The UCL Energy Institute studies all motorised modes of transport across space and time.
The UCL Energy Institute studies all motorised modes of transport across space and time. We:
- lead the development of integrated assessment models of the global air and sea transportation system
- provide the shipping component to models of the International Energy Agency and the International Transport Forum
- are active in future transportation fuels research (hydrogen and biofuels) through participation in the Supergen Consortia
- accommodate a growing number of PhD students in the energy and transport area
- produce a large number of publications about our research, including many journal articles, book chapters and a book.
The Aviation research group is concerned with:
- the demand characteristics for passenger and freight movements
- technological change of aircraft and their enabling infrastructure
- airport capacities and flight delays
- aircraft movements
Jointly, these air transportation system components determine aviation sector fuel use and emissions of pollutants and noise.
The aviation research group collaborates with a number of research institutions, including MIT, Georgia Tech, Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile and Imperial College London.
Our current research is directed at the costs for reducing aircraft fuel burn and CO2 emissions. Future work examines the range of implications associated with airport capacity expansions.
Head of the group
Schäfer A., Waitz I.A., 2014. “Air Transportation and the Environment”, Transport Policy 34:1-4.
Evans A., Schäfer A., 2014. “Aviation in a Constrained Transportation Network”, Transport Policy 34:5-13.
Dray L., Evans A., Reynolds T., Schäfer A., Vera-Morales M., Bosbach W., 2014. “Airline Fleet Replacement Funded by a Carbon Tax: An Integrated Assessment”, Transport Policy 34:75-84.
Evans A., Schäfer A., 2013. “The Rebound Effect in the Aviation Sector”, Energy Economics, Volume 36, March 2013, Pages 158–165
Evans A., Schäfer A., 2011. “The Impact of Airport Capacity Constraints on Future Growth in the US Air Transportation System”, Journal of Air Transport Management 17: 288-295.
Dray, L. Evans, A., Reynolds, T., Schäfer, A., 2010. "Mitigation of Aviation Emissions of Carbon Dioxide", Transportation Research Record, 2177: 17-26.
Jamin S., Schäfer A., Ben-Akiva M.E., Waitz I.A., 2004, “Aviation Emissions and Abatement Policies in the United States: A City Pair Analysis”, Transportation Research D, 9(4): 294-314.
Lee J.J., Lukachko S.P., Waitz I.A., Schäfer A., 2001, “Historical and Future Trends in Aircraft Performance, Cost, and Emissions”, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 2001, 26: 167-200.
Polydoropoulou, A., E. Chortatsiani, and M. Kamargianni (2012). "Flyers Corner: Some Simple Truths about Scheduled Air-Travel." Journal of Air Transport Studies, Vol. 3(1), pp. 24-38. Available at: http://www.airtransportnews.aero/content/jats/jats31.pdf#page=33
Evans A., Schäfer A., 2009. “Simulating Flight Routing Network Responses to Airport Capacity Constraints in the US”, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), 21 - 23 September, Hilton Head, South Carolina
Dray L., Evans A., Reynolds T., Schäfer A., Vera-Morales M., 2009. “A Comparison of Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Policies for Europe”, 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (ATIO), 21 - 23 September, Hilton Head, South Carolina
Dray L.M., Evans A., Reynolds T.G., Rogers H., Schäfer A., Vera-Morales M., 2009, “Air Transport within an Emissions Trading Regime – A Network-based Analysis of the US and India”, Transportation Research Board. Proceedings of the 88th Annual Conference of the Transportation Research Board, January 11-15, 2009, Washington DC.
Dray L.M., Evans A., Vera-Morales M., Reynolds T.G., Schäfer A., 2008. “Network and Environmental Impacts of Passenger and Airline Response to Cost and Delay”, 8th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference, Anchorage, 14-19 September 2008.
Evans A., Schäfer A., Dray L.M., 2008. “Modelling Airline Routing and Scheduling under Airport Capacity Constraints”, 8th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference, Anchorage, 14-19 September 2008.
