UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health


Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health


Cedric Carter

Professor Cedric Oswald Carter, MA, DM, FRCP (1917-1984)

Professor Cedric Carter was director of the Medical Research Council's Clinical Genetics Unit at the Institute of Child Health, until his retirement in 1982. He died in 1984 at the age of 67. He had an enormous influence on clinical genetics. Not only did he train or influence many of those now practising or teaching clinical genetics in Britain but he was also largely responsible for the network of genetic clinics and centres with consultant posts and for the official recognition of clinical genetics as a separate specialty in the NHS. His influence extended abroad, and he helped to establish clinical genetics in many parts of the world and was awarded several honours.

Cedric Carter developed his interests as research fellow in congenital malformations at the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street in 1948. In 1952, as part time research fellow in genetics, he joined Dr Fraser Roberts when he started the genetic clinic at the hospital. He became a member of the scientific staff of the Medical Research Council's Genetic Unit when this was established in the Institute of Child Health in 1957. He was appointed consultant geneticist at the Hospital for Sick Children in 1958 and at Queen Charlotte's Hospital in 1973.

In 1964 he took over from Dr Fraser Roberts as director of the MRC unit. He was the consultant advisor in genetics to the Department of Health and Social Security from 1972 and professor of clinical genetics in the University of London from 1975 until his retirement.

He founded the Clinical Genetics Society in 1970 and as its first president guided it in the early years. On his retirement the Society honoured his contribution to clinical genetics by establishing The Carter Lecture, the first of which was given in 1984.

Professor Carter's major scientific contributions concerned the common congenital malformations: not only did he contribute greatly to the understanding of genetic influences but he provided the data on which genetic advice is now based. If one traces back to the origin of the figures used for genetic counselling in many of the common congenital malformations, it will turn out to be one of his meticulous family studies. These studies, usually based on a consecutive series of cases presenting at the Hospital for Sick Children, provided reliable data on the incidence of the disorder in first, second and third degree relatives, and allowed him to consolidate the concept of multifactorial inheritance as applied to congenital malformations. A particularly important observation referred to by some as the "Carter Effect" is the higher incidence in relatives when the index case is the least commonly affected sex. This phenomenon was beautifully demonstrated in his study of pyloric stenosis, where the incidence is highest in the sons of affected women and lowest in daughters of affected men.

He wrote over 70 papers reporting original work, over 100 review articles, and over 30 chapters in books, and 3 books.

List of references

Note: Articles with an asterisk indicate copies are held in the Library (PP refers to Papers Published by Medical & Surgical Staff of the Hospital, held in the Librarian's Office).

(1) Deterrents to parenthood. [Letter] Eugen Rev. 1943; 34(4): 141.

(2) Eugenics and family size. [Letter] Eugen Rev. 1945; 37(1): 35.

(3) Maternal states in relation to congenital malformations. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 1950; 57(6): 897-911.

(4) *[and Powell BW] Pyloric stenosis in twins. Arch Dis Child. 1951; 26(125): 45-9. PP 9:57.

(5) *[and MacCarthy DT] Incidence of mongolism and its diagnosis in the newborn. Br J Soc Med 1951; 5(2): 83-90. PP 9:62

(6) *[and Savage TR] Pyloric stenosis in four first cousins. Arch Dis Child 1951; 26(125): 50-51. PP 9:64.

(7) *Genetics and preventive medicine. Public Health 1951; 65(1): 10-13. PP 9:63

(8) [and Tizard JPM] Congenital Malformations [Letter]. Br Med J 1951; 1(4701): 301-302.

(9) Congenital malformations. Eugen Rev. 1951; 43(2): 83-93. 

(10) [and Bodian M, Ward BC] Hirschsprung's disease. Lancet. 1951; 1(6650): 302-9.

(11) [and Reinhold JD, Neumark E, Lightwood R] Familial hypoplastic anemia with congenital abnormalities (Fanconi's syndrome). Blood. 1952; 7(9): 915-26.

(12) [and Bodian M, White LL, Louw JH] Congenital duodenal obstruction and mongolism. Br Med J. 1952; 1(4749): 77-9.

(13) Differential fertility in 1951. Eugen Rev. 1953; 45(2): 101-3.

(14) *Heredity. In Gaisford W and Lightwood R. Paediatrics for the Practitioner. Vol.1. London: Butterworths, 1953, pp.159-179. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(15) *The alimentary system. In Sorsby A [Ed.] Clinical Genetics. London: Butterworths, 1953. pp.398-422. [Librarian's Office]

(16) [and Evans K] Care and disposal of mongolian defectives. Lancet. 1954; 267(6845): 960-3.

