The Bartlett School of Planning


Undergraduate modules

Modules available to Bartlett School of Planning undergraduate students.

Modules available as electives for non-Planning students are indicated by an asterisk* . Click on the relevant modules to check for pre-requisites. Modules fill up quickly and are allocated on a first-come, first-served basis via Portico only so request your choices on Portico as soon as possible.

Students from the following courses are offered priority when selecting our electives (if requested by the end of Wednesday 26th September 2018 in Induction Week):

  • Bartlett Schools of Architecture and Construction & Project Management
  • European Social & Political Studies
  • BASc programme

This priority is subject to availability, and where places are extremely limited only the earliest requests will be approved. After this date approvals will be made on a first-come first-served basis, irrespective of a student’s parent department.

Please refer to the UCL online timetable for accurate information on scheduling.

For more information on each module, click on the titles below. Elective information is correct for the academic session 2018–2019, but may change for future years.

Year 1

BPLN0070 Planning History and Thought

Using the UK as a principal case study, this module charts the development of planning over 150 years from the Industrial Revolution to the present day. It examines how planning is evolution has been shaped by social thinking and the priorities of the day, and by an overall shift from state-led legal activity in the mid 20th century to an enabling activity concerned with economic growth, environmental concern and social justice.

Teaching and Learning Methods

Weekly lectures and two half day field trips.


This module introduces students to the theories and practice of twentieth century town and country planning, by using Britain - the first country in the world to industrialise - as a case study. It covers the historical development of planning practice in the UK and elsewhere, its theoretical basis, the political and regulatory justification for planning, and the institutional and policy frameworks.

  • To provide a broad perspective on the main principles that have shaped planning since the late nineteenth century, and the social-economic and political contexts within which these ideas have evolved.
  • To give an overall view of the main planning outcomes of the 20th century.
  • To set current urban and environmental policy issues in historical perspective.
  • To provide planning students with an appreciation of the essential basis of their degree programme.
  • To give an overall view of the great planning achievements of this century (and the failures)
  • To give students an essential basis of understanding for the rest of their courses
  • To provide an overview of the history and development of town planning theory and practice.

Learning Outcomes

All students will be able to appreciate the stages through which the British planning system, in particular, has evolved and how it has achieved its present-day spirit and purpose.


Dr Iqbal Hamiduddin (coordinator)
View Iqbal's profile
Email: i.hamiduddin@ucl.ac.uk

Prof Michael Hebbert
View Michael's profile
Email: m.hebbert@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

Core texts are as follows

  • Hall, P. (2002) Cities of Tomorrow. Blackwell, Oxford. (NB. A new edition will be appearing shortly)
  • Hall, P and Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2011) Urban and Regional Planning, 5th edition, Routledge, London
  • Ward, S (2002) Planning the Twentieth Century City, Wiley, Chichester

For planning students these are useful texts for your degree programme generally.

BPLN0071 Contemporary Cities

This module presents five topics for lecture and student debate: an overview of theoretical representations of the modern and post-modern city and the implications for planning, the representation of cities and urban planning in film, the concept and practice of city marketing, the rise of new urbanism, the prospect for shaping sustainable cities.

Teaching and Learning Methods

5 lectures and 5 small group discussions of a selected reading

Aims & Outcomes

This module provides a theoretical and substantive introduction to some of the main socio-economic processes impinging on and means of interpreting urbanisation in world cities. It considers increasing elements of post-modernity in the organisation, planning and representation of world cities. By the end of the module students should have an appreciation of:

  • Some of the major trends in the development of cities
  • Major theoretical interpretations of the development, structure, experience and sustainability of cities
  • An appreciation of major ideas and how they inform the planning of cities


Professor Mike Raco
View Mike's profile 
Email: m.raco@ucl.ac.uk

Professor Yvonne Rydin
View Yvonne's profile
Email: y.rydin@ucl.ac.uk

Professor Fulong Wu
View Fulong's profile
Email: fulong.wu@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

  • Newman, P. and Thornley, A. (2005) Planning World Cities: Globalization and Urban Politics. Palgrave, Basingstoke.
  • Gordon, D.L. Ed. (2006) Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities.Routledge, London.
  • Castells, M (1996) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Vol1, The rise of the Network Society, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Clark, D (2003) Urban World/Global City, London: Routledge, 2nd Edition.
  • Graham, S and Marvin, S (2000) Splintering Urbanism, London: Routledge.
  • Giradet, H ((1992) Cities: New Directions for Sustainable Urban Living, London: Gaia Books.
  • Hall, P (1998) Cities of Tomorrow, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Hall, P and Pfeiffer, U (2000) Urban Future 21: A Global Agenda for the 21st Century, London: Spon.
  • Haughton, G. (1999) 'Searching for the sustainable city' Urban Studies Vol 36 No 11 pp 1891-1906
  • Haughton, G and Hunter, C (1994) Sustainable Cities, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Layard, A, Davoudi, S and Batty, S (2001) Sustainable Development and Planning, London: Spon.
  • Quinn, B. 2005. Arts Festivals and the City. Urban Studies 42 (5/6):927-43.
  • Sassen, S (2001) Global City: New York, London and Tokyo, Cambridge: CU Press.
  • Taylor, P (2003) World City Network, London: Routledge.
  • Scott, A.J. Ed. (2000) Global City-Regions. OUP, Oxford.
  • Soja, E. (2000) Postmetropolis. Blackwell, Oxford. (Chapter 8).
  • Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2007), 'Film, space and place identity: Reflections on urban planning', Planning Theory and Practice, 8(1): 108-112
  • Thompson-Fawcett, M. (2003) 'A New Urbanism Diffusion Network: The Americo-European Connection' Built Environment 29(3): 253-270
BARC0092 Making Cities: The Production of the Built Environment

Detailed module information is available on the Bartlett School of Architecture's website

BPLN0074 Management for Built Environment Professionals I*

This module primarily introduces the role and importance of management, focusing on the economic, social and political environment in which this happens with regard to the production of the built environment.  This is considered through a focus on the growth of managerialism in the public sector and the implications of such reform for the planning arena.

Overall, the module introduces students to the content and coverage of the realm of activities constituting ‘management’, including the associated processes, skills and knowledge required by modern managers.  Theories and principles will be linked to examples from the public, voluntary and private sectors which are relevant to built environment professionals.   

Teaching and Learning Methods

Nine sessions of lectures and discussions in addition to private reading and class, essay and examination preparation.

Aims & Outcomes

To introduce students to the reality of management principles and practice as relevant for built environment professionals To introduce students to the theoretical underpinnings of management To identify key skills required for successful practice within the built environment professions To provide an awareness of what managers do and why their activities are critical to the success of any project or organisation To highlight the growth of managerialism within the public sector and the implications of such change and reform for planners and allied practitioners



Dr Ben Clifford
View Ben's profile 
Email: ben.clifford@ucl.ac.uk 

Dr Michael Short 
View Michael's profile 
Email: michael.short@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

  • Boddy, D (2008). Management: An Introduction. Pearson, Harlow.
  • Cole, GA (2004). Management Theory and Practice. Geraldine Lyons, London.
  • Kitchen, T (2006). Skills for Planning Practice. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
  • Pettinger, R (2007). Introduction to Management. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
BPLN0069 Introducing Planning Systems*

This course introduces planning systems, particularly in the UK but within their European framework, providing a context for what planning is, why we plan, how planning fits within a wider governmental context and the role of the planner in society, economy and environment.

The module will provide students with an understanding of planning as an interlocking system of policy and political intervention amidst a range of governmental and private interests and high expectations from a range of stakeholders.  This will serve as a useful basis for the development later in the degree of the managerial and organisational aspects of the urban environment.

Teaching and Learning Methods

Ten sessions of lectures and discussions in addition to private reading and class, essay and examination preparation.

Aims & Outcomes

  • To provide students with an understanding of planning as an interlocking system of policy- and political intervention
  • To develop students' appreciation of different types of planning activity
  • To explain the role of the planner in society, the economy and the environment, within the context of globalisation
  • To introduce students to the range of agencies inherent within, and expectations surrounding, planning
  • To illustrate the complexity surrounding planning with practical examples drawn from housing, economic development and transportation


Dr Ben Clifford
View Ben's profile
Email: ben.clifford@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

  • Allmendinger, P, Prior, A and Raemaekers, J (eds) (2000). Introduction to Planning Practice. Wiley, Chichester
  • Clifford, B.P. and Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2013).  The Collaborating Planner: Practitioners in the Neoliberal Age. Policy Press, Bristol.
  • Cullingworth, B and Nadin, V. (2006). Town and Country Planning in the UK. Routledge, Oxford.
  • Tewdwr-Jones, M (2002). The Planning Polity: Planning, Government and the Policy Process. Routledge, London
BPLN0072 Urban Lab I: Graphic Skills

This module provides an Introduction to some of the basic drawing and presentational skills and techniques required in urban planning. The surrounding area of the School of Planning in London is the backdrop to all the project work gathered for the urban analysis undertaken. The module also helps students to develop their creativity.

Teaching and Learning Methods

Weekly tutorials, site visit, graphics lab, team working and individual study.