Bolgeri P., L.M. Dray, A. Evans, A. Schäfer, 2008. “The Emergence of Multi-Airport Systems”, 12th Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Athens, 6-10 July 2008.
Airport Capacity Consequences Leveraging Aviation Integrated Modelling (ACCLAIM)
The goal of ACCLAIM is to develop rigorous scientific models that simulate passenger and industry behaviour in an integrated way, as well as quantify the economic and environmental implications of the various options.
ACCLAIM will build on the existing Aviation Integrated Modelling (AIM) framework, and add significantly to its capabilities by providing support to the multi-billion pound investment decisions at stake.
For more information, please contact Andreas Schäfer.
Aviation Integrated Modelling – AIM
The AIM project began in 2006 at the University of Cambridge and continues the development of this policy assessment tool.
The AIM architecture contains a set of integrated modules simulating the key elements of the air transport system.
For more information, please contact Andreas Schäfer.
The shipping research group at UCL Energy Institute consists of 15 researchers and PhD students, involved in a number of on-going projects, funded through a mixture of research grants and our consultancy vehicle UMAS.
We undertake research both using models of the shipping system (GloTraM), shipping big data (including satellite Automatic Identification System data) and qualitative and social science analysis of the policy and commercial structure of the shipping system.
Our research activity is centred on understanding patterns of energy demand in shipping and how this knowledge can be applied to help shipping transition to a low carbon future.
The shipping research team at UCL Energy Institute comprises of a diverse team of individuals and we are the largest university based research group focussing on GHG and energy matters related to shipping.
Alongside the IMO 3rd GHG, the team has been involved, over the last 5 years, in ~£12m of shipping research programmes (leading the majority of the work), which has built a strong team with a multidisciplinary background, including economics, engineering, finance, statistics and programming.
Through this expertise, we have developed a deep understanding of the shipping industry, and broad ranging stakeholder connections.
Our mission is to accelerate the transition to an equitable, globally sustainable energy system through world-class shipping research, education and policy support.
The shipping research group is world leading on two key areas; using big data to understand trends and drivers of shipping energy demand or emissions and using models to explore what-ifs for future markets and policies.
For general inquiries please contact;
Dr Tristan Smith
Head of the Shipping group
UCL Energy Institute
Central House 14 Upper Woburn Place
London WC1H 0NN
+44 203 108 5984
For more information, see:
Dr Tristan Smith
Reader in Energy and Transport
- Dr. Simon Davies
- Isabelle Rojon
- Elena Hauerhof
- Carlo Raucci
- Eoin O’Keeffe
- Research projects
Since 2010 we have been involved in a wide range of projects funded through research grants and funding from private shipping stakeholders. Our primary funders for grant funding are the Research Council UK Energy programme and Energy Technologies Institute. In addition, we work closely with industry and policy makers through a number of sponsorships and consultancy projects, including: Shell, INTERTANKO, Lloyd’s Register, WWF, European Bank of Reconstruction & Development, Carbon War Room, BMT and International Paint.
Shipping in Changing Climates – £3.5m multi-university and cross-industry research project funded for 3.5 years by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). The SCC project uses a whole systems approach to understand the scope for greater energy efficiency of the supply side, understand the demand side drivers and understanding the supply and demand interactions and evolution in shipping. Read more
Heavy Duty Vehicles – £2m Energy Technologies Institute cross-industry project aimed at increasing efficiency of land vehicles and marine vessels by up to 30%. The project deploys GloTraM to identify the Research and Development agenda for UK shipping, and investment in R&D for Rolls-Royce.
iTransfer – Innovative Transport Solutions for Fjords, Estuaries & Rivers, UCL Energy Institute’s involvement in this EU Interreg project was in the policy work package investigating energy efficiency and GHG’s in relation to public procurement and tendering of ferry services in the North Sea. Read more
The Newton Fund –£50,000 Research Council UK funded project that intends to strengthen research and innovation partnerships between the UK and emerging knowledge economies. The shipping research group at UCL Energy Institute is working in collaboration with Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to develop an international trade and shipping database and to study port and shipping efficiency.