(17) [and MacCarthy D] The third fontanelle. The Lancet 1954; 263(6810): 522

(18) *[and Powell BW] Two-generation pyloric stenosis. Lancet 1954; 266(6815): 746-748. PP 12:31

(19) *[and Simpkiss MJ] The "carrier" state in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Lancet 1956; (): 1069-1073 PP 14:58

(20) *The aetiology of congenital malformations. Med Press 1956; ?: 417-419. PP 14:57

(21) *Changing patterns in the causes of death at the Hospital for Sick Children. Great Ormond St J 1956; (11): 65-68. [Librarian's Office]

(22) *[and Heslop B] ABO blood groups and bronchopneumonia in children. Br J Prev Soc Med 1957; 11(4): 214-216. PP 15:36

(23) [and Simpkiss MJ] The carrier state in sex-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Acta Genet Stat Med 1957; 7(1): 111-113.

(24) *[and Sweetnam R] Familial joint laxity and recurrent dislocation of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1958; 40-B(4): 664-667. PP 16:3

(25) *A life-table for mongols with the causes of death. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research 1958; 2(2): 64-74. PP 16:4

(26) Three surveys of promising families. Eugen Rev. 1958; 50(3): 159-67.

(27) Human demands in industry. [Letter] Eugen Rev. 1958; 50(2): 151.

(28) *[and Barrie H, Sutcliffe J] Multiple epiphysial dysplasia. BMJ. 1958; 2: 133-37. PP 15:35

(29) *[and Harris H] Experimental and human genetics. In Holzel A and Tizard JP (Eds) Modern trends in paediatrics (2nd series) London: Butterworths, 1958, pp.16-40. [Held in the Besser Collection]

(30) *[and Sheldon W, Walker, C] The inheritance of coeliac disease. Ann Hum Genet 1959; 23 (3 ): 266-278.

(31) Heredity and congenital malformations. Practitioner 1959; 183: 144-151.

(32) *[and Hamerton JL, Polani PE, Gunalp A, Weller SD] Chromosome translocation as a cause of familial mongolism. Lancet 1960; 2(7152): 678-680. PP 18:6

(33) *[and Sweetnam R] Recurrent dislocation of the patella and of the shoulder. Their association with familial joint laxity. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1960; 42-B(4): 721-727. PP 18:8 

(34) *[and Dundson MI, Huntley RM] Upper end of range of intelligence in mongolism. Lancet. 1960; 1(7124): 565-8. PP 17:3

(35) *[and Wilkinson J] Congenital dislocation of the hip; the results of conservative treatment. J Bone Joint Surg. 1960; 42B: 669-88. PP 18:7

(36) The inheritance of congenital pyloric stenosis. Br Med Bull 1961; 17(3): 251-254.

(37) *Genetic in orthopaedics. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1961; 43-B(2): 217-219. PP 18:5.

(38) *[and Woolf LI] The birthplaces of parents and grandparents of a series of patients with phenylketonuria in in south-east England. Ann Hum Genet 1961; 25(1): 57-64. PP 18:9

(39) *[and Evans K] Risk of parents who have had one child with Down's syndrome (mongolism) having another child similarly affected. Lancet 1961; (7206):785-788. PP 19:4

(40) Genetic factors in pyloric stenosis. Proc R Soc Med. 1961; 54: 453-4.

(41) [and Allen G, Benda CE, Ford CE, Chu EH, Hanhart E, Jervis G, Langdon-Down W, Lejeune J, Nishimura H, Oster J, Penrose LS, Polani PE, Potter EL, Stern C, Turpin R, Warkany J, Yannet H] Mongolism. [Letter] Am J Hum Genet. 1961; 13(4): 426.

(42) [and Hamerton JL, Briggs SM, Gianelli F] Chromosome studies in detection of parents with high risk of second child with Down's syndrome. Lancet. 1961; 2(7206): 788-91.

(43) Promising families: some conclusions. Eugen Rev. 1961; 52(4): 197-200. 

(44) Changing patterns of differential fertility in northwest Europe and in North America. Eugen Q. 1962; 9: 147-150.

(45) Human genetics and public health. Cereb Palsy Bull 1962; 4: 78-?

(46) *Human heredity. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1962. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(47) *[and Holland WW, Doll R] The mortality from leukaemia and other cancers among patients with Down's syndrome (mongols) and among their parents. Br J Cancer. 1962; 16: 177-86. PP 19:5

(48) *[and Bodian M] A family study of Hirschsprung's disease. Ann Hum Genet. 1963; 26: 261-77. PP 20:5

(49) *[and others] The prevalence of respiratory disease in heterozygotes for the gene for fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. Lancet. 1963; 1: 1348-50. PP 20:9

(50) *[and Wilson KM, Clayton BE] Aldolase activity in the plasma or serum of normal children and families with muscular dystrophy. Arch Dis Child 1963; 38: 208-214. PP 20:14.

