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URBAN ENVIRONMENT | environmental planning

Expanding the notion of environmental planning & management, this cluster analyses the mainstreaming of environmental assessment into local municipal policies and programmes, linking environmental planning with poverty reduction and basic service provision, and developing sustainable cities.

quick links

local level city level
  international level websites

local level

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Program for the Protection of the Environment, Cotonou [pdf]

Benin - Pr.A.P.E. helps the Sainte Rita community manage the waste it produces. It trains and employs youths to collect the waste from a total of 2,700 voluntary subscribers (households, organizations), benefiting 80% of the 40,000 total community population.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Experiment for sorting out garbage and recycling in Amman [pdf]

Jordan - The recent population increase experienced by Amman City (capital) has resulted in a number of economic, social and environmental problems. The most important of these problems is related to solid waste, which is becoming a threat to the environment in different parts of the capital. Where the mechanism of disposing off such garbage has become a problem in itself, particularly with the decreasing capacity of dumps. An empirical plan has therefore been made to sort out and recycle garbage. In this connection, one of the most important accomplishments achieved has been the emergence of great interest by the Jordanian public in dealing seriously with this issue.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice -Sustainable Tourism development through Integrated Urban Development,

Egypt - Hemaya NGO in Nuweiba has played a vital role in Solid Waste Management, in its quest to bring the South Sinai municipalities, Association for the Protection of the Environment (A.P.E.) - a well established NGO in Egypt and a pioneer in Solid Waste Management, Hemaya NGO in Nuweiba, A.P.E. Dahab branch, the Bedouins in the area as well as the hotel industry, together to create a financially viable enterprise and a clean environment in the Sinai.

city level

Leitmann Josef (2000 )- Integrating the Environment in Urban Development: Singapore as a Model of Good Practice - World Bank [pdf]

Singapore - How has Singapore managed rapid economic development while enhancing environmental qualityfor its citizens? The answer lies in a variety of good practices that the city-state has employed in both environmental planning and management. This working paper begins by reviewing three historical phases of environmental planning on the island. Then, the current approach to environmental management is presented, consisting of regulatory measures, planning controls, economic incentives, and encouragement of public awareness and participation. Next, specific sets of environmental good practice are elaborated in the fields of land use, transportation, water resource management, waste management, environmental health, air pollution control, nature conservation,noise control, and support for environmental businesses and regional co-operation. Finally, challenges for the future are identified and lessons for environmental planning and management are drawn.

Lia, Navarro (2001) - "Exploring the environmental and political dimensions of poverty: the cases of the cities of Mar del Plata and Necochea-Quequén" - Environment & Urbanization, Vol.13 No.1 - IIED [pdf]

Argentina - This paper presents a framework to show how information drawn from different sources for any city allows the construction of poverty profiles and maps. These not only help local governments to act but they also provide a catalyst for more participatory and integrated approaches to poverty reduction. The paper also gives examples of how this framework was used in two cities in Argentina. The framework brings out the multi-dimensional nature of urban poverty, including environmental and political dimensions which are not made evident by conventional definitions of poverty. The framework also highlights the complex linkages between the different dimensions and how the environmental dimensions (including housing conditions) are not just visible features of poverty but also key 'entry points' through which social, economic and political dimensions can be understood and addressed. Mapping environmental conditions also brings out key social and spatial inequalities.

Lippe, Michael (1999) - Corruption and Environment at the Local Level - Transparency International / IACC [pdf]

Corruption can have a devastating impact on the environment. This paper will examine two instances of corruption in cities. It will describe how urbanization has created serious pressure on the ability of local governments to achieve their fundamental objectives. Finally, it will discuss new thinking on environmental management at the local level and integrity in urban governance. Local governments, using these systems, can reduce corruption, more effectively manage local environmental issues, and better respond to the challenges of urbanization.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Environmental Law: A Tool to Foster Improved Quality of Life, Belo Horizonte [pdf]