Centre for Energy Epidemiology - The shipping group has been involved in researching energy demand in shipping through the centre for excellence awarded to UCL Energy Institute. Two cross-sectional surveys of the shipping sector have been conducted focussing on the implementation of operational and technical energy efficiency measures implemented in shipping. Read more
Well to Wake – Funded by the Energy Technologies Institute
Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach - A research project that started in January 2010 and ended in June 2013, funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (£1.7m), a number of industry partners and five UK universities. Read more
Substantiating shipping GHG policy debates - Funded by the European Climate Foundation this project seeks to raise awareness of the implications of maritime policies and to investigate whether a sought ‘best practice’ has been adopted using AIS data and infographics.
Shipping GHG: analysis, strategy and outreach – Funded by the Pisces Foundation this project further deploys research and evidence to support IMO debates on the need and justification for a progressive target for the reduction of shipping’s GHG emissions. The project also aims to develop a strategy around the communication of the latest science and research on shipping’s GHG emissions and forthcoming challenges, and the application of that strategy through a series of outreach activities.
Shipping Innovation Fast Tracker (ShIFT) – In collaboration with Carbon War Room the project seeks to interrogate the potential for wind-assistance technologies in shipping, understand possible barriers and deploy effort for the removal of these barriers to open up technology investment.
Third IMO GHG study 2014 - The study of greenhouse gas emissions from ships (the Third IMO GHG Study 2014) was commissioned by the International Maritime Organisation as an update to the Second IMO GHG Study 2009. Dr Tristan Smith and staff from UCL Energy Institute Shipping research group led the Third IMO GHG with a consortium of nine other organisations. The Third IMO GHG study is a key reference document for shipping stakeholders. Read more
Russian Green Shipping Programme – Commissioned by the European Bank of Reconstruction & Development to undertake a technology assessment and market review of the Russian Fleet. This was the first deployment of GloTraM to develop a regional/national level strategy for investment in technology and operational measures that can be used to reduce the carbon intensity of Russian shipping. Read more
Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using Satellite AIS – Commissioned by ICCT this was the first satellite AIS derived estimates of shipping’s global activity and emissions intensity. The study also provides the first comparison of estimated EEDI and estimated EEOI for different ship type and size categories. Read more
Global Marine Fuel Trends – This project provides an analysis of the future fuels landscape, looking at the interaction of fuel, machinery, speed and energy efficiency technology choices to comply with MARPOL Annex VI SOx and NOx regulations, EEDI and future fuel price scenarios. Click here to the full report.
Analysis of the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator – Commissioned by INTERTANKO to provide further understanding of the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) developed by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) using data from its member shipowners in 2010-2013. The work undertaken also analysed the differences in EEOI as proposed by several member states and shows significant variation in the results from the different proposals.
European Union Monitoring Reporting Verification (MRV) - commissioned by the Royal Belgian Shipowners Association (RBSA) to provider further insights into ship efficiency, specifically the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) and recent policy events, such as the EU MRV policy, through examining individual ship’s as well as fleets’ data over this period. Read more
Review of the Shell Trajectory Model - Review of modelling methods used to understand shipping’s potential to reduce its CO2 emissions over the period 2010-2050. The work also contributed to a review presented by OCIMF at IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 61. Click here to read the paper submission to IMO MEPC 61.
The Existing Shipping Fleet's CO2 Efficiency - The IMO Secretariat commissioned, using residue funds donated for the Third IMO GHG Study 2014 and other related research projects, an update of the data for ship CO2 efficiency. The findings can be found in MEPC 68 inf.24 (pdf).
Mobility model – Commissioned by International Energy Association (IEA) to integrate international and domestic shipping scenarios of technical and operational change in the period 2010-2050 for the inclusion of shipping in IEA’s Mobility Model.
ISO 19030 – Hull and propeller performance measurement – This is the first deployment of uncertainty analysis to assist ship owners and operators in understanding trends in hull and propeller performance – extensive experience in handling measurements/data of shipping’s energy demand.