To develop through practical application the ability to: 

  • work effectively as part of a small team;
  • present work using a variety of graphic techniques;
  • use basic freehand sketching and technical drawing skills to communicate urban analysis;
  • use basic photo manipulation and presentation skills to compose effective graphic layouts.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of the module, each student will have acquired skills in:

  • analysing street composition and urban form through descriptive and observational analysis
  • collecting primary data specific to an urban environment  and present this information graphically
  • understanding, reading and executing a variety of graphic techniques that complement each other to enable 2D and 3D representation of space and the urban environment
  • creative graphic communication, including effective layout composition


Module coordinator: Bianca Maria Nardella

Tutors: Terpsithea Laopoulou, Isabel Sanchez, Lucia Cerrada

Indicative reading

(Check the Moodle course page regularly for other useful references)

Drawing and Graphic techniques
  • Ching, F. and Juroszek, S. (2010) Design Drawing. Wiley; 2nd Edition. ISBN: 978-0470533697
  • D'Amelio, J. (2004) Perspective Drawing Handbook. Dover Publications. ISBN: 978-0486432083
  • Dodson, B. (1990) Keys to Drawing. North Light Books. ISBN: 978-0891343370
  • Glaser, M. et al. (eds.)(2012) The city at eye level: lessons for street plinths. Eburon Academic. ISBN: 978-9059727144
  • Jacobs, A. (1993) Great Streets. MIT Press. ISBN: 978-0262100489
  • Laseau, P. and Crowe, N. (2012) Visual Notes for Architects and Designers, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 978-0470908532
  • Laseau, P. (2004) Freehand Sketching: An Introduction. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN: 978-0393731125
  • McGraw-Hill, G. (2003) Basic Technical Drawing, Student Edition (8th). Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 978-0078457487
  • Micklewright, K. (2005) Mastering the language of visual expression. Abrams Studio. ISBN: 978-0810992388
  • Norling, E. (2008) Perspective Made Easy. BN Publishing. ISBN: 978-9563100167
  • Pipes, A. (2007) Drawing for designers. Laurence King Publishing. ISBN: 978-1856695336
  • Skiba, I. and Bielefeld, B. (2007) Basics Technical Drawing. Birkh‰user Architecture. ISBN: 978-3764376444
  • Sonheim, C. (2010) Drawing Lab for mixed-media artists. Quarry Books. ISBN: 978-1592536139
  • Willenbrink, M. and  Willenbrink, M. (2006) Drawing for the Absolute Beginner: A Clear & Easy Guide to Successful Drawing. North Light Books. ISBN: 978-1581807899
Photoshop and Digital Graphic techniques
  • Ambrose, G. and Harris, P. (2008) The Fundamentals of Graphic Design, London: AVA.
  • Ching, F. D. K. (2003) Architectural graphics, 4th ed. New York: John Wiley
  • Laseau, P. (2000) Architectural Representation Handbook: Traditional and Digital Technique for Graphic Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill
  • Jones, D. (2012) iPad for Artists. Thames & Hudson: London. ISBN: 978-1908150936
  • Meeda, B. and Parky (2007) Graphics for Urban Design. Institution of Civil Engineers.
  • Photoshop, The Bartlett, Planning, Urban Design1 (can be downloaded from MOODLE)
BPLN0073 Introducing Urban Design: Design Skills

This module provides an introduction to the theory, techniques and appreciation of design within the context of town planning, urban design and landscape design. It involves the development of technical and communication skills, aesthetic appreciation of design and an understanding of design process

Teaching and Learning Methods

This module is taught primarily through the undertaking and completion of project work with tutors available for individual and group tuition during the studio workshops.

Aims & Outcomes

  • To acquire skills in: problem identification & problem solving; design; aesthetic appreciation; applying knowledge to practice; collaborative problem solving; oral & graphic communication
  • To acquire knowledge and understanding about: the natural environment and the built environment
  • To acquire an appreciation of and respect for values and attitudes regarding: the conservation of natural resources and the conservation of the built environment


Dr Elisabete Cidre
Module coordinator
View Elisabete's profile
Email: e.cidre@ucl.ac.uk

Juliana Martins
View Juliana's profile 
Email: j.martins@ucl.ac.uk

James Chadwick

Jorge Terreros

Bianca Maria Nardella

Indicative Reading

  • Alexander C (1977) A Pattern Language, Towns, Buildings, Construction, UCLA
  • Beer A & Higgins C (2000) Environmental Planning for Site Development, Second Ed., E&FN Spon
  • Bentley I (1999) Urban Transformations, Power, People and Urban Design, Routledge
  • Carmona M. Heat, T. Oc T. Tiesdell S. (2003, 2010) Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Architectural Press.
  • Ching F (1996) Architectural Graphics, Third Edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1996
  • Cooper Marcus C & Francis C (1998) People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space, 2nd Ed
  • Coulson J, Roberts P and Taylor I (2011), University Planning and Architecture: the search for perfection, Routledge.
  • Cullen G (1971) The Concise Townscape, Butterworth Architecture
  • Gehl J & Gemzoe L (1996) Public Spaces Public Life, The Danish Architecural Press
  • Gosling, D. & Maitland, D. (1985), Concepts in Urban Design, Academy Editions, London.
  • Littlefield D (2008), The Metric Handbook (3rd Edition), Architectural Press
  • Moughtin C (1999) Urban Design, Method and Techniques, Architectural Press
  • Neufert E et al (2001), Architects' Data (3rd Edition), Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Webb, M. (1990), The City Square, Thames & Hudson, London.

Year 1 Specialist Planning and Real Estate 

BPLN0075 Introduction to Real Estate*

Teaching and Learning Methods

The module is taught through weekly three hour sessions, typically composed of a two hour lecture and a one hour tutorial.

The module will also include seminar sessions for discussion relating to both coursework submissions, in particular discussing the importance of scholarly skills (such as academic referencing).


The aim of the module is to introduce students to the real estate market generally, communicating a basic understanding of how the real estate market works. We will consider key elements of real estate, based around the following questions:

What is real estate? How does the real estate market function and who are the key players? How can it be valued and appraised? Who invests in real estate and why? What role does real estate play in city development? Who are the real estate professionals and what do they do?


Learning Outcomes

By the end of the module, students should have a wider understanding of real estate markets generally, including different types of property and associated characteristics (retail / office / industrial / leisure) and market sectors (user / investment / development), as well as how we can appraise and value property from the perspectives of the occupier and the owner.  

They will have a basic, but informed perspective on the London market and key developments within the capital’s real estate market, as well as knowledge of how the real estate profession operates. 


Dr Nicola Livingstone
View Nicola's profile
Email: n.livingstone@ucl.ac.uk

These questions will be addressed in greater detail through specific modules over the three years of the programme. 

Cities develop in complex ways, influenced by a range of factors which include the property market.  By examining one city in some detail, much can be understood about these processes and hence the role of the real estate professional in influencing and stimulating urban development.  

London is adopted as a ‘living laboratory’ for students and offers an ideal lens through which we can examine the evolution of urban real estate specifically.  The historical growth of the London real estate market will be considered and examples adopted to illustrate relevant points, encouraging students to think differently and adopt a critical perspective on real estate within the city. 

Year 1 Specialist Urban Planning, Design and Management 

BARC0085 Historical Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture

Detailed module information is available on the Bartlett School of Architecture's website

BPLN0076 Beyond Cities: Rural Economies, Communities and Landscapes

This module examines change in the UK countryside during the 20th century. It traces the economic transition away from farming and analyses the consequences for rural society and the environment, asking what role planning has in managing and responding to these consequences.

Teaching and Learning Methods

Lectures (and a one day supplementary field trip)

Aims & Outcomes

This module considers planning’s role in managing a range of rural planning issues and challenges, focusing on the situation in rural England.  It begins by considering the relationship between rural and urban areas and how this relationship has created a number of ‘rural pressures’ and urban-rural tensions.  

Of particular concern is the transition from a countryside of production to one of ‘multi-functional’ economic activity and consumption.  This transition is marked by the decline of agriculture in the twentieth century and the search for economic alternatives.  

The implications of rural restructuring (economic change prompting social and environmental change) for the landscape and for rural communities are of particular concern, as is the role of the planning system in managing this change and creating a more sustainable and equitable countryside.  

The module focuses on the nature of ‘rural areas’, the history of the countryside, economic changes, landscape changes, recreation, transport, service provision, communities and housing.

The module aims to provide an understanding of the linkages between town and country, the challenges facing rural communities, and how planning can intervene to assist / enhance both the natural environment and rural communities.


Dr Iqbal Hamiduddin
View Iqbal's profile
Email: i.hamiduddin@ucl.ac.uk

Dr Meri Juntti
Email: m.juntti@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

Course Texts
  • Gallent, N., Juntti, M., Kidd, S. and Shaw, D. (2008) Introduction to Rural Planning, Routledge: London
Recent Policy Texts
  • Affordable Rural Housing Commission, (2006) Affordable Rural Housing Commission: Final Report, Affordable Rural Housing Commission: London
  • Taylor, M. (2008) Living Working Countryside: The Taylor Review of Rural Economy and Affordable Housing, DCLG: London


Year 2 

BPLN0079 Green Futures

BPLN0079 (Green Futures) is an undergraduate module offered by the Bartlett School of Planning. The module examines some of the key environmental debates and literature, with a specific focus on cities and the future of cities. It is structured under two main parts.