(51) *Chromosomes and congenital malformations. Practitioner 1963; 191: 129-135. PP 20:8

(52) Genetic factors in congenital dislocation of the hip. Proc R Soc Med 1963; 56 (9): 803-804.

(53) [and Leys DG, Sammarco B, Currie PA, Caunce H, Maxwell CM, Swift PN] Mothers at work: a study of the health of primary school children carried out for the Kent Paediatric and Child Health Society. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1963; 17: 145-8.

(54) [and Hamerton JL, Giannelli F] A family showing transmission of a d/d reciprocal translocation and a case of regular 21-trisomic down's syndrome. Cytogenetics. 1963;25:194-207. 

(55) *Clinical genetics. In Wilkinson AW [Ed.] Recent Advances in Paediatric Surgery. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1963. pp.1-18. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(56) *Incidence and aetiology. In Norman AP [Ed.] Congenital abnormalities in infancy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1963. pp.1-20. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(57) Genetic counselling and looking to the future. J Coll Gen Pract. 1964; 8 Suppl 2: 57-66.

(58) [and Zoethout HE, Carter RE] A family study of aortic stenosis. J Med Genet. 1964; 55: 2-9.

(59) The home and the school: A review. Eugen Rev. 1964; 56(2) :93-6.

(60) [and Davis JC, Wade AP, Wilkinson GS, Smithells RW, Clarke CA, Sheppard PM] Steroid excretion of dehydroepiandrosterone in young mothers of mongols. Lancet. 1964; 1(7337): 782-5.

(61) *[and Wilkinson JA] Genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of congenital dislocation of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1964; 33: 119-28. PP 21:8

(62) *[and Wilkinson J] Persistent joint laxity and congenital dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg. 1964; 46B: 40-45. PP 21:9

(63) [and Davis JC et al] Steroid excretion of dehydroepiandrosterone in young mothers of mongols. Lancet. 1964; 1: 782-85.

(64) *The genetics of common malformations. In International Medical Congress Ltd. Second International Conference on Congenital Malformations: Papers and Discussions Presented at the Second International Conference on Congenital Malformations, New York City, July 14-19, 1963. New York: International Medical Congress Ltd 1964, pp. 306-313. [Held in UCL Store]

(65) Genetics and heredity. In Rob C, Smith R [Eds.] Clinical Surgery. Vol.1. General Principles and Breast. London: Butterworths, 1964. pp.272-77.

(66) *[and Wilson KM, Evans KA] Creatine kinase levels in women who carry genes for three types of muscular dystrophy. Br Med J. 1965; 1(5437): 750-3. PP 22:5

(67) [and Polani PE, Hamerton JL, Gianelli F] Cytogenetics of Down's syndrome (Mongolism). 2. The frequency of interchange of trisomy in patients born at a maternal age of less than 30 years. Cytogenetics. 1965; 104: 186-192.

(68) [and Polani PE, Hamerton JL, Gianelli F] Cytogenetics of Down's syndrome (Mongolism). 3. Frequency of interchange of trisomics and mutation rate of chromosome interchanges. Cytogenetics. 1965; 104: 193-206.

(69) The inheritance of common congenital malformations. Prog Med Genet. 1965; 4: 59-84. 

(70) *Genetics of spina bifida. In National Fund for Research into Poliomyeltis and Other Crippling Diseases. Proceedings of a Symposium on Spina Bifida Held at the Apothecaries' Hall, City of London on 11 June 1965. London: The Fund, 1965. [Copy held at Institute of Neurology]

(71) *[and Schutta HS, Pratt RT, Metz H, Evans KA] A family study of the late infantile and juvenile forms of metachromatic leucodystrophy. J Med Genet. 1966; 3(2): 86-91. PP 23:17

(72) *Genetic errors of sex development. Proc R Soc Med. 1966; 59 (5): 395. PP 23:16

(73) The population explosion. (Letter) Eugen Rev. 1966; 58(1): 53-4. 

(74) *Genetics of spina bifida. In Proceedings of a Symposium on Spina Bifida, Held at The Apothecaries' Hall, City of London, on 11 June 1965 under the Auspices of the National Fund for Research into Poiliomyelitis & Other Crippling Diseases. London: Action for the Crippled Child, 1966. Section 3. [Shelved in the Moncrieff Cabinet]

(75) Risk to offspring of incest. Lancet. 1967; 1: 436.