Innovative financing model for energy efficiency retrofits – Worked with the Carbon War Room in its shipping operations to develop a methodology for assessing fuel savings for an innovative financing model, whereby multiple vessels could be upgraded with retrofit efficiency technology with tailored preferable finance and insurance in place to facilitate the retrofits for maximum scalability across the industry. Read more
Estimating savings on routes for wind assist – We have been providing B9 Shipping with technical expertise through the deployment of the GloTraM model to estimate savings on routes for potential clients. This work capitalises on the group’s significant in-house capability to model fuel savings on routes by combining vessel particulars with S-AIS data and wind data and providing financial modelling to explore the different financing options available and model the investment and returns of the options.
Understanding the split incentive in shipping – Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative finance workstream to investigate the charter market for developing an innovative financing model for energy efficiency retrofits. The investigation included ascertaining the duration of time charters and whether energy efficiency results in a premium on the time charter rate. Read more
Voyage optimisation - Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative technology workstream to conduct a detailed analysis of the savings per voyage for BP Shipping. The work included looking at the annualised savings achieved from Virtual Arrival, slow steaming and other operational measures.
Attitudes on fuel consumption monitoring in shipping - International Paint commissioned this study aimed to develop and share knowledge and insight from a broad range of ship owners, operators and managers about the current views on energy efficiency solutions, the extent of fuel consumption monitoring, attitudes to its use. Click here to read the full report.
IMO 0.5% sulphur fuel oil study – As part of a consortium led by CE Delft, the demand and supply of compliant fuel oil in 2020 is studied. The project deploys GloTraM (Global Transport Model) to model the fuel supply side, such as refineries.
CO2 emission targets for shipping – Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative the study provides the SSI an understanding of what a 2°C target would mean for shipping and what would be the implications or consequences for SSI members and the industry at large to committing to such a target.
Investigation into INTERTANKO member’s fleets’ energy efficiency – Follow on project to monitor performance of a member of INTERTANKO and a similarity analysis of sister ships.
Guidance documents and rapid assessments for the GloMEEP project (Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnerships Project) – GloMEEP is USD 2million, IMO, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) funded project, which aims to support increased uptake and implementation of energy-efficiency measures for shipping. Our work supported the developments of guidance documents and creating templates for Rapid Assessments to aid the IMO member states that are involved in the project.
Stranded assets in shipping: Implications for investors, companies, and insurers – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this work investigates the different categories of risk that could result in asset stranding in shipping, identifies some potential future scenarios that could result in different extents of asset stranding, and proposes an analysis framework for quantifying whether a ship is or might become a stranded asset.
Existing Vessel Design Index and retrofits – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this project looks to see the revision of a vessel’s Existing Vessel Design Index (EVDI), and subsequent improvement in a vessels GHG rating, based on a monitoring data post clean tech retrofit. This includes the revision of the current Existing Vessel Design Index methodology, which rates existing vessels based on their design efficiency, to be able to accurately reflect a retrofit’s improvement in its design rating.
Developing a carbon credits methodology for retrofits – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this projects develops methodology with the Gold Standard and FREMCO to assess a vessel’s baseline emissions pre-retrofit and quantify fuel savings directly resulting from interventions using multi-variate regression analysis.
Savings analysis for the Self Financing Fuel Saving Mechanism (SFFSM) – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this work assesses savings from vessels retrofitted with a bundle of technologies under a third-party finance mechanism, utilizing both noon reports and continuous monitoring data.
Inventory of UK domestic GHG emissions - This project supports AEA Ricardo in an inventory of UK domestic shipping GHG emissions. Its involves estimating shipping GHG emissions using bottom-up methods and also involves an extension to include spatial attribution of emissions.
Performance analysis of hull coatings – Funded by International Paint (AkzoNobel) this project involves onboard measurements of ship performance to estimate the performance trends attributable to hull coatings. The project started in early 2015 and has a continues throughout 2016.
UK shipping CO2 emissions - This project supports the Committee on Climate Change’s review of the UK shipping CO2 emissions (baseline and future scenarios) building on previous CCC studies and deploys GloTraM on UK-centric trade flows.