Part ONE – We first undertake a wider theoretical overview. This part examines how the current environmental crisis impacts on cities on the broader context of population growth and current urbanization trends; it explores how contemporary industrial societies are dealing with the environmental crisis and environmental concerns are integrated into policies from other domains and what the relationship between economic development and environmental protection is; it also looks at current shifts in behaviour toward the environment and how cities might look like in a near or far away future.

Throughout this first part a series of key environmental concepts will be explored including Climate Change denial, low carbon development, ecological modernisation, environmentalism, environmental policy integration, pro-environmental behaviour, value-action gap, environmental economics, futures thinking and scenario development.

Part TWO – Following the Reading Week in February, we move on to explore in more detail how some of the concepts and ideas discussed in Part One are applied in the area of green or digital technology and smart city design; energy efficiency and high-rise retrofitting; travel patterns and transport futures; energy decentralisation; and the ‘building’ of green communities. Throughout the second part, lectures will be delivered by a number of invited guests and entail a breadth of international and UK-based examples.

Teaching and Learning Methods

Each class usually consists of 1h lecture from staff, followed by 1h seminar where discussions draw on student presentations. Each student presentation will address one of the 2 questions asked by each seminar topic and will focus on examining more closely some of the issues discussed in that week’s lecture.

Aims & Outcomes

BPLN0079 overall aim is to broaden the students’ understanding of the tensions and synergies between ‘man-made’ development and the environment, and to provide a cross-sectoral evaluation of how these manifest in practice, drawing on a range of UK and international examples.

It also aims to provide students with both the skills to conceptualise various topics from environmental studies as well as the ability to explore some of these concepts and ideas in practice by looking at a range of ‘cases’ or applications in the area of green technology and innovation, retrofitting, urban energy and transportation, and green community ‘engineering’.

Dr Joanna Williams
View Joanna's profile
Email: joanna.williams@ucl.ac.uk


BPLN0081 Economics of Cities and their Regions

This module considers a variety of different theories within three broad contrasting approaches to understanding the economy of cities and regions - neo-classical economics, structuralist and institutional approaches.

Teaching and Learning Methods

Lectures and final unseen written exam.

Aims & Outcomes

This unit examines a number of different perspectives on the economy of cities and regions as these apply to a number of salient trends and features of cities and urbanisation - specialisation, suburbanisation, gentrification etc..

The unit is designed to produce an understanding of:

  • different perspectives on the economy of cities and regions
  • key historical and contemporary developments in the economy of cities and regions
  • basic empirical methods for describing the economy of cities and regions

Indicative reading

Detailed reading by session

It is recommended that you consult a standard economics textbook for the first 3-4 lectures. There are many of such textbooks on offer.

See for example:

Begg D., Fischer S. and Dornbusch, R. (2007) Economics. McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead.
Lipsey, R. and Chrystal, (2007) Economics. OUP, Oxford.

Under the following headings, * indicates recommended reading.

1. Introduction: approaches to understanding the economics of cities and regions
  • Wadley D and Smith P (1998) ‘If planning is about anything, what is it about?’ International Journal of Social Economics 25 1005–29

For examples of Marxian approaches to urban planning see:

  • Simmie, J. (1976) Citizens in Conflict. Hutchinson, London.
  • Ambrose, P. (1983) Whatever Happened to Planning? Methuen, London.
2.    Neoclassical approaches
  • Begg, D. Fischer, S. and Dornbusch, R. (2007) Economics. McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead. (chapter 3)
  • Lipsey, R. and Chrystal, (2007) Economics. OUP, Oxford. (chapters 3 and 4).

On the case of neoclassical or orthodox economics interpretations of the housing shortage in the UK (especially the South East of England) see:

  • Evans, A.W. (1991) ‘Rabbit hutches on postage stamps’: planning, development and political economy, Urban Studies, 28, 6, pp. 853-870
  • Bramley, G. (2009) Affordability at the heart of planning, Town and Country Planning, 78, 9, pp. 368-371
  • Meen, G. (2005) On the economics of the Barker Review of housing supply, Housing Studies, 20, 6, pp. 949-971
3.    Land and rent in classical approaches to cities and regions
  • Alonso, W. (1964) Location and Land Use. Harvard University Press, Cambridge
  • Evans, A. (1973) The Economics of Residential Location. MacMillan, London
  • McCann, P. (2001) Urban and Regional Economics. OUP, Oxford
  • Harvey, J. (2000) Urban Land Economics. MacMillan, London.

On the impact of a green belt or stop line on development pressure and land use see:

  • Boal, F. (1970) ‘Urban growth and land value patterns: government influences’, The Professional Geographer 22: 79-82

For a wider discussion of issues of the increasingly polycentric structure of city regions see:

  • Bogart, W.T. (2006) Don’t Call it Sprawl: Metropolitan Structure in the Twenty First Century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Lang, E. (2003) Edgeless Cities: Exploring the Elusive Metropolis. Brookings Institution Press, Washington DC.
  • Drennan, M. and Kelly, H. (2011) ‘Measuring urban agglomeration with office rents’, Journal of Economic Geography 11: 481-507 
4.    Comparative advantage, equilibrium and regional development
  • Storper, M. And Walker, R. (1989) The Capitalist Imperative. Blackwell, Oxford (Chapter 1).
  • Myrdal, G. (1957) Economic theory and under-developed Regions. Duckworth, London.
  • Kaldor, N. (1970) ‘The case for regional policies’, Scottish Journal of Political Economy 17: 337-348
  • Hirschmann, A. (1958) The Strategy of Economic Development. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
5.    Market failures and welfare in neoclassical economics
  • Begg, D. Fischer, S. and Dornbusch, R. (2007) Economics. McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead. (chapter 15)
  • Lipsey, R. and Chrystal, (2007) Economics. OUP, Oxford. (chapter 13).
  • On issues to do with the current splintering of cities and the revision of some of the arguments for state intervention to correct market failures see:
  • Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (2000) Splintering Urbanism. Routledge, London.
6.    Specialisation, diversity and product life cycle
  • Scott, A.  and Storper, M. (1987) ‘High technology industry and regional development – a theoretical critique and reconstruction’, International Social Science Journal 39: 215-232
  • Scott, A.J. (1988) ‘Flexible production systems and regional development – the rise of new industrial spaces in North America and western Europe’, International Journal of urban and Regional Research 12: 171-186
  • Phelps, N.A. 'External economies, agglomeration and flexible accumulation', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 17: 35-46.
  • Jacobs, J. (1969) The Economy of Cities. Jonathan Cape, London.
  • Oakey, R. And Cooper, S. (1989) ‘High technology industry, agglomeration and the potential for peripherally sited small firms’, Regional Studies 23: 347-360
  • Taylor,.M. (1986) ‘The product cycle model: a critique’, Environment & Planning A 18: 751-761
7.    Cities suburbanisation and externalities
  • Walker, R. (1981) ‘A theory of suburbanization: capitalism and the construction of urban space in the United States’, 383-429 in Dear, M. and Scott, A. Eds. Urbanization and Urban Planning in Capitalist Societies. Methuen, London.
  • Persky J and Wiewel, W. (2000) When Corporations Leave Town. Wayne State University Press, Detroit.
  • Tiebout, C. (1956) ‘A pure theory of local expenditures’, Journal of Political Economy 61: 416-424
  • Phelps, N.A. (2004) ‘Clusters, dispersion and the spaces in between: for an economic geography of the banal’, Urban Studies 41 (5/6): 971-989
  • Phelps, N.A. and Ozawa, T. (2003) ‘Contrasts in agglomeration: proto-industrial, industrial and post-industrial forms compared’, Progress in Human Geography 27 (5): 583-604
  • Phelps, N.A. (2010) ‘Suburbs for Nations: Some interdisciplinary connections on the suburban economy’, Cities 27 (2): 68-76
  • Walker, R. and Lewis, R. (2001) ‘Beyond the crabgrass frontier: industry and the spread of the North American city, 1850-1950’, Journal of Historical Geography 27: 3-19
8.    Land, rent and externalities in Marxian approaches to cities and regions
  • Harvey, D (1985) The Urbanisation of Capital. Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Castells, M. (1983) The City and the Grassroots. Edward Arnold London.
  • Pinch, S. (1985) Cities and services. RKP, London.
  • *Badcock, B. (1984) Unfairly Structured Cities. Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Scott, A.J. and Roweis, S.J. (1977) ‘Urban planning in theory and in practice: a reappraisal’, Environment & Planning A 9: 1097-1119
9.    Gentrification and the rent gap
  • Smith, N. (1979) ‘ Towards a theory of gentrification:  A back to the city movement by capital, not people’  Journal of the American Planning Association 45:538-548.
  • *Smith, N. (1982) ‘Gentrification and uneven development’  Economic Geography 58:138-55.
  • Smith, N. (1987a) ‘Of Yuppies and housing:  gentrification, social restructuring, and the urban dream’  Environment and Planning D:  Society and Space 5:151-172.
  • Smith, N. (1987b) ‘Gentrification and the rent gap’  Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77:462-65.
  • For debate and alternative explanations see:
  • Ley, David 1980  Liberal ideology and the post-industrial city.  Annals of the Association of American Geographers 70:238-258.
  • Ley, David, 1981  Inner-city revitalization in Canada:  A Vancouver case study.  Canadian Geographer 25  124-148.
  • Walker, Richard and Greenberg, Douglas 1982a 'Post-industrialism and political reform in the city: a critique' Antipode14 17-32.
  • Ley, David, 1982 'Of tribes and idols a reply to Greenberg and Walker Antipode 14 pp. 33-37.
  • Walker Richard and Greenberg Douglas 1982b 'A guide for the Ley reader of Marxist criticism' Antipode 14 38-43.
  • Ley, David, 1986  Alternative explanations for inner-city gentrification:  A Canadian assessment.  Annals of the Association of American Geographers 76:521-35.
  • Ley, David, 1987  Reply:  The rent gap revisited.  Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77:465-68.
  • Smith, Neil 1987a  Of Yuppies and housing:  gentrification, social restructuring, and the urban dream.  Environment and Planning D:  Society and Space 5:151-172.
  • Hamnett, Chris 1991 ‘The blind men and the elephant: the explanation of gentrification’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 16: 173-189.
10.    Disequilibrium and regional uneven development
  • Dunford, M. Geddes, M. and Perrons, D.(1980) ‘Regional policy and the crisis in the UK: a long-run perspective’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 5: 377-410.
  • *Dunford, M. (1994) ‘Winners and losers: the new map of economic inequality in the European Union’, European Urban and Regional Studies 1: 95-114
  • Walker, R. and Storper, M.  (1981) ‘Capital and industrial location’, Progress in Human Geography 5:473-509.
  • *Massey, D. (1979) ‘In what sense a regional problem?’, Regional Studies  13: 233-243
  • Storper, M. And Walker, R. (1989) The Capitalist Imperative. Blackwell, Oxford (Chapter 1).

