars' ('Geuzen'), the derogative term used of them by a minister. August-October Iconoclastic Fury

1567 Arrival of the Duke of Alva in the Netherlands, who is appointed Governor-General in December. William of Orange in exile. 1568 5 June Execution of Egmont and Hoorne in Brussels. Summer First military campaign of William of Orange.

1572 1 April Sea Beggars capture Den Briel in Holland. Summer Second military campaign of William of Orange. July William of Orange acclaimed Stadholder by the States of Holland. 23 August Saint Bartholomew's Eve Massacre in France (brings to an end French support for Orange).

1573 12 July Fall of Haarlem. 21 August-8 October Siege of Alkmaar. 29 November Alava replaced by Don Luis de Requesens. 1574 3 October By flooding surrounding lands, the besieged town of Leiden is relieved.

1575 March-April Peace negotations at Breda. 1576 5 March Death of Requesens. November 'Spanish Fury' at Antwerp; Pacification of Ghent. Philip II appoints Don Juan of Austria Governor-General.

1577 23 September Triumphant arrival of Orange in Brussels; States-General starts taking over the government of the Netherlands.

1578 Calvanist coups in most Flemish and Brabantine towns; death of Don Juan; Alexander Farnese of Parma becomes Governor-General.

1579 6 January (Catholic) Union of Arras between Artois and Hainaut. 23 January Union of Utrecht. May-December Peace negotations at Cologne.

1580 15 March Philip II declared Orange an outlaw. 19 September Treaty between the Duke of Anjou and the States-General.

1581 23 January Anjou recognized as 'prince and lord of the Netherlands'. 26 July With the Act of Abjuration the States-General formally renounce Philip II.

1583 17 January 'French Fury' marks failure of the Anjou government.

1584 10 July Assassination of William of Orange at Delft. Farnese reconquers Ypres (Ieper), Bruges and Ghent.

1585 Fall of Brussels. 17 August Fall of Antwerp. 20 August Treaty of Nonesuch between England and the United Provinces.

1586 4 February ##Earl of Leicester appointed Governor and Captain General. 1587 December Departure of Leicester.

1588 Summer Defeat of the ##Spanish Armada.

1590 March Beginning of Dutch reconquest campaign.

1592 Death of Farnese.

1594 Dutch reconquest of Groningen.

1598 Philip II cedes the Spanish Netherlands to his daughter Isabella and his son-in-law Albrecht of Austria.

1609 9 April Twelve Years' Truce.

1621 Resumption of the war; Spanish Netherlands formally reintegrated into Spanish empire.

1629-32 Dutch reconquest of 's-Hertogenbosch and Maastricht by Frederik Hendrik, Maurits' successor.

1647 Frederik Hendrik is succeeded by William II.

1648 Peace of MYŽnster between Spain and the Dutch Republic.