(76) Congenital malformations. WHO Chron. 1967; 21(7):287-92. 

(77) *[and Roberts JA] The risk of recurrence after two children with central-nervous-system malformations. Lancet. 1967; 1(7485): 306-8. PP 24:12

(78) Genetical aspects of cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Bibl Paediatr. 1967; 86: 372-80.

(79) [and Laurence KM, David PA] The genetics of the major central nervous system malformations, based on the South Wales socio-genetic investigation. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1967; Suppl 13:30-4.

(80) Clinical aspects of genetics, the genetics of common malformations and diseases. Trans Med Soc Lond. 1967; 83:84-91. 

(81) An introduction to biochemical genetics. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1967; 1: 167-76.

(82) The general aetiology of disorders of the skeleton. In Lloyd-Roberts, GC [Ed.] Clincial Surgery; 13: Orthopaedics. London: Butterworths, 1967.

(83) Genetical aspects of cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. In Rossi E, Stoll E [Eds.] Modern Problems in Pediatrics. Vol.10. Part 1. Cystic Fibrosis: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Cystic Fibrosis of the Pancreas, 1966. Basel: Karger, 1967.

(84) *The genetics of congenital malformations. Proc R Soc Med. 1968; 61(10): 991-5. PP 26:23

(85) *[and Laurence KM, David PA] Major central nervous system malformations in South Wales. I. Incidence, local variations and geographical factors. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1968; 22(3): 146-60. PP 26:21

(86) *[and Laurence KM, David PA] Major central nervous system malformations in South Wales. II. Pregnancy factors, seasonal variation, and social class effects. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1968; 22(4): 212-22. PP 26:22

(87) *Genetics today. Public Health. 1968; 82(5): 199-211. PP 26:19

(88) *[and David PA, Laurence KM] A family study of major central nervous system malformations in South Wales. J Med Genet. 1968; 5(2): 81-106. PP 25:15

(89) *Summation of sessions on the skeleton. Birth Defects. 1969; 5: 383-6. PP 27:30

(90) *[and Evans KA] Inheritance of congenital pyloric stenosis. J Med Genet. 1969; 6(3): 233-54. PP 27:31

(91) Heredity - the tricks it plays. Nurs Mirror Midwives J. 1969; 129(6): 36-7.

(92) *Genetic counselling. Med Clin North Am. 1969; 53(4): 991-9. PP 27:26

(93) Genetic counselling. Lancet. 1969; 1(7609): 1303-5.

(94) Polygenic inheritance and common diseases. Lancet. 1969; 1(7608): 1252-6.

(95) The frequency of conditions due to mutant genes of large effect. Lancet. 1969; 1(7607): 1203-6.

(96) The genes. Lancet. 1969; 1(7605): 1087-90. 

(97) An ABC of medical genetics. II. Chromosomes and chromosome mutations. Lancet. 1969; 1(7604): 1041-5.

(98) Genetics in the aetiology of disease. Lancet. 1969; 1(7603): 1014-6.

(99) [and Laurence KM] Anencephalus and spina bifida. Br Med J. 1969 May 10;2(5653):381.

(100) Diastrophic dwarfism. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1969; 11(2): 247-8.

(101) *[and Wilson DW, Chrispin AR] Diastrophic dwarfism. Arch Dis Child. 1969 Feb;44(233):48-58. PP 26:20

(102) *Genetics of common disorders. Br Med Bull. 1969; 25(1): 52-7. PP 26:18

(103) *Spina bifida and anencephaly: a problem in genetic-environmental interaction. J Biosoc Sci. 1969 Jan;1(1):71-83. PP 27:29

(104) *An ABC of medical genetics. London: The Lancet, 1969 [Held in the Moncrieff Cabinet; articles reprinted from The Lancet, 17 May to 28 June 1969, with two additional chapters]

(105) *Clinical genetics. In Wilkinson AW [Ed.] Recent Advances in Paediatric Surgery. 2nd ed. London: Churchill, 1969. pp.1-8. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(106) *Antenatal paediatrics by amniocentesis. Arch Dis Child. 1970; 45: 157-8. PP 27:25

(107) *[and Bundey S, Soothill JF] Early recognition of heterozygotes for the gene for dystrophia myotonica. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1970; 33: 279-93. PP 27:22

(108) Genetics of polycystic diseases of kidney. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1970; 6(3): 11-2. 

(109) Ethnic origin and neural tube malformations. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1970; 12: 372-3.

