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2 new papers co-authored by CDB's Dr Gerold Baier published by Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience and Network Neuroscience

15 November 2017

Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. Even when using the same stimulation parameters in the same patient, wide variability in the duration of transient response has been reported. These transients have long been considered important for the mapping of the excitability levels in the epileptic brain but their dynamic mechanism is still not well understood. To investigate the occurrence of abnormal transients dynamically, we use a thalamo-cortical neural population model of epileptic spike-wave activity and study the interaction between slow and fast subsystems. In a reduced version of the thalamo-cortical model, slow wave oscillations arise from a fold of cycles (FoC) bifurcation. This marks the onset of a region of bistability between a high amplitude oscillatory rhythm and the background state. In vicinity of the bistability in parameter space, the model has excitable dynamics, showing prolonged rhythmic transients in response to suprathreshold pulse stimulation. We analyse the state space geometry of the bistable and excitable states, and find that the rhythmic transient arises when the impending FoC bifurcation deforms the state space and creates an area of locally reduced attraction to the fixed point. This area essentially allows trajectories to dwell there before escaping to the stable steady state, thus creating rhythmic transients. In the full thalamo-cortical model, we find a similar FoC bifurcation structure. Based on the analysis, we propose an explanation of why stimulation induced epileptiform activity may vary between trials, and predict how the variability could be related to ongoing oscillatory background activity. We compare our dynamic mechanism with other mechanisms (such as a slow parameter change) to generate excitable transients, and we discuss the proposed excitability mechanism in the context of stimulation responses in the epileptic cortex.

Read full paper: Understanding epileptiform after-discharges as rhythmic oscillatory transients
Authors: Gerold Baier, Peter N. Taylor and Yujiang Wang

Electroencephalography (EEG) allows recording of cortical activity at high temporal resolution. EEG recordings can be summarised along different dimensions using network-level quantitative measures, e.g. channel-to-channel correlation, or band power distributions across channels. These reveal network patterns that unfold over a range of different time scales and can be tracked dynamically.
Here we describe the dynamics of network-state transitions in EEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity in normally developing infants and infants with severe early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (n=8, age: 1-8 months). We describe differences in measures of EEG dynamics derived from band power, and correlation-based summaries of network-wide brain activity.
We further show that EEGs from different patient groups and controls may be distinguishable based on a small set of the novel quantitative measures introduced here, which describe dynamic network state switching. Quantitative measures related to the sharpness of switching from one correlation pattern to another show the largest differences between groups.
These findings reveal that the early epileptic encephalopathies are associated with characteristic dynamic features at the network level. Quantitative network-based analyses like the one presented here may in future inform the clinical use of quantitative EEG for diagnosis.

Read full paper: Network dynamics in the healthy and epileptic developing brain
Authors:  RE Rosch, T Baldeweg, F Moeller and G Baier