On British regional policy see: 

  • Hall, P. and Tewdwr-Jones (2010) Urban and Regional Planning. Routledge.
  • Phelps, N.A. ‘From branch plant economies to knowledge economies? Manufacturing industry, government policy and economic development in Britain’s older industrial regions’ Environment & Planning C, Government & Policy 27: 574-592
  • Parsons, D. (1986) The Political Economy of British Regional Policy. Croom Helm, Beckenham.
11.    Global Commodity Chains and uneven development
  • Bair, J. and Gereffi, G. (2001) ‘Local clusters in global chains: the causes and consequences of export dynamism in Torreon’s blue jeans industry’, World Development 29 (11): 1885-1903
  • Gereffi, G. (1999) ‘International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain’, Journal of International Economics 48: 37-70
  • Gibbon,P and Ponte S. (2005) Trading Down: Africa, Value Chains and the Global Economy. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.
  • Henderson, J., Dicken, P., Hess, M., Coe, N. and Yeung, H.W.C. (2002) ‘Global production networks and the analysis of economic development’, Review of International Political Economy 9: 436-464
  • Humphrey, J., & Schmitz, H. (2002) ‘How does insertion in global value chains affect upgrading in industrial clusters’, Regional Studies 36: 1017-1027.
  • Phelps, N.A. (2008) ‘Cluster or capture? Manufacturing foreign direct investment, external economies and agglomeration’, Regional Studies 42 (4): 457-473
  • Schmitz, H. (1999) ‘Collective efficiency and increasing returns’ Cambridge Journal of Economics 23: 465-483
  • Rivoli, P. (2006) The Travels of a T-shirt in the Global Economy. John Wiley, Chichester.
12.    Institutionalist approaches to cities and regions  
  • Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (1992) ‘Neo-Marshallian nodes in global networks’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 16: 571-587
  • Amin, A. And Thrift, N. (1994) Globalization, Institutions and Regional Development in Europe. OUP, Oxford.
  • Morgan, K. (1997) ‘The learning region: institutions, innovation and regional renewal’, Regional Studies 31: 491-503
  • Storper, M. (1995) ‘The resurgence of regional economies, ten years later: the region as a nexus of untraded interdependencies’,  European Urban and Regional Studies 2: 191-221
  • Pinch, S. And Henry, N. (1999) ‘Paul Krugman’s geographical economics, industrial clusters and the British Motor Sport industry’, Regional Studies 33: 815-827
  • Keeble, D. And Tyler, P. (1995) ‘Enterprising behaviour and the urban-rural shift’, Urban Studies 32: 975-997
  • Keeble, D., Lawson, C., More, B. And Wilkinson, F. (1999) ‘Collective learning processes, networking and “institutional thickness” in the Cambridge region’, Regional Studies 33: 319-332
13.    Creativity and the City (John Tomaney)
  • E Glaeser (2011) The Triumph of the City. London: Pan (Read Chapter 1)
  • R Florida (2012) The Rise of the Creative Class Revisited. New York: Basic Books. (Read Chapter 1 and Part 4)
  • R Shearmur (2012) “Are cities the font of innovation? A critical review of the literature on cities and innovation”, Cities, 29, S9-18
  • R Whitehead, E Vandore, M Nathan (2012) A Tale of Tech City. The Future of Inner East London’s Digital Economy. London: Demos.
14.    The University and urban development (John Tomaney)
  • J Goddard (2009) Reinventing the Civic University. London NESTA (available at: http://www.nesta.org.uk/library/documents/Reinventing-Civic-Uni-v2.pdf)
  • J Goddard, P Vallance (2011) “Universities and regional development”. In: Pike, A., Rodriguez-Pose, A., Tomaney, J, ed. Handbook of Local and Regional Development. London, UK: Routledge, 2011, pp.425-437
  • S Collini (2012) What are universities for?  London: Penguin (Read Part 1)
  • J Tomaney and F.Wray (2011) “The university and the region: An Australian perspective”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, (35) 5: 913–31.
BPLN0077 Urban Lab II: Spatial Analysis

The aim of the module is to develop students’ skills in spatial analysis, visualisation and basic statistics. These skills will be applied to the study and analysis of cities to improve understanding of city structure, processes and how these relate to urban planning.

Teaching and Learning Methods

The module is taught through lectures and practicals. Each week a new topic will be introduced and discussed in the lecture. This will then be followed by a practical where students will use example data and GIS software to learn skills related to the lecture and the course aims.

Aims & Outcomes

By the end of the module, students should have:

  • Core skills in Geographical Information System (GIS) software- be able to produce maps of cities, and understand core mapping types, how they are produced and the underlying datasets required.
  • Understanding of spatial data- appreciate strengths and weaknesses, and understand key concepts such as scale and sample size in relation to analysis and visualisation. Link this understanding to wider social science issues, such as the contrasting and complementary nature of quantitative and qualitative approaches to cities.
  • Critical awareness of mapping and statistics- understand how data can be misused, and how following best practice minimises these problems.
  • Design skills- students should have improved their skills in graphic design and visual communication.
  • GIS Project- the main assessment is a project using GIS techniques to investigate a current topic in urban planning. The project topic is chosen by the student to allow study of a particular area of interest. The main aim of the project is develop skills linking mapping and data analysis to urban planning and policy making, in terms of providing relevant and insightful evidence for analysis and discussion. 


Dr Duncan A Smith
View Duncan's profile 
Email: duncan.a.smith@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

Visit our comprehensive reading list

BPLN0078 Urban Design: Theory to Practice

This module provide students with an introductory yet comprehensive overview of urban design theory and provides an opportunity to turn urban design theory into practice through the completion of an urban design project

Teaching and Learning Methods

Knowledge is imparted through a lecture course and developed through individual and group project work. The course includes attendance at a series of tutorials and reviews.

Aims & Outcomes

The course aims to provide students with an introductory yet comprehensive overview of urban design theory. It also provides an opportunity to turn urban design theory into practice through the completion of one project in three parts.

The first - quick-fire - element is concerned with releasing your innate creativity. The second is concerned with a complimentary but very different set of skills - your analytical skills. A third part brings these two critical dimensions of urban design practice together as a means to understand and propose creative place-making solutions in a complex urban context.

The course illustrates the potential of design as a creative problem solving process, a process necessary to deliver the types of public and private investments in the built environment that will continue to return value to their users and investors over the long-term.

In achieving this, the course provides a basic grounding for the exploration of urban design issues in greater depth through the Urban Design Specialism. It also provides a stepping off point for thinking creatively about planning at a larger spatial scale and for more detailed discussions about the nature of urban design as a critical process in the production of sustainable urban outcomes.


Professor Matthew Carmona
View Matthew's profile
Email: m.carmona@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

  • Carmona M, Tiesdell S, Heath T and Oc T (2010) Public Places - Urban Spaces, The Dimensions of Urban Design (Second Edition), Oxford, Architectural Press 
  • Carmona M & Tiesdell S [Eds] (2007) Urban Design Reader, Oxford, Architectural Press
BPLN0082 Strategic Planning Project

Plan making is the creative and normative activity of translating a vision or idea for a city, a region, a neighbourhood into a spatial plan, i.e. a coherent set of guidelines and direct and indirect interventions on urban space.

These guidelines and interventions are designed and communicated in the form of maps, planning policies, planning and design briefs, social and transport infrastructure delivery programmes, building and planning codes, norms and rules for managing development and development proposals. 

Teaching and Learning Methods

This is a project-based module and is taught through a combination of lectures, open interview sessions with invited experts and weekly tutorials where students work in teams under the guidance of the module coordinator and a designated tutor. 

Students complete one planning project in two components. Each component or part of the planning project is worth 45% of the overall module mark

  • Part 1 focuses on the development and communication of a strategic planning framework for a London region;
  • Part 2 focus on making and communicating a detailed local plan and programme of interventions designed to deliver the strategic framework developed in Stage 1.