(110) *Multifactorial inheritance revisited. In Fraser FC, McKusick VA [Eds.] Congenital Malformations: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, 7-13 September 1969. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1970. pp.227-32. PP 27:27 [Copy also held in UCL Store]

(111) Common malformations. In Fraser FC, McKusick VA [Eds.] Congenital Malformations: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, 7-13 September 1969. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1970. pp.381.

(112) *Prospects in genetic counselling. In Emery AE [Ed.] Modern Trends in Human Genetics, 1. London: Butterworths, 1970. PP 27:28 [Copy also held in UCL Store]

(113) Genetic cripples. (Letter) Br Med J. 1971; 2(5755): 222.

(114) [Genetics of common malformations]. Cesk Pediatr. 1971; 26(4): 169-72. 

(115) [and Slack J, Myant NB] Genetics of hyperlipoproteinaemias. Lancet. 1971; 1(7695): 400-1. 

(116) *[and Roberts JA, Evans KA, Buck AR] Genetic clinic. A follow-up. Lancet. 1971; 1(7693): 281-5. PP 28:9

(117) [and Vowles M, Evans K et al] Hormonal pregnancy tests and neural tube malformations. Nature. 1971; 233: 495-6.

(118) *Practical aspects of early diagnosis. In Harris M [ed] Early Diagnosis of Human Genetic Defects (Fogarty International Center Proceedings, No.6). USGPO, 1971. PP 29:21

(119) Genetic counselling. In Berg JM [Ed.] Genetic Counselling in Relation to Mental Retardation. Symposium No.2. Oxford: Pergamon, 1971.

(120) *Genetics of common malformations. In Gairdner D, Hull D [Eds.] Recent Advances in Paediatrics. No.4. London: Churchill, 1971. pp.527-557.  [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(121) *Incidence and aetiology. In Norman AP [Ed.] Congenital Abnormalities in Infancy. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1971. pp.1-24. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(122) *Genetics of hyperlipoproteinemias. Birth Defects. 1972; 8: 217-19. PP 29:18

(123) *Genetics of infantile pyloric stenosis. Birth Defects. 1972; 8: 12-14. PP 29:19

(124) Genetic counselling. Health. 1972; 9: 28-31.

(125) Genetic counselling. Health Trends. 1972; 4: 27-29.

(126) [and Bundey S, Soothill JF] Immunoglobulin levels in dystrophia myotonica. Monogr Hum Genet. 1972; 6: 182.

(127) Genetics and disease. Sci Proc Cardiff Med Soc. 1972-1973: 1-8.

(128) [and Bundey S] Early-onset dystrophia myotonica. Lancet. 1972; 2(7772): 336-7. 

(129) *[and Bundey S] Genetic heterogeneity for dystrophia myotonica. J Med Genet. 1972; 9(3): 311-5. PP 29:13

(130) *Genetic counselling: principles and prospects. In de Grouchy J, Ebling FJ [Eds.] Human Genetics: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Human Genetics, Paris, 1971. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1972. PP 29:16 [Copy also held in UCL Store]

(131) *Genetic counselling. Documenta Geigy - Clinical Genetics. 1972. pp.4-5. PP 29:17

(132) *The Galton Lecture 1971: The new eugenics? In Cox PR, Peel J [Eds.] Population and Pollution (Symposium of the Eugenics Society 1971). New York: Academic Press, 1972. PP 29:20 [Copy also held in UCL Store]

(133) *The treatment of genetically determined disorders and the effect of current policies on population eugenics. In Patient, Doctor, Society: A Symposium of Introspections. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972. PP 29:22 

(134) *Sex-linkage and sex-limitation. In Ounsted C, Taylor DC [Eds.] Gender Differences, Their Onogeny and Significance. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1972. [Copy held at UCL Institute of Neurology]

(135) *Biosocial aspects of life in Britain. Nature and distribution of genetic abnormalities. J Biosoc Sci. 1973; 5(2): 261-72. PP 30:21

(136) Cleidocranial dysostosis in the Iliad. Lancet. 1973; 2: 323.

(137) *[and Evans K] Spina bifida and anencephalus in Greater London. J Med Genet. 1973; 10(3): 209-34. PP 30:23

(138) *[and Pearn JH, Wilson J] The genetic identity of acute infantile spinal muscular atrophy. Brain. 1973; 96(3): 463-70. PP 30:98

(139) *[and Evans K] Children of adult survivors with spina bifida cystica. Lancet. 1973; 2(7835): 924-6. PP 30:22

(140) Prenatal diagnosis - prospects, administration and ethics. Pediatr Res. 1973; 7: 56 [Abstract]

(141) *Genetics and disease. In Scientific Proceedings of the Cardiff Medical Society, 9 January 1973. PP 30:20

(142) Multifactorial genetic disease. In McKusick VA, Claiborne R [Eds.] Medical Genetics. New York: HP Publishing Company, 1973.

