Department for International Development Drivers of Urban Change
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Urban development finance
Informal economy
Labour market
Innovative financial mechanisms
Globalisation & SAPs
Urban - rural interactions
Participatory budgeting
Transparency & Corruption
Community activitism & CBOs
Democracy & empowerment
Participatory processes & tools
Social inclusion
Urban livelihoods
Violence & Human rights
Health Children & Education
Culture & Identity
Shelter & Settlement
City planning
Land tenure
Basic infrastructure
Appropriate technology
Transport & Mobility
Environmental planning
Health hazards & Pollution
Local Agenda 21

Cities are the most intensive and productive forms of accommodating and servicing very large and growing numbers of people at minimum cost; at the same time both urban residents and institutions are deeply involved in processes of housing, infrastructure and settlement production and distribution, that require the full range of planning and management procedures and public-private-social collaborations to sustain them. Five clusters of innovative policies and practices contribute, together with their multiple interrelationships, to the ‘infrastructure and settlements dimension’ of urban development. They are:


Enhancing shelter & settlement management includes measures to encourage slum improvement and neighbourhood rehabilitation for the urban poor, recognising informal shelter and settlement development, making suitable provision for the homeless, and providing the planning frameworks suited to expansion in ‘affordable’ housing.

land tenure

This section includes measures to improve access to land for the poor through appropriate land tenure provisions, titles and regularisation and consolidation procedures, shifting from illegal to informal recognition of settlements to provide security and asset value to poor communities.

basic infrastructure

Efforts to promote public-private-community partnerships for urban service delivery include appropriate operation and maintenance protocols, financial and service guidelines, subsidy and profitability sharing, and community capacity building in provision of basic water, sanitation, waste disposal, electricity and energy sectors.

appropriate technology

Promoting the use of appropriate technology, include the experimentation with new or improved construction techniques, the application of low cost building technology, the use of appropriate materials and the directions of applied research.


Improving urban mobility & transport include innovative schemes for increasing access to public transport, improving quality, reliability and affordability of city bus and rail travel, recognising the role of informal transport modes for the urban poor, and linking transport system development with employment generation and environmental impact measures.

city planning

This section highlights innovative programmes and processes to support integrated infrastructure investment, strategic, participative and responsive urban planning and development schemes, mixed use and compact development incorporating employment and housing meeting the needs of the urban poor, and forms of consultative and empowering ‘peoples planning’ practice.

note: Click on any of the cluster headings to enter the individual clusters and access the pdf files


2003 Development Planning Unit | Sikandar Hasan | Anna Soave | Khanh Tran-Thanh || Tina Simon