The remaining 10% of the overall module mark is awarded through a system of peer assessment among students.


The module is designed to give future built environment and real estate professionals the competence and skills required for the preparation, communication and implementation of a spatial plan. It aims to encourage the confidence needed to make the decisions associated with each step of the plan-making process.

The module provides an opportunity for students to use the knowledge acquired in other modules (BPLN0069, BARC0092, BPLN0081) and apply creative problem-solving and critical thinking to formulate a vision for the future development of a London region and to prepare the spatial plan that will deliver it.

It draws on theoretical and empirical work and concrete examples to equip students with a solid appreciation of the potential of plans and plan-making to foster and deliver urban change that is socially, economically, environmentally just and sustainable. 

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the module, students will have:

Subject-specific knowledge and skills
  • Defined how urban plans contribute to spatial, social and economic change;
  • Identified an urban development plan’s essential components and preparation stages;
  • Applied urban analysis methods to describe and explain the urban context and to estimate required interventions;
  • Identified place and goal specific objectives, which are measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound;
  • Produced an urban development plan;
  • Critically interpreted and responded to a project brief and met its essential requirements;
  • Justified, defended and communicated decisions made about complex and politically sensitive urban problems; developed group facilitation skills.

Key (transferable) skills

  • Orally and visually presented complex information in a clear, concise, persuasive, attractive manner;
  • Researched and summarised urban plans and policy case studies;
  • Selected and used graphic tools (diagrams and maps) to communicate information and ideas;
  • Set and achieved group’s expectations, prioritised time and worked effectively as a group under pressure.


Dr Sonia Arbaci
View Sonia's profile
Email: s.arbaci@ucl.ac.uk

Elena Besussi
View Elena's profile
Email: e.besussi@ucl.ac.uk

Dr Fangzhu Zhang
View Fangzhu's profile
Email: fangzhu.zhang@ucl.ac.uk

Tatiana Moreira de Souza
Email: tatiana.souza.09@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

Although this is a project based module, students will be required to develop their project ideas through the critical adoption of planning theories, concepts, current international best practices, existing plans. 

These key readings are selected to provide direct inputs to project work and a deeper critical understanding of the issues discussed during the lectures and tutorials but students are encouraged to research and source their own materials and references.

Project Bank

A significant part of your readings will consist of case studies and examples used in support of your project ideas. The module, jointly with the postgraduate module BPLN0043 - From Strategic Vision to Urban Plan, has developed a companion Project Bank with examples of plans, masterplans, development strategies at the regional, local, neighbourhood scales. 

Students of both modules are encouraged to contribute to and consult the Project Bank in support of their work. The list of cases and examples on the Project Bank however, does not try to be exhaustive nor representative.

Key readings about planning issues relevant to this module

Visit the Moodle page for this module for updates

About the plan-making process

  • Adams, D. 1994. Urban Planning and the Development Process, UCL Press.
  • Perdicoulis, A. 2011. Building Competences for Spatial Planners: Methods and Techniques for Performing Tasks with Efficiency, Taylor & Francis.

About the purpose and politics of plan-making

  • Edwards, M. 2009. King's Cross: renaissance for whom? In: Punter, J. (ed.) Urban design and the British urban renaissance. London: Routledge.
  • Fincher, R. & Iveson, K. 2008. Conceptualizing Redistribution in Planning. In:
  • Fincher, R. & Iveson, K. (eds.) Planning and diversity in the city: Redistribution, recognition and encounter. Basingstoke: Houndmills.
  • Fincher, R. & Iveson, K. 2008. Planning for Redistribution in Practice. In: Fincher, R. & Iveson, K. (eds.) Planning and diversity in the city: Redistribution, recognition and encounter. Basingstoke: Houndmills.
  • Lees, L. 2008. Gentrification and Social Mixing: Towards an Inclusive Urban Renaissance? Urban Studies, 45, 2449-2470.
  • Marx, C. 2008. Difference without dominance: social justice and the (neoliberal) economy in urban development. In: Smith, A., Stenning, A. & Willis, K. (eds.) Social justice and neoliberalism. Global perspectives. Zed Books.
  • Marx, C. 2011. Long-Term City Visioning and the Redistribution of Economic Infrastructure. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35, 1012-1025.
  • Massey, D. 2013. Vocabularies of the Economy. In: hall, S., Massey, D. & Rustin, M. (eds.) After Neoliberalism? The Kilburn Mamifesto. London: Soundings.
  • Musterd, S. & Ostendorf, W. 2013. Urban Segregation and the Welfare State: Inequality and Exclusion in Western Cities, Taylor & Francis.
  • Porter, L. 2011. The Point is to Change It. Planning Theory & Practice, 12, 477-480.
  • Rydin, Y. 2013. The future of planning. Beyond Growth Depedence, Policy Press.
  • Smets, P. & Salman, T. 2008. Countering Urban Segregation: Theoretical and Policy Innovations from around the Globe. Urban Studies, 45, 1307-1332.
  • Swanstrom, T., Dreier, P. & Mollenkopf, J. 2002. Economic Inequality and Public Policy: The Power of Place. City & Community, 1, 349-372.
BPLN0080 Cities and Social Change*

This course builds on the foundation provided in 'Contemporary Cities' (Year 1) to develop an understanding of cities in greater depth. It is concerned primarily with the interrelationships between society and space in Britain's cities.

It explores some of the key concepts and theories within the field of urban studies and urban sociology to understand the link between social change and spatial processes, as well as the policies which have been designed to address the urban issues that arise.

An important underlying theme is the effect of economic and social restructuring on patterns of urban spatial change and social inequality in cities. The course focuses on issues of relevance to future planners, urban regeneration and urban design professionals.

Teaching and Learning Methods

Each 3-hour session will be a mixture of lecture and seminar 

Aims & Outcomes

Students should:

  • develop a sound knowledge and understanding of the economic, demographic and social processes shaping the recent development of cities in Western capitalist societies, with a particular focus on the UK;
  • develop an understanding of the factors which explain urban change, and of the different conceptual/theoretical approaches used to analyse processes of urban social and spatial change;
  • be able to critically analyse the social and political construction of 'urban problems' to understand the rationale, opportunities and limitations of urban (public) policies and other interventions on urban space.

One of the key objectives of the course is to raise students' awareness of their social responsibility as future professionals in the field of planning, urban design and urban regeneration; that is to say REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONERS.

The seminars aim at making students critically discuss and think about the social implications of the trends and tensions shaping contemporary cities for their future professional practice.

London will be used as a case-study to illustrate and discuss issues of global significance for contemporary cities such as social exclusion, ethnic segregation, insecurity and anti-social behaviour, and the role that planning can play to address those issues.


Dr Susan Moore
View Susan's profile 
Email: susan.moore@ucl.ac.uk

Dr Claire Colomb
View Claire's profile
Email: c.colomb@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

BPLN0086 Management for Built Environment Professionals II

This course aims to:

give an understanding of the underpinning components of management and its application in practice to identify the skills required for successful professional practice and in personal management of time and resources to provide an understanding of organisations and the different working styles for policy, process and projects to give an understanding of the external, internal and competitive pressures which managers need to accommodate in a business and public sector environment



Professor Janice Morphet 
Email: j.morphet@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

Morphet, J. (2011) Effective practice in spatial planning, London: Routledge Morphet, J. (2011) Leadership and management in planning: theory and practice, London: Policy Press
  • to develop an understanding of expert leadership and the capabilities and qualities necessary to lead and to manage change within the realm of the built environment
  • to build an understanding of group dynamics and individual behaviour when directing organizations
  • to develop the expertise necessary to be successful within a built environment managerial position

Year 2 Specialist Planning and Real Estate 

BPLN0087 Real Estate Economics*

The module is designed especially for the students of BSc Planning and Real Estate. The purpose of the model is to provide an economic framework within which to explain and understand the issues related to real estate, especially, the commercial real estate sector and understand why the real estate market is formed in the way they are. It also examines the characteristics of real estate and relates them to long-term market behaviour.  

Teaching and Learning Methods

The module is taught through a lecture course combining a mix of theoretical and conceptual lectures and case study demonstrations given by the module coordinator.  This knowledge is then developed through class exercises. The course materials will be available on Moodle.


The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the real estate economics and real estate market.  The applied economics theory will be applied to the analysis of real estate market.   The module covers trends and factors which affect the value of real estate; introduce the nature and classification of land economics, the characteristics of real estate investment market; the factors that determine the land value and real estate value. The real estate market cycles and business fluctuations will be discussed, too.

Learning Outcomes

  • Understand the characteristics of real estate market
  • Understand macroeconomic impact on real estate sector and the role of real estate in macroeconomics
  • Appreciate the urban land use,  land value and the pricing of land resources
  • Understand property cycles
  • Understand the real estate investment and finance markets


Dr Qiulin Ke
View Qiulin's profile
Email: q.ke@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

  • Ball, M; Lizier, C and MacGregor, B. (2001), The Economics of Commercial Property Markets, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Harvey, J. (2000): Urban Land Economics, Macmillan Press td. 
  • Jowsey, E. (2011): Real Estate Economics, Palgrave Macmillan. 