(143) The skeletal system. In Sorsby A [Ed.] Clinical Genetics. 2nd ed. London: Butterworths, 1973.

(144) *Current status of genetic counselling and its assessment. In Motulsky AG, Lentz W [Eds.] Birth Defects: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, Vienna, 1973. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1973. pp.277-80. PP 31:17 [Copy also held in UCL Store]

(145) *The management of spina bifida cystica. In Motulsky AG, Lentz W [Eds.] Birth Defects: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, Vienna, 1973. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1973. pp.293-5. PP 31:20 [Copy also held in UCL Store]

(146) *Genetic factors in coronary heart disease. Acta Cardiologica. 1974; Suppl.20: 27-35. PP 31:19

(147) *Polycystic disease presenting in childhood. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1974; 10: 16-21. PP 31:21

(148) *Recurrence risk of common congenital malformations. Practitioner. 1974; 213(1277): 667-74. PP 31:23

(149) *Public health aspects of prenatal diagnosis. Proc R Soc Med. 1974; 67(12 Pt 1): 1257-8. PP 31:22

(150) *Clues to the aetiology of neural tube malformations. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1974; 16(6 Suppl 32): 3-15. PP 31:16

(151) *[and Evans K, Hickman V] Handicap and social status of adults with spina bifida cystica. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1974; 28(2): 85-92. PP 31:35

(152) *[and Bundey S] Recurrence risks in severe undiagnosed mental deficiency. J Ment Defic Res. 1974; 18(2): 115-34. PP 31:13

(153) Genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Midwives Chron. 1974; 87(34): 88-90.

(154) *[and Fairbank TJ] The genetics of locomotor disorders. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(155) *Family planning and population quality. In Parry HB [Ed.] Population and its Problems: A Plain Man's Guide. London: Clarendon Press, 1974. PP 31:18 [Copy also held in UCL Store]

(156) *Genetics. In Davis JA, Dobbing J [Eds.] Scientific Foundations of Paediatrics. London: Heinemann, 1974. pp.1-21. [Moncireff Cabinet]

(157) *Genetics and incidence of cystic fibrosis. Physiotherapy. 1975; 61(8): 240-2. PP 32:18

(158) [and Evans KA, Campbell S] Letter: Neural-tube malformations in offspring of spina-bifida patients. Lancet. 1975 Mar 22; 1(7908): 685.

(159) [and Marshall WA] Child on mid-parent regression for full adult stature. Ann Hum Biol. 1975; 2: 307.

(160) *Clinical genetics. In Wilkinson AW [Ed.] Recent Advances in Paediatric Surgery, 3. pp.1-10. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1975. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(161) *Genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis for conditions other than chromosomal anomalies. Inserm Symposium. 1976; 61: 17-22. PP 33:21

(162) *Genetics of common congenital malformations in man. Proc R Soc Med. 1976; 69(1): 38-40. PP 33:22

(163) *Genetics of common single malformations. Br Med Bull. 1976; 32(1): 21-6. PP 33:23

(164) *[and Dennis NR, Evans K, Clayton B] Use of creatine kinase for detecting severe X-linked muscular dystrophy carriers. Br Med J. 1976; 2(6035): 577-9. PP 33:43

(165) *Factors determining the birth frequency of recessive conditions-a high frequency of classical phenylketonuria in Ireland. Ir Med J. 1976; 69(15): 386-9. PP 33:20

(166) *[and Evans KA, Till K] Spinal dysraphism: genetic relation to neural tube malformations. J Med Genet. 1976; 13(5): 343-50. PP 33:26

(167) *Risks of miscarriage after amniocentesis. J Med Genet. 1976; 13(5): 351. PP 33:25

(168) *An ABC of medical genetics. 3rd impression, revised. London: The Lancet, 1976 [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(169) *[with Peel J, Eds] Equalities and Inequalities in Health: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Symposium of the Eugenics Society, London 1975. London: Academic Press, 1976. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(170) *Diseases of bone in search of an inborn error. In Bickel H, Stern J [Eds.] Inborn Errors of Calcium and Bone Metabolism. (Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Symposium No.12). Lancaster: MTP, 1976. pp.214-221. PP 33:19 [Copy also held in Moncrieff Cabinet]

(171) *The global incidence of genetic disease. In Carter CO, Peel J [Eds.] Equalities and Inequalities in Health: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Symposium of the Eugenics Society, London, 1975. London: Academic Press, 1976. pp.1-12. PP 33:24 [Copy also held in Moncrieff Cabinet]

