Medieval tales relating the adventures of the legendary English
King Arthur and his court (the Knights of the Round Table). The
stories usually describe a quest for some mysterious object (the
Holy grail, a magical horn, or in the case of the Middle Dutch ##Walewein,
a floating chess board) and emphasize the importance of courtly
of writing that describes a lofty subject in vulgar language or
a mundane topic in very high-flown terms. The tension between content
and style produces a humorous effect. Notable examples of burlesque
in English literature are Samuel Butler's Hudibras (1663-78).
endings on *nouns and *pronouns indicate their grammatical function
in a sentence, e.g. *subject or *object.
volume of manuscripts.
resulting from the blend of two or more existing languages (one
of which is often of European origin) spoken as a native language
by a majority of speakers in a particular region.
variant of a standard language with its own distinctive features
(syntax, lexicon, pronunciation). The use of dialect is often restricted
to informal situations and oral communication.
Term used in the Middle Ages to distinguish the language used by
ordinary people (the 'diet') from the language used by the clergy,
i.e. Latin. We still recognize this form in the English word 'Dutch'.
In time 'Diets' became 'Duits', which means 'German' in modern Dutch.
The term 'Diets' is preserved in the expression 'iemand iets diets
maken' (to explain something to someone).
combination of two vowel sounds within one syllable. The articulation
begins for one vowel sound and then glides towards another. In standard
English, the following words contain diphthongs: 'wide', 'void',
'loud', 'hay', 'no'.
The phenomenon that a reduced form of a word (usually a *pronoun or an *article) is attached to the end of another existing word.
This was very common in Middle Dutch. For instance: 'doedi' for
'doet ghi' (do you). See proclisis.
the dialect spoken in the province of Flanders. Later it was used
to refer to the Dutch language as spoken in Belgium. In 1973, this
term was officially dropped in favour of 'Dutch'. Though the official
language in Flanders, as codified in the Belgian constitution, is
Dutch, many (English language) dictionaries and reference works
still use the term 'Flemish' instead. This is incorrect.
language from which all Germanic languages (including Dutch, English,
German, and the Scandinavian languages) are thought to originate.
Click (@link) [Personal website in English on the different Germanic languages]
to read more about the various languages that make up the Germanic
language family .
explanatory note or translation written in the margin or between
the lines of a text.
term used to refer to the seventeenth century in the Dutch Republic
characterized by a booming economy, colonial expansion (especially
in the East Indies, i.e. present-day Indonesia) and cultural excellence.
It was the age of, among others, the painter Rembrandt van Rijn,
the poet Joost van den Vondel, and the scientists Christiaan Huygens
(invented the pendulum clock and discovered Saturn's moon Titan)
and Anthony Leeuwenhoek (the inventor of the microscope).
the rules and structures used in language to form words and sentences.
Also a book describing these rules and structures.
(especially in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries)
who took a great interest in the culture, philosophy, and literature
of Roman and Greek antiquity. Humanism gave rise to the renaissance
period in Western Europe.
entry in a dictionary.
to the vocabulary (lexicon) of a language.
area that, in the strictest sense, comprises the Netherlands, Belgium
and the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg (Benelux). In practice, it is used
to refer to the Netherlands and Belgium (in particular Flanders).
a text written by hand on parchment. Manuscripts can be illuminated
with colourful miniatures.
Dutch language as it developed between c.1150 and c.1500. Three
important collections of medieval Dutch literature are the so-called
Comburg, Gruuthuse and ##Hulthem codices.
as it developed after c.1500.
as it was spoken and written before c.1150. Unlike Old English (Beowulf,
The Seafarer, The Wanderer, The Battle of Maldon), for instance,
very few Old Dutch sources have been preserved.
piece of specially prepared animal skin (pig, sheep, goat or cow)
on which a text can be written with ink and a quill (goose feather).
The name of the material is derived from the name of the ancient
city of Pergamum in Asia Minor.
spelling that gives a good indication of how a particular word should
be pronounced. This means that one particular sound is represented
by one specific letter or combination of letters. Dutch has a more
phonetic spelling that English. The English spelling is so difficult
to learn because words that look similar on the page are not always
(or no longer) pronounced in the same way. Conversely, words that
sound the same are often spelt in a totally different way. Compare
for instance the spelling and pronunciation of: through, tough,
bough, though. The following sound all the same, but are spelt differently:
there, their, they're.
language that contains words and phrases from two or more languages
and that is used by people who do not share a common language. It
is a corruption of the English word 'business'.
or lines written to try out a new(ly cut) pen (usually made from
a goose feather). The Latin phrase can be translated as: 'a tryout
of the pen'.
phenomenon that a reduced form of a word (usually an article or
preposition) is attached to the beginning of another existing word.
This was very common in Middle Dutch. In modern Dutch we use an
apostrophe to separate the words. For instance: 'tis' for 'dat is'.
weak, unstressed sound which you can hear, for instance, in the
Dutch article 'de' or in the first syllable of the English
word 'ago'. In phonetic transcription it is represented as
the letter 'e' put on its head: /0/.
with an intricate rhyme scheme, consisting of fourteen lines usually
divided into an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines). The sonnet
was very popular in Renaissance literature.
letter or combination of letters added to the end of a word to make
a new word. For example: the suffix '-(t)jes' can turn a Dutch *adjective into an *adverb: 'zacht' (soft) becomes 'zachtjes' (softly). Compare:
'Dit kussen is zacht' (This cushion is soft) and 'Zij spreken zachtjes'
(They speak softly).
The rules of a language relating to how words can be combined into
phrases and sentences, e.g. word order rules.
of the words that exist in a language.