CO2 reduction targets for shipping – Funded by the Danish Shipowners Association, the aim of this project is to provide the Danish Shipowners Association with support and evidence so that it can establish specific, ambitious, achievable and time dependent reduction targets for CO2 emissions.
- Outputs and publications
Agnolucci, P, Lazarou, N, Mander, S & Walsh, C 2015, 'Shipping demand scenarios using estimated elasticities', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November, Glasgow.
Agnolucci, P, Smith, T & Rehmatulla, N 2014, 'Energy efficiency and time charter rates: Some evidence quantifying the extent of split incentive problem in the panamax drybulk market', Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol 66, pp. 173-184.
Aldous, L & Smith, T 2012, 'Speed optimisation for Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers: A techno-economic model', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 11- 12 September, Newcastle.
Aldous, L, Smith, T & Bucknall, R 2013, 'Noon report data uncertainty', Low Carbon Shipping Coference, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
Aldous, L, Smith, T, Bucknall, R & Thompson, P 2015, 'Uncertainty analysis in ship performance monitoring', Ocean Engineering, vol 110, pp. 29-38.
Calleya, J, Pawling, R, Smith, T & Greig, A 2012, 'Ship design and evaluation for a GHG constrained future', The Environmentally Friendly Ship, 28 - 29 February, Royal Institution of Naval Architects, London.
Haji, S, C, W, Dray, L, Gilbert, P, Smith, T & Kesieme, U 2015, 'Exploring the sectoral level impacts and absolute emission changes of using alternative fuels in international shipping', Shipping in Changing Climates, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
Haji, S, Smith, T, Sabio, N & Mangset, L 2014, 'Bridging the shipping gap: 2 degrees pathways and carbon pricing', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference: Provisioning the future, 18-19 June 2014, Liverpool.
Haji, S, Smith, T, Walsh, C, Traut, M & Raucci, C 2015, 'Policy implications of meeting the 2°C climate target', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference 2015, 24 - 26 November 2015, Glasgow.
Jia, Prakash, V & Smith, T 2015, 'Estimating vessel utilization in the drybulk freight market: The reliability of draught reports in AIS data feeds', ECONSHIP 2015, 24-27 June 2015, Chios.
Mitchell, J & Rehmatulla, N 2015, 'Dead in the water: an analysis of industry practices and perceptions on vessel efficiency and stranded ship assets', 2nd Shipping in Changing Climates conference 2015, 24th-26th November 2015, Glasgow.
O'Keeffe, E 2010, 'Shipping and trade: a vulnerability analysis', CCCEP PhD Symposium, 15 September, London.
O'Keeffe, E 2013, 'Agent-based modelling of the global dry bulk shipping sector', 26th European Conference on Operations Research, 1-4 July, Rome.
Parker, S 2013, 'Matching on the tanker market', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 9 - 10 September, London.
Parker, S 2013, 'The influence of agent choices and spatial dynamics on tanker movements', Energy Working Group on Financial Commodities.
Parker, S 2015, 'Approaches to investment modelling', Working paper, UCL Energy Institute, London.
Parker, S & Prakash, V 2015, 'Risk or reward: Energy efficiency premiums in the time charter market', ECONSHIP 2015, 24 - 27 June, Chios.
Parker, S, Raucci, C, T, S & Laffineur, L 2015, Understanding the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator: An empirical analysis of ships from the Royal Belgian Shipowners’ Association, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/Ben_Howett/RBSA_final_main.pdf.
Prakash, V, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N, Mitchell, J & Adland, R 2016, Revealed preferences for energy efficiency in the shipping markets, viewed 07 September 2016, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Revealed_preferences_for_energy_efficiency_in_shipping_markets.pdf
Raucci, C 2013, 'Evaluating scenarios for alternative fuels in international shipping', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 9-10 September, London.
Raucci, C, Calleya, J, Suarez De La Fuente, S, Pawling & R 2015, 'Hydrogen on board ship: A first analysis of key parameters and implications', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
Raucci, C, McGlade, C, Smith, T & Tanneberger, K 2014, 'A framework to evaluate hydrogen as a fuel in international shipping', Shipping in Changing Climates: Provisioning the future, 18-19 June 2014, Liverpool.