(172) *Familial aggregation of ischaemic heart disease. In National Heart and Lung Institute. Task Force on Genetic Factors in Atherosclerosis Diseases. December 1974, March 1975. Bethesda: US Department of Health Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institute of Health, 1976. (DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-922). PP 32:17

(173) *The genetic basis of inequality. In Atkinson AB [Ed.] The Personal Distribution of Incomes. London: Allen & Unwin, 1976. [Copy held in UCL Store]

(174) *Genetics in relation to urology. In Williams DI, Chisholm GD [Eds.] Scientific Foundations of Urology. Vol.1. London: Heinemann, 1976. pp.357-365. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(175) Congenital disease of late onset. In Finch ES [Ed.] The Effects of the Environment on Cells and Tissues. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1976.

(176) Genetic approach to the investigation of disease syndromes. In Dumonde DC [Ed.] Infection and Immunology in the Rheumatic Diseases. Oxford: Blackwell, 1976.

(177) *Principles of polygenic inheritance. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1977; 13(3A): 69-74. PP 34:15

(178) *[and Ash P, Vennart J] The incidence of hereditary disease in man. Lancet. 1977; 1(8016): 849-51. PP 34:2

(179) *Monogenic disorders. J Med Genet. 1977; 14(5): 316-20. PP 34:14

(180) [and Ash P, Vennart J] The incidence of hereditary disease in man. J Med Genet. 1977; 14(5): 305-6.

(181) An introduction to medical genetics. Paediatrician. 1977; 6: 324-30.

(182) The epidemiology of cystic fibrosis. Rec Adelaide Child Hosp. 1977; 1(2): ?

(188) Genetic disorders: the future. Rec Adelaide Child Hosp. 1977; 1(2): ?

(189) Human Heredity. 3nd ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.

(190) *The aetiology of the common congenital malformations. In Szabo G, Papp Z [Eds.] Medical Genetics. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1977. pp.401-9. PP 34:12

(191) *Genetics of common diseases. In Inouye E, Nishmura H [Eds.] Gene-Environment Interaction in Common Diseases. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1977. pp.108-18. PP 34:13

(192) *The relative contribution of mutant genes and chromosome abnormalities to genetic ill-health in man. In Scott D, Bridges BA, Sobels FH [Eds.] Progress in Genetic Toxicology. Elsevier/North-Holland Press, 1977. pp.1-14. PP 34:16

(193) *[and Smith I, Wolff OH] Birthweight of infants with phenylketonuria and their unaffected siblings. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1978; 1(3): 99-100. PP 35:163

(194) Major mental handicap: methods and costs of prevention. Chairman's introduction. Ciba Found Symp. 1978; (59): 1-2.

(195) [and Smith I, Wolff OH] Heterozygote advantage for the phenylketonuria allele. J Med Genet. 1978;15(3): 246-8.

(196) *[and Dennis NR] Use of overlapping normal distributions in genetic counselling. J Med Genet. 1978; 15(2): 106-8. PP 35:34

(197) *[and Gewitz M, Dinwiddie R, Yuille T, Hill F] Cleft palate and accessory metacarpal of index finger syndrome: possible familial occurrence. J Med Genet. 1978; 15(2): 162-4. PP 35:71

(198) *[and de Vargas A, Evans K, Ransley P, Rosenberg AR, Rothwell D, Sherwood T, Williams DI, Barratt TM] A family study of vesicoureteric reflux. J Med Genet. 1978; 15(2): 85-96. PP 35:36

(199) *Genetic counselling. Br J Hosp Med. 1978; 19(6): 557-62. PP 35:19

(200) *[and Pearn J, Bundley S, Wilson J, Gardner-Medwin D, Walton JN] A genetic study of subacute and chronic spinal muscular atrophy in childhood. A nosological analysis of 124 index patients. J Neurol Sci. 1978; 37(3): 227-48. PP 35:145

(201) *Sex differences in the distribution of physical illness in children. Soc Sci Med. 1978; 12(3B): 163-6. PP 35:20

(202) Genetics. In Fry J et al [Eds.] Scientific Foundations of Family Medicine. London: Heinemann, 1978.

(203) *[and Marshall WA] The genetics of adult stature. In Falkner F, Tanner JM [Eds.] Human Growth. Vol.1. Principles and Prenatal Growth. London: Bailliere, 1978. pp.299-305. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(204) *Carrier detection in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Lancet. 1979; 1(8123): 979. PP 36:25

(205) *[and Evans K, Pescia G] A family study of renal agenesis. J Med Genet. 1979; 16(3): 176-88. PP 36:27

(206) [and Evans K] Counselling and Huntington's chorea. Lancet. 1979; 2(8140): 470-1.