Year 2 Specialist Urban Planning, Design and Management 

BPLN0085 Urban Form and Formation

Teaching and Learning Methods

Lectures, Private reading, Studio participation, Essays/projects

Aims & Outcomes

The purpose of this module is to give students a grounding in the understanding of different urban form components at different scales - buildings, spaces, streets, districts - and how these relate to each other.

Christopher Alexander's Pattern Language is used as a core device for understanding these urban form components and relationships. That said, the work of the module involves creating new patterns and combinations as well as analysing existing patterns.

This module is suitable for students of planning, architectural studies and other urban related courses. It allows students to experiment with different urban components and their combinations at different scales, and hence gain a tangible grasp of how urban form is 'put together', both in terms of structure and process, and hence explore how future urban formation can be generated.

The module involves a combination of creativity and focused enquiry - a degree of 'divergent' thinking and 'convergent' thinking - leading to tangible outputs.


Dr Stephen Marshall
View Stephen's profile
Email: s.marshall@ucl.ac.uk

Indicative reading

  • Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I. and Angel, S. (1977) A Pattern Language. Towns. Buildings. Construction. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Alexander, C. (1979) The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kostof, S. (1991) The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings through History. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Kostof, S. (1992) The City Assembled: The Elements of Urban Form Throughout History. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Lynch, K. (1981) Good City Form. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Marshall, S. (2008) Cities Design & Evolution. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Morris, A. E. J. (1994) History of Urban Form. Before the Industrial Revolutions (3rd ed.). Harlow: Longman Scientific and Technical.
    BPLN0089 Urban Design: Space and Place

    This module includes the preparation of a masterplan proposal and urban design framework for a London waterfront area, envisioning its future redevelopment underpinned by a strategic vision and urban design principles that are further developed into detailed proposals focusing on the quality of the public realm.

    Teaching and Learning Methods

    This module is taught primarily through the undertaking and completion of project work with tutors available for individual and group tuition during the studio workshops.

    Aims & Outcomes

    To develop a range of skills, knowledge and awareness which is necessary for carrying out large-scale, broad-ranging inner-city urban design investigations, masterplanning, and the development of detailed design proposals within them.

    Skills development includes graphic communication, analysis and adaptation of design precedents, site analysis, analysis of urban morphology and behavioural patterns, urban design, computer-aided drafting, design appreciation, group working and creative problem solving.


    Dr Elisabete Cidre
    Module coordinator
    View Elisabete's profile 
    Email: e.cidre@ucl.ac.uk

    Juliana Martins
    Email: j.martins@ucl.ac.uk

    James Chadwick

    Bianca Maria Nardella

    Indicative reading

    • Barnett J. (2011) City Design - modernist, traditional, green and systems perspectives. Routledge.
    • Barton, H., Grant, M. and Guise, R. (2010) Shaping Neighbourhoods, (2nd edition), Routledge, London.
    • Bentley, I. et. al. (1985) Responsive Environments: A Manual for Designers, Butterworths Architecture
    • Bobic, M. (2004) Between the edges: Street-building transition as urbanity interface, THOTH publishers
    • Carmona M, Heath T, Oc T & Tiesdell S (2002) Public Places – Urban Spaces, The Dimensions of Urban Design, Spon Press
    • Carmona M and Tiesdell S (2007) Urban Design Reader. London: Architectural Press.
    • Chapman, D. (1996) Creating Neighbourhoods and Places in the Built Environment, E & FN Spon
    • Cowan, R. (Urban Design Group) (2002) Urban Design Guidance: Urban Design Frameworks, Development Briefs and Master Plans, Thomas Telford
    • De Chiara, J. (ed.) (1984) Time-Saver Standards for Residential Development
    • De Chiara, J. & Koppelman, L. (1982) Urban Planning and Design Criteria, 3rd ed.
    • DETR/CABE (2000) By Design - Urban Design in the Planning Process, Thomas Telford Publishing
    • DETR/CABE (2001) Better Places to Live, By Design, Thomas Telford Publishing
    • Greed, C. & Roberts, M. (1988) Introducing Urban Design: Interventions and Responses, Longman
    • Gunay, B. (2007) Gestalt Theory and City Planning Education, METU JFA 2007/1, 24:1, pages: 93-113. [in http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/2007/cilt24/sayi_1/93-113.pdf]
    • Jacobs A. (2011) The Good city, reflections and imaginations. Routledge.
    • Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Masterplanning a New Community, Designs for a Town Extension in York, [https://www.jrf.org.uk/file/36644/download?token=HkMBdobo&filetype=download]
    • Kendig L. and Keast B. (2010) Community Character: principles for design and planning. Island Press.
    • LaGro, J. (2001) Site Analysis: Linking Program and Concept in Land Planning and Design. Oxford, Architectural Press,
    • Lang, J.( 2005) Urban design: a typology of procedures and products. Oxford, Architectural Press
    • Llewelyn-Davies (2000) Urban Design Compendium, English Partnerships & The Housing Corporation
    • Lynch, K. & Hack, G. (1984) Site Planning, 3rd ed.
    • Moughtin, C.(1999) Urban Design, Method and Techniques, Architectural Press
    • Neufert, E. & Neufert, P. (2000) Architects' data, 3rd ed., Blackwell
    • Panerai, P., Castex, J., Depaule, J. C., Samuels, I. (2004). Urban Forms: The Death and Life of the Urban Block. Architectural Press: Oxford.
    • Punter J & Carmona M, (1997) The Design Dimension of Planning, Theory, Content and Best Practice for Design Policies, E & FN Spon
    • Tibbalds, F. (1992) Making People-Friendly Towns, Longman
    • Urban Task Force (2005) Towards an Urban Renaissance, London, E & FN Spon
    • Watson, D. & Crosbie, M. (2005) Time-saver standards for architectural design 8th ed: technical data for professional design. New York :McGraw-Hill.
    BPLN0091 Transport Policy and Planning

    Teaching methods

    Lectures, Group project

    Aims & Outcomes

    • To provide planning / urban studies students with a grounding in transport issues, and the transport dimensions of urban planning, and hence understanding how transport considerations influence planning and urbanism, and vice versa.
    • To provide insight into - and a taste of experience in - 'doing' transport planning, to help prepare for further study or work in the planning and / or transport sectors.

    The module comprises five lectures giving a basic grounding in transport issues, followed by five project sessions that apply the understanding to a particular location.


    Dr Stephen Marshall
    View Stephen's profile
    Email: s.marshall@ucl.ac.uk

    Indicative reading

    • Banister, D. (2002) Transport Planning. London: Spon.
    • Banister, D. (2005) Unsustainable Transport. London: Routledge.
    • Institution of Highways and Transportation (1997) Transport in the Urban Environment. London: IHT.

    Year 3 

    BPLN0092 Property and Planning Law

    The course introduces students to the key legal principles underpinning the control of planning and development and gives an overview of the fundamental concepts of the legal ownership of land.  

    The module will focus on a practical view of the planning system in England and aims to provide students with a knowledge and understanding of the legal principles governing local authority planning officers and developers.  In addition, this module will give students a broad appreciation of the various forms of legal and equitable ownership of land.

    Teaching and Learning Methods

    This module will be taught over 10 sessions of 2 hours each.  In general, each session will be comprised of a one-hour lecture followed by a one-hour small group session involving practical exercises applying the principles that have just been covered.

    Students will be expected to build upon their knowledge over time and by the end of the module be able to take part in a group exercise replicating a planning inquiry.

    Aims & Outcomes

    To develop through lectures, group exercises and a mock planning inquiry the ability to:

    • understand legal principles and procedure;
    • apply knowledge to practical problems; and
    • prepare for the duties required of a planning officer or planner in practice.

    On successful completion of the module, each student will have acquired skills in:

    ascertaining the principles applying to a given practical problem;
    referring to detailed and complex planning guidance ; and
    presenting live evidence or submissions as part of a mock inquiry.


    Anne Williams
    Email: annewilliams@6pumpcourt.co.uk

    Indicative reading

    • A Practical Approach to Planning Law, 13th edition – Victor Moore OUP (December 2014)
    • Planning Law & Practice Guide - David Travers QC, Noemi Byrd and Giles Atkinson March 2013
    • Introduction to Land Law, 3rd edition – Roger Smith Pearson (2013), also available here – please note that it will not be necessary to read this in advance, but it will be beneficial to have available during the course.
    BPLN0095 Regional Development, Planning and Policy in a Global Context 

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    BPLN0090 Urban Project Management

    Teaching and Learning Methods

    The Urban Project Management course is the third and final module in the 'management stream', which comprises three modules in progression. It is intended to act as a 'knowledge bridge' between management theory and practice and project implementation. For illustrative purposes, many of the lectures will refer to on-going or recently completed projects and proposals currently being planned and/or executed.

    Knowledge is imparted through a lecture course combining a mix of theoretical and conceptual lectures and case study demonstrations given by the module coordinator and guest speakers. This knowledge is then developed through class exercises and two written assignments.

    Aims & Outcomes

    The aim of the module is to provide students with an introductory yet comprehensive overview of project management as applied to urban projects.  It also provides an opportunity to turn project management theory and methodology into practice through the completion of two project-based written assignments.