Rehmatulla, N 2011, 'Applying systems thinking approaches for qualitative analysis of GHG emissions regulations in shipping', First International Conference on Marine & Maritime affairs, 4 - 5 April 2011, University of Plymouth, Plymouth.
Rehmatulla, N 2012, 'Barriers to uptake of energy efficient operational measures: Survey Report', Energy Institute, UCL, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Rehmatulla_2012_Low_C....
Rehmatulla, N 2014, Effects of EU policy regulations on ferry operation, viewed 06 December 2014, http://www.itransferproject.eu/media-lib/IfS-UCL-Effect-of-EU-policy-regulations-on-ferry-operations-Report.pdf.
Rehmatulla, N 2014, 'Market failures and barriers affecting energy efficient operations in shipping (unpublished PhD thesis)', UCL Energy Institute, University College London (UCL), London.
Rehmatulla, N 2015, 'Assessing the implementation of technical energy efficiency measures in shipping: Survey report', UCL Energy Institute, London.
Rehmatulla, N, Haji, S, Calleya, C & Smith, T 2015, 'The diffusion of energy saving technologies in shipping', Shipping in Changing Climates 2015, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
Rehmatulla, N, Parker, S, Smith, T & Stulgis, V In Press, 'Wind technologies: Opportunities and barriers to a low carbon shipping industry', Marine Policy.
Rehmatulla, N, Parker, S, Smith, T, Stulgis, V & Mitchell, J 2015, Barriers to uptake of wind propulsion technologies - Poster presented at the Green Shipping Technology conference 2015, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/GST_poster_v9.pdf.
Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2012, 'Implementation barriers to Low Carbon Shipping', Low Carbon Shipping Conference, 11 - 12 September, University of Newcastle, Newcastle.
Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2015, 'Barriers to energy efficiency in shipping: A triangulated approach to investigate the principal agent problem in shipping', Energy Policy, vol 84, pp. 44-57.
Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2015, CO2 emission targets for shipping: Report commissioned by Sustainable Shipping Initiative, http://ssi2040.org/uncategorized/ssi-releases-co2-impact-report-commissioned-from-ucl/.
Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2015, 'Barriers to energy efficient and low carbon shipping', Ocean Engineering, vol 110, pp. 102-112.
Rehmatulla, N, Smith, T & Tibbles, L In Press, 'The relationship between EU's public procurement policies and energy efficiency of ferries in EU', Marine Policy.
Rehmatulla, N, Smith, T & Wrobel, P 2013, 'Implementation barriers to Low Carbon Shipping', Low Carbon Shipping Conference, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
Rehmatulla, N 2016, 'Future trends in green shipping', ESI Bulletin on Energy Trends and Development, vol 9, no. 3, pp. 8-11.
Rehmatulla, N 2016, 'Take-up of innovative energy efficiency technologies in maritime transport', International Association of Maritime Economists, 24-25 August, Hamburg.Rojon, I 2013, ''Blowin' in the wind? Possibilities of the International Maritime Organisation to promote the uptake of wind propulsion in international shipping (Unpublished MSc thesis)', Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht.
Rojon, I & Dieperink, C 2014, 'Blowin' in the wind? Drivers and barriers for the uptake of wind propulsion in international shipping', Energy Policy, vol 67, pp. 394-402.
Rojon, I & Smith, T 2014, On the attitudes and opportunities of fuel consumption monitoring and measurement within the shipping industry and the identification and validation of energy efficency and performance intervention, viewed 24 February 2014, <http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/energy/news/documents/Report-On_the_attitudes_and_opportunities_for_fuel_consumption_monitoring.pdf>.
Schaumeier, J, Alegre, R, Smith, T & Hetherington, J 2015, 'A visual approach to data analysis', Shipping in Changing Climates, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
Scott, J, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N & Milligan, B In Press, 'The promise and limits of private standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from shipping', Journal of Environmental Law.
Smith, T 2012, 'Technical energy efficiency, its interaction with optimal operating speeds and the implications for the management of shipping's carbon emissions', Carbon Management, vol 3, no. 6, pp. 589-600.