(207) *[and Warren J, Evans K] Offspring of patients with tracheo-oesophageal fistula. J Med Genet. 1979; 16(5): 338-40. PP 36:166

(208) *Recent advances in genetic counselling. Nurs Times. 1979; 75(42): 1795-8. PP 36:26

(209) [Methodology and effectiveness of genetic counseling]. Pediatr Pol. 1980; 55(1): 49-55.

(210) [and Pembury M] Risk of recurrence of Down syndrome. Lancet. 1980; 1(8158): 49.

(211) *[and Ives E, Coffey R] A family study of bladder exstrophy. J Med Genet. 1980; 17(2): 139-41. PP 37:83

(212) [and Mellows HJ, Pryse-Davies J, Bennett MJ] The camptomelic syndrome in two female siblings. Clin Genet. 1980; 18(2): 137-41.

(213) *[and Evans K, Warren J] The grandchildren of patients with pyloric stenosis. J Med Genet. 1980; 17(6): 411-5. PP 37:29

(214) *Clinical genetics. In Recent Progress in Perinatal Medicine and Prevention of Congenital Anomaly. IYC Commemorative International Congress, Tokyo, October 1979. Japan: Medical Information Services, 1980. pp.233-41. PP 37:28 

(215) *Possible future developments in the management of inborn metabolic disorders. In Ellis R [Ed.] Inborn Errors of Metabolism. London: Croom Helm, 1980. pp.95-7. [Moncrieff Cabinet]

(216) [and Evans K] Birth frequency of bilateral renal agenesis. J Med Genet. 1981; 18(2): 158.

(217) [and Howard FM, Candy DC, Harries JT] A family study of protracted diarrhoea in infancy. J Med Genet. 1981; 18(2): 81-6.

(218) *[and Evans K, Hickman V] Children of those treated surgically for Hirschsprung's disease. J Med Genet. 1981; 18(2): 87-90. PP 38:36

(219) *[and Howard FM, Till K] A family study of hydrocephalus resulting from aqueduct stenosis. J Med Genet. 1981; 18(4): 252-55. PP 38:99

(220) When is familial genetic? Clin Gastroenterol. 1982; 11(1): 3-15.

(221) Role of the clinical geneticist. Lancet. 1982; 2(8289): 106.

(222) Genetics of severe congenital deafness. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1982; 24(4): 525-6. 

(223) Children born as a result of incest. Br Med J. 1981; 282: 250.

(224) [and Evans K, Coffey R, Roberts JA, Buck A, Roberts MF] A three generation family study of cleft lip with or without cleft palate. J Med Genet. 1982; 19(4): 246-61.

(225) [and Till K, Fraser V, Coffey R] A family study of craniosynostosis, with probable recognition of a distinct syndrome. J Med Genet. 1982; 19(4): 280-5.

(226) [and Evans K, Coffey R, Roberts JA, Buck A, Roberts MF] A family study of isolated cleft palate. J Med Genet. 1982; 19(5): 329-31. 

(227) Genetic and aetiological implications. In Goldman MJ [Ed.] Paediatric Cardiology. Vol.4. World Congress, London 1980. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1981. pp.723-5.

(228) *Genetic conditions. In Duncan AS, Dunstan GR, Welbourn RS [Eds.] Dictionary of Medical Ethics. 2nd ed. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1981. pp.181-6. [Quick-Ref]

(229) *Genetic registers. In Duncan AS, Dunstan GR, Welbourn RS [Eds.] Dictionary of Medical Ethics. 2nd ed. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1981. p.190. [Quick-Ref]

(230) *Genetics. In Davis JA, Dobbing J [Eds.] Scientific Foundations of Paediatrics. 2nd ed. London: Heinemann, 1981. pp.1-22. [West Cabinet]

(231) [and Evans KA, Baraitser M] Effect of genetic counselling on the prevalence of Huntington's chorea. Br Med J. 1983; 286(6361): 281-3.

(232) [and Baraitser M, Brett EM] A new alopecia/mental retardation syndrome. J Med Genet. 1983; 20(1): 64-5.

(233) [and Hickman V, Evans K] Pyloric stenosis: children vs sibs. J Med Genet. 1983; 20(2): 155-6.

(234) Developments in human reproduction and their eugenic, ethical implications. Eugenic implications of new techniques. Proc Annu Symp Eugen Soc. 1983; 19: 205-11.

(235) The genetics of urinary tract malformations. J Genet Hum. 1984; 32(1): 23-9.

(236) Education of the public in relation to genetic counseling. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1985; 163C: 327-30.