    By the end of the module students will be able to:

    • Define a project, its characteristics and the role of the project manager;
    • Understand the ways projects are conceived, planned, implemented, and evaluated;
    • Identify the scope, benefits, stakeholders, and project team members associated with a live urban project.
    • Produce a project plan;
    • Understand the significance of the urban context for project success;
    • Critically assess contexts for uncertainty and risk.
    • Appreciate the complexities of multi-level engagements in urban projects.
    • Prepare an implementation strategy;
    • Have a clear overview of critical issues involved in managing (and mismanaging) urban projects; and
    • Understand the importance of and approaches to monitoring and evaluating urban projects.

    The course illustrates the potential of PPM as a problem solving process, a process necessary to deliver the types of public and private projects in the built environment that will continue to return value to their users, investors and local communities over the long-term.  It also provides a stepping off point for final year BSc students by arming them with both the academic and practical knowledge of urban project management applicable within the complexity of today’s urban networks.


    Dr Jessica Ferm
    View Jessica's profile
    Email: m.spinks@ucl.ac.uk

    Indicative reading

    Project management general
    • Baker, S. & Baker, K. (1998) The Complete Idiot's Guide to Project Management, New York, NY: Alpha Books.
    • Baum, W.C. (1982) The Project Cycle, World Bank Pamphlet, Washington D.C.
    • Cicmil, S. (2006) Understanding project management practice through interpretative and critical research perspectives.  Project Management Journal.  37(2), pp. 27-37
    • Cooke-Davies, T., Cicmil, S., Crawford, L., & Richardson, K. (2007) We're not in Kansas anymore, Toto: Mapping the strange landscape of complexity theory, and its relationship to project management.  Project Management Journal, 38(2), 50-61.
    • Gardiner, P. (2005) Project Management: A Strategic Planning Approach, Palgrave MacMillan.
    • Hamilton, A. (1997) Management by Projects: Achieving success in a changing world, London: Thomas Telford
    • Hamilton, A. (2010) Art and Practice of Managing Projects, London: Thomas Telford
    • Laufer, A. & Hoffman, E.J. (2000) Project Management Success Stories: Lessons of project leaders, John Wiley, New York
    • Lock, D. (2007) The Essentials of Project Management (3rd edition), Aldershot: Gower
    • Reiss, G. (1995) Project Management Demystified: today’s tools and techniques, Spon, London
    • Morris, P (1994) The Management of Projects, Thomas Telford, London
    • Morris, P. & Hough, G. (1987) The Anatomy of Major Projects: A study of the reality of project Management, John Wiley, New York
    • Morris, P. (2002) Science, objective knowledge and the theory of project management. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering, May 2002, pp. 82-90.
    • Pinto, J. (1998) The Project Management Institute Project Management Handbook.  Jossey-Bass Publishers
    • Winter, Smith, Morris, Cicmil (2006) Directions for future research in project management: The main findings of a UK government-funded research network, International Journal of Project Management 24(8), pp. 638-649
    Urban project management – general & case studies
    • Adams, D. (1994) Urban Planning and the Development Process, UCL Press, London
    • Acioly, C Jr (2001) Reviewing Urban Revitalisation Strategies in Rio de Janeiro: From urban project to urban management approaches, Geoforum, 32(4), pp. 509-520
    • Hall, P. (1981) Great Planning Disasters, Penguin Books, Harmonsworth
    • Altshuler, A. & Luberoff, D. (2003) Mega-Projects: The changing politics of urban public investment, Brookings Institution Press, Washington D.C. and Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts
    • Holliday, I., G. Marcou, G. & Vickerman, R (1991) The Channel Tunnel: Public policy, regional development and European Integration, London and New York: Belhaven Press.
    • Kelsey, J., Winch, G. & Penn, A. (2001) Understanding the Project Planning Process: Requirements capture for the virtual construction site, Bartlett research Paper No. 15, UCL, London
    • Olomolaiye, P. &  Chinyio, E. (2009) Construction Stakeholder Management, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
    • Parsons, W. (1995) Public Policy: An introduction to the theory and practice of policy analysis, Cheltenham: Edward Arnold
    • Perdicoulis, A. (2011) Building Competencies for Spatial Planners: Methods and Techniques for Performing Tasks with Efficiency, London: Routledge
    • Walker, A. (2007) Project Management in Construction (5th Ed), NY: John Wiley & Sons
    Uncertainty and risk
    • Atkins, J. & Simpson, G. (2008) Managing Project Risk: Best Practices for Architects and Related Professionals, New York: Wiley
    • DeWeaver, M. & Gillespie, L. (1997) Real-World Project Management: New Approaches for Adapting to Change and Uncertainty.  New York: Quality Resources
    • Flyvbjerg, B., Bruzelius, N. & Rothengatter, W. (2003) Megaprojects and Risk: An anatomy of ambition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    • Gardner, D. (2008) Risk: the science and politics of fear.  London: Virgin Books
    • Lupton, D. (1999) Risk, Routledge, London and New York
    • Murray-Webster, R. & Hillson, D. (2008) Managing Group Risk Attitude, Gower Publications UK.
    • Mythen, G. (2004) Ulrich Beck: A critical introduction to the risk society, London: Pluto Press
    • Raftery, J. (1994) Risk Analysis in Project Management, UK: E& FN Spon
    • Slovic, P. (2000) The Perception of Risk, Michigan: Earthscan Publications
    • Weick, Karl and Sutcliffe (2007) Managing The Unexpected - Resilient Performance in an Age of Uncertainty, NY: John Wiley & Sons
    • Lichfield, N. (1996) Community Impact Evaluation, UCL Press, London
    • Shefer, D. and H. Voogd (1990) Evaluation Methods for Urban and Regional Plans, Pion, London
    BPLN0099 Real Estate Development*

    Teaching and Learning Methods

    Lectures, seminars, tutorials & site visits

    Aims & Outcomes

    Students should gain theoretical and practical understanding of:

    • the roles played by social and economic institutions in the development of land, infrastructure and property in a variety of times and places;
    • the importance of understanding the interaction of land ownership, construction, development and investment finance, planning, fiscal and other regulatory facets;
    • the historical and contemporary significance of the major forms of development organisation, public and private.
    • a basic grounding in development including the practical application of techniques.

    BPLN0081 Economics of the City and the Region or any similar introductory economics course is a pre-requisite for Land and Property Development.

    The course will inform the Development Project Module (BPLN0088) which runs in parallel.


    Dr Nikos Karadimitriou
    View Nikos's profile 

    Indicative reading

    • Adams D., 1994, Urban Planning and the Development Process, London: UCL Press
    • Adams D., C Watkins and M White (eds.), 2005, Planning, Public Policy and Property Markets, Oxford: Blackwell
    • Ball, M, C Lizieri and B D MacGregor, 1998, The economics of commercial property markets, London: Routledge
    • Brett M, 1997, Property and Money, London: Estates Gazette
    • Coakley J, 1994, 'The Integration of Property and Financial Markets, Environment and Planning A, Volume 26, 697-713.
    • D'Arcy E and G Keogh, 1997, 'Towards a property market paradigm of urban change', Environment and Planning A, Volume 29, 685-706.
    • De Magalhães C, 1999, 'Social Agents, the Provision of Buildings and Property Booms: The Case of São Paulo', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Volume 23, 445-63.
    • Fainstein S, 1994, The City Builders: Property, Politics and Planning in London and New York, Oxford: Blackwell.
    • Guy S and J Henneberry, 2000, 'Understanding urban development processes: Integrating the economic and the social in property research'. Urban Studies, Volume 37 (13), 2399-2416.
    • Healey P, 1992, 'Development Plans and Markets', Planning Practice and Research, Volume 7 (2), 13-20
    • Healey, P., Davoudi, S., O'Toole, M., Tavsanolu, S. & Usher, D. (eds.), 1992, Rebuilding the City: Property-led Urban Regeneration, Spon
    • S Guy and J Henneberry (eds.), 2002, Development and Developers: Perspectives on Property, Oxford: Blackwell
    • Syms P, 2002, Land, Development and Design, Oxford: Blackwell   

        Year 3 Specialist Planning and Real Estate

        BPLN0093 Real Estate Valuation

        This purpose of this module is to enable students to gain an understanding of the bases, methods and applications of real estate appraisal in real estate markets. Students will learn about the concepts, tools and techniques for appraising individual real estate assets.  

        Upon completion of the course, students should have a broad understanding of the nature of real estate as an asset, the financial mathematics required to perform real estate appraisal, the main approaches to real estate appraisal, the objectives and uses of real estate appraisals and techniques for estimating the value of real estate assets. The module will be taught by a combination of workshop exercises and lectures.

        Teaching and Learning Methods

        This module is taught over 10 sessions, comprising a mix of lectures and workshops.


        The course aims to provide an introduction to real estate valuation and/or appraisal, the range of possible methodologies, their strengths and limitations and the appropriate contexts for their application.

        Following an introduction to the nature of the asset being appraised, it focuses on definitions of value, methods of appraisal, purposes of valuation and appraisals, introduction to financial mathematics and investment appraisal, the appraisal of standing and development assets, the appraisal of real estate assets using capitalization rates, international variations in appraisal approaches, appraisal uncertainty and environmental issues in appraisal.

        Learning Outcomes

        At the end of the course the student should:

        • understand the investment qualities of real estate assets;
        • appreciate the role and bases of valuations and appraisals;
        • apply DCF techniques to appraise real estate assets and development opportunities;
        • be able to critically appreciate the natures, causes and consequences of appraisal uncertainty;
        • understand the extent of international integration and segmentation in appraisal methods.


