Featured Research

Directional migration of neural crest cells explained

How the cells move in an embryo from their original location to their final destination has fascinated biologists for centuries. The classical view is that directional cell migration depends on a chemoattractant gradient that is followed by the migratory cells. However, not many chemoattractants have been found so far.

The latest UCL study led by Dr Roberto Mayor, UCL Cell and Developmental Biology, published in Nature, propose an alternative mechanism for directional cell migration.

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Fig8.jpg Cells typically produce localized protrusions which help them navigate their environment. When two cells meet, they normally retract their protrusions and change their direction of movement, effectively ‘repelling’ one another. This phenomenon, called Contact Inhibition of Locomotion, was first discovered 50 years ago in a UCL laboratory experiment, and its failure was thought to contribute to the malignant invasion of cancer. But it took up to now to witness the process in action and pin down the mechanism. The team led by Dr Roberto Mayor has captured the phenomenon ‘in vivo’ – in living tissue – and has identified the mechanism by which it works, suggesting possible new targets for future cancer therapies.

Dr Roberto Mayor says: “Contact inhibition of locomotion was first discovered by UCL Professor Michael Abercrombie more than 50 years ago, when he saw fibroblast cells under the microscope confront each other, retract their protrusions and change direction on contact. The failure of cells to repulse each other in this way was thought to play a role in the spread of cancer.”

“However, until now the molecular basis of this process and whether it also occurred within the body was unknown. Our study of neural crest cells shows that these cells behave in exactly this way.

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When two migrating neural crest cells meet, they stop, collapse their protrusions and change direction. However, when a neural crest cell meets another cell type, it fails to behave as expected and instead invades the other tissue, in the same manner as metastatic cancer cells which migrate and go on to cause secondary tumours.”

“Inhibition of a type of cell signalling - non-canonical Wnt signalling – is behind this behaviour, cancelling the normal repulsion you would expect between cells. Our work proposes a new mechanism for directional migration of neural crest cells that could also operate during cancer metastasis, and reveal a new function of the Wnt signalling”

Read the publication: Letters to Nature

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Page last modified on 18 jun 10 16:09