Brazil - The sanitary and environmental situation of Minas Gerais, the second most populated state in Brazil, is similar to the rest of the country where over 90% of Brazilian cities lack systems for the treatment or final disposal of urban waste and sanitary sewage. In an effort to minimise the problem, the State Government of Minas Gerais passed a law to distribute part of the state tax/ICMS to areas such as health, education, sanitation and environment.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Post-flood resettlement in the Poyang Lake Region, Jiangxi Province - UN-Habitat [pdf]

China - During the summer of 1998, extraordinarily, severe floods occurred in the middle and lower areas of the Yangtze River. Jiangxi Province was among the worst stricken areas. Faced with this situation, the Chinese Government laid down guidelines for flood control and post-disaster reconstruction. These guidelines focused on restoring the natural flow and flood plains of the river and involved the relocation of human settlements from high-risk areas, while taking advantage of the resettlement to effect universal improvements in the living environment.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Enviro Options (PTY) Ltd, Johannesburg [pdf]

South Africa - The purpose of the initiative was to produce a dry sanitation system which was researched and developed after the experience and work in the field of stabilization of raw sewage using unsorted garbage as a bulking agent. As odour problems were experienced in the process of forced aeration, composting became apparent, the necessity to control this odour problem lead to the production of the micro-biological odour filter.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Eco-city, Johannesburg [pdf]

South Africa - EcoCity has successfully solved environmental problems including poverty, poor environmental management and wasteful production and consumption methods. It tackles poverty by promoting green ways of making and saving money through growing organic food, recycling, repairing bicycles, selling green energy aids and appliances, building ecological homes and starting Eco-tourism enterprises.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Programme to Support Environmental Assessment and Management, Cairo [pdf]

Egypt - Support for Environmental Assessment and Management (SEAM) is a regional programme geared towards strengthening decentralized environmental management and improving environmental planning and services for the poor.

UN-Habitat (2002) - Best Practice - Environmental approach to management of municipal-waste in Tehran [pdf]

Iran - Tehran Municipality produces about 6500 Mg of municipal waste every day. The biggest part (95 %) goes to a landfill site located about 30 km south east of the city. An environmental friendly, cost-effective and ecological sustainability method of the mechanical-biological waste treatment, called the "KAMINZUGVEKFAHREN - SCHW BISCH HALLER MODELL" was introduced in early 2000 on experimental basis.

international level

OECD - Shaping the Urban Environment in the 21st Century: From Understanding to Action [pdf]

This reference manual highlights the potential contribution of sound urban-environment management to both environmental and development goals, or in the words of the Brundtland Commission, to development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".





Documents highlighting DFID's published work in support of environmental planning in urban areas:

"Environmental Tax Redistribution in Minas Gerais" - Allen, Adriana; Nicholas You (2002) – Sustainable Urbanisation: Bridging the Green and Brown Agendas – DPU [pdf]

Brazil - In Minas Gerais, new legislation for the distribution of state revenues to municipalities according to environmental criteria has produced a surge of environmental improvements in many municipalities. The main aim of this 'Ecological State VAT' is to promote
sustainable development by transferring resources to those localities that give priority to the treatment and
final disposal of waste and urban sewage, and to creating conservation areas.

UN-Habitat / DFID (2002) - Sustainable Urbanisation, Achieving Agenda 21 [pdf]

This publication is addressed to stakeholders at all levels, setting out specific promises and challenges of achieving sustainable urbanization. It elaborates on many of the issues raised at the first World Urban Forum that held at UN-HABITAT headquarters in Nairobi in April-May 2002. Sustainable urbanisation is a dynamic multi-dimensional process covering environmental as well as social, economic and political-institutional sustainability. In this document, the main challenges to achieving sustainable urbanisation are identified and recent experiences of promising approaches to planning and managing urban areas reviewed.

2003 Development Planning Unit | Sikandar Hasan | Anna Soave | Khanh Tran-Thanh || Tina Simon