        Dr Tommaso Gabrieli 
        View Tommaso's profile
        Email: t.gabrieli@ucl.ac.uk

        Indicative reading

        • Baum, A. and Crosby, N. (2008) Property Investment Appraisal (3e).  Blackwell: Oxford.
        • Baum, A. Mackmin, D. and Nunnington, N. (2002) The Income Approach to Valuation, International Thomson Business Press, London.
        • Wyatt, P. (2007) Property Valuation in an Economic Context, Blackwell Publishing: Oxford.
        BPLN0094 Real Estate Investment and Finance

        Teaching and Learning Methods

        The module is taught through a mixture of lectures, seminars and tutorials over a ten week period.  Typically sessions will take the format of a two hour lecture with a one hour tutorial; however there are weeks where this format is reversed. 

        Recommended reading is provided through Moodle to develop self-directed learning in addition to what we cover in lectures and seminar / tutorial sessions.  This should be used to develop knowledge throughout the delivery of the module.

        A revision session will also be held prior to the examination period.


        The aim of the module is to introduce and develop knowledge of the key concepts and fundamental principles of commercial real estate investment.  This module considers the application of investment theories to both the general investment markets and the property market specifically – where and how does property fit in?

        The module will begin by considering the unique characteristics of property as an asset class and considers the ‘value’ of an investment: who invests in property and why?  

        The risk and return potential of direct and indirect property will be considered in relation to other investment media, such as stocks and bonds.  Diverse ways in which property can be invested will be considered, as well as how such vehicles are managed by investors as an integral aspect of international and multi-asset portfolios.  

        Market performance, cycles and trends will be considered and relevant models and theories examined.  Market forecasting, modelling, indices and the efficiency of the market will be introduced, combining to offer a solid introduction to property as an international investment medium.

        Learning Outcomes

        By the end of the module, students should have a broad understanding of the position of real estate in the global investment market.  They will have developed knowledge and competency in:

        • The characteristics of investment markets and investors generally;
        • The factors affecting the performance of investment markets; 
        • The nature of risk, return and uncertainty in the market;
        • Characteristics of different investment assets (direct and indirect property, listed and unlisted, stocks, bonds);
        • The relevance and importance of diversification strategies;
        • The role of property in the multi-asset portfolio;
        • The strengths and weaknesses of real estate performance measurement and analysis;
        • The growth and development of international, cross-border property transactions. 


        Dr Nicola Livingstone
        View Nicola's profile
        Email: n.livingstone@ucl.ac.uk

        Indicative reading

        • Baum, A. & Hartzell, D. (2012) ‘Global Property Investment:  Strategies, Structures, Decisions’.  Wiley Blackwell.
        • Brown, G.R. & Matysiak, G.A. (2000) ‘Real Estate Investment:  A Capital Market Approach’, FT Prentice Hall, Pearson Education.  
        • Geltner, D. & Miller, N. (2000) ‘Commercial Real Estate Analysis and Investment’, South-Western University Press. 
        • Hoesli, M. & MacGregor, B. (1999) ‘Property Investment:  Principles and Practice of Portfolio Management’, Longman. 
        • Isaac, D. & O’Leary, J. (2011) ‘Property Investment’, 2nd Edition, Palgrave Macmillan.  

        Additional reading (journal papers, websites, and articles) will be provided through Moodle. 

        BPLN0096 Real Estate Management*

        This module explores the management of real estate assets from the perspective of the various stakeholders (owners, tenants and occupiers). It examines how managers can enhance the value of real estate as an investment asset, and also how occupiers can maximise the benefits of the space they occupy - considering property as a factor of production.

        It aims to provide the student with an understanding of the role, responsibilities and skills required of asset managers, property managers and corporate real estate managers. The module will also cover aspects such as corporate social responsibility in property management, environmental issues and facilities management.

        Teaching and Learning Methods

        The course will be delivered through 10 weekly two-hour sessions involving a blend of presentations and workshops.

        The assessment will offer students the opportunity to undertake in-depth academic analysis of selected real estate management issues. 

        Recommended reading is provided through Moodle to develop self-directed learning in addition to what we cover in lectures and seminar / tutorial sessions.  This should be used to develop knowledge throughout the delivery of the module.


        The module aims to enable students to: 

        • Apply management concepts to the business of real estate; 
        • Critically assess how real estate management can add value; 
        • Conceptualise key issues facing real estate managers;  
        • Evaluate how these issues affect the various sectors of real estate, from different perspectives;
        • Enhance oral and communication skills through discussions and presentations in seminars;
        • Develop independent learning abilities through preparation for weekly seminars;
        • Develop report/essay writing skills through the coursework; 
        • Enhance the capacity to read complex published material in a critical fashion.

        Learning Outcomes

        By the end of the module, students should:

        • Appreciate the management of real estate assets in the context of broader management theory;
        • Understand how real estate management can add value;
        • Be aware of the knowledge and skills required by real estate managers and their activities and responsibilities;
        • Appreciate the role of real estate in business performance and corporate strategy; and
        • Understand some of the issues affecting real estate managers in different sectors. 


        Danielle Sanderson
        Email: danielle.sanderson@ucl.ac.uk

        Indicative reading

        • Baum, A (2015) Real Estate Investment: A Strategic Approach 3rd ed. Routledge
        • Bosak, A, Mayer, B and Vogel, H (2007) Real Estate Asset Management. Vienna: Europe Real Estate Publishers
        • Edwards, V M and Ellison, L (2004) Corporate Property Management: Aligning Real Estate with Business Strategy. Malden, MA Blackwell Science.
        • Haynes, Barry P and Nunnington, Nick (2010) Corporate Real Estate Asset Management: Strategy and Implementation. London: EGi.
        • Stapleton, T (2005) Stapleton’s Real Estate Management Practice 4th ed. edited by Anthony Banfield, EG Books

        Additional reading (journal papers, websites, and articles) will be provided through Moodle. 

        Year 3 Specialit Urban Planning, Design and Management 

        BPLN0088 Development Project: Regeneration

        This module consists of a project in which groups diagnose problems in a London locality and develop proposals to resolve them, estimate incidence (who would gain and loose) and explore costs and funding.

        BSP Quick Guide on Getting Media Coverage for your Research, Project, etc.

        Teaching and Learning Methods

        The module is taught through a combination of lectures and small-group tutorials.  

        Aims & Outcomes

        The course aims to:

        • develop student skills in devising and presenting urban regeneration proposals with explicit attention to likely outcomes;
        • develop skills in analysing and working with diverse local and wider needs and impacts
        • foster a critical understanding of the likely distributional outcomes of urban interventions.

        By the end of the course students should possess:

        A. Knowledge and understanding of:

        The social, economic and physical history and conditions in a small or larger part of London; and the problems and potentialities of the area being studied.

        B. Intellectual skills - learning to:

        Analyse the sections of society with actual or potential interests in an area; examine the scope for compromise or conflict among those concerned; propose alternative policies and actions in the spatial, social and economic dimensions and predict their outcomes, costs and benefits. Questions of 'gentrification' will be central.

        C. Practical skills:

        • Observation, description, analysis and representation
        • Identification and use of information sources
        • Estimation and forecasting

        D. Transferable skills - be better able to:

        • Write clear English
        • Make oral / visual presentations
        • Work in groups
        • Acquire and demonstrate appropriate IT skills.


        Prof Mike Raco 
        View Mike's profile
        Email: m.raco@ucl.ac.uk

        Indicative reading

        • Minton, A. (2012) Ground Control – Fear and Happiness in the Twenty-First Century City - second edition, Penguin, London
        • Hanley, L. (2010) Estates: An Intimate History, Granta Books, London
        • Cochrane, A. (2007) Understanding Urban Policy – A Critical Introduction, Blackwell, Oxford

          Year 2 and/or 3 Specialist Urban Studies

          BPLN0083 Project Work

          Teaching and Learning Methods

          This course can be taken as an elective in Year 3. It aims at enabling the student, subject to agreement in advance with a supervisor, to pursue a topic (or work in a format) which is not otherwise on offer among core or elective courses of the BSc UPDM/Urban Studies. It provides great flexibility and can take the form, for example, of:

          • an essay (theoretical, historical, practice-oriented, or polemic), on a well defined question
          • a small research report, on a well defined research question
          • a documentary film on a well-defined issue, with accompanying commentary
          • a photographic project on a well-defined issue, with accompanying commentary
          • a design project (drawings and models), with accompanying commentary
          • a website, with accompanying commentary
          • a travel diary/reportage/report
          • a media reportage and/or substantial journalistic piece investigating a topic of current interest

          The topic chosen should be materially different to that explored in the other modules taken as part of the BSc. It cannot be an extended version of a piece of work you have done for another module!

          By its nature, the project has no pre-determined content. It should occupy about 100 hours of your time altogether (as it has a 0.5 course unit value).

          Aims & Outcomes

          The work proposed for a Project must be carefully formulated and must contribute to the academic coherence of the student's individual course of study. It demands good time-management, and strong independence and autonomy in the organisation of your work. In writing up your proposal you should make it clear what you hope to learn from the experience.


          Dr Tse-Hui Teh
          View Tse-Hui's profile
          Email: t.teh@ucl.ac.uk