Smith, T, Argyros, D, Sabio, N & Raucci, C 2014a, Global Marine Fuel Trends 2030, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Global_Marine_Fuel_Trends_2030_single_page_v2_tcm155-249392.pdf.
Smith, T, Bracewell, T & Mulley, R 2015, 'Stranded assets in shipping', First Global Conference on Stranded Assets 2015, Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford.
Smith, T, Bracewell, T, Mulley, R & Palmer, K 2015, 'Stranded assets and the shipping industry', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November, Glasgow.
Smith, T, Day, S, Bucknall, R, Dinwoodie, J, Landamore, M, Turan, O & Wrobel, P 2014, Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach: Final report, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Low_Carbon_Shipping_A_Systems_Approach_2014.pdf.
Smith, T, Day, S, Bucknall, R, Mangan, J, Dinwoodie, J, Landamore, M, Turan, O & Wrobel, P 2014, Low Carbon Shipping A Sytems Approach Final Report, viewed 17 March 2014, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Low_Carbon_Shipping_A_Systems_Approach_2014.pdf.
Smith, T, Jalkanen, J, Anderson, B, Corbett, J, Faber, J, Hanayama, S, O'Keefe, E, Parker, S, Johansson, L, Aldous, L, Raucci, C, Traut, M, Ettinger, S, Nelissen, D, Lee, D, Ng, S, Agarwal, A, Winebrake, J, Hoen, M, Chesworth, S, et al. 2014, Third IMO GHG study 2014, International Maritime Organisation, London, http://www.imo.org/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Pages/Greenhouse-Gas-Studies-2014.aspx.
Smith, T, Newton, P, Graeme, W & Grech La Rosa, A 2013b, 'Analysis techniques for evaluating the fuel savings associated with wind assistance', Low Carbon Shipping Conference 2013, 9-10 September, UCL, London.
Smith, T & O'Keefe, E 2012, 'What is an appropriate measurement and apportionment strategy for shipping?', Low Carbon Shipping Conference 2012, 11 - 12 September, University of Newcastle, Newcastle.
Smith, T, O'Keefe, E, Aldous, L & Agnolucci, P 2013, Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using satellite AIS data, viewed 15 April 2013, http://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/UCL_ship_efficiency_forICCT_2013.pdf.
Smith, T, O'Keefe, E & Haji, S 2013, 'GloTraM method', UCL Energy Institute, London.
Smith, T, O'Keefe, E & Haji, S 2013b, 'What is a fair measurement and apportionment scheme?', Low Carbon Shipping 2013, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
Smith, T, O'Keefe, E, Haji, S & Agnolucci, P 2013, 'GloTram external factors', UCL Energy Institue, London.
Smith, T, Parker, S & Rehmatulla, N 2011, 'On the speed of ships', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 22 - 24 June, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.
Smith, T, Prakash, V, Aldous, L & Krammer, P 2015, 'The existing fleets CO2 efficiency', UCL Energy Institute, 68/INF.24, IMO , London.
Smith, T & Rehmatulla, N 2015, CO2 emission targets for shipping, http://ssi2040.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CO2-emission-targets-UCL-report-for-SSI.pdf.
Smith, T, Traut, M, Bows-Larkin, A, Anderson, K, McGlade, C & Wrobel, P 2015, CO2 Targets, Trajectories and Trends for International Shipping, viewed 12 May 2015, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/Ben_Howett/CO2_targets_trajectories_and_trends_for_international_shipping.pdf.
Stulgis, V, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N, Powers, J & Hoppe, J 2014, Hidden treasure: Financial models for retrofits, viewed 27 June 2014, http://www.carbonwarroom.com/sites/default/files/reports/CWR%20Shipping%20Efficiency%20Finance%20Report.pdf.
Traut, M, Bows-Larkin, A, Anderson, K, McGlade, C, Sharmina, M & Smith, T 2015, 'Emissions budgets for shipping in a 2°C global warming scenario and implications for operational efficiency', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference 2015, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
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Could a levy on air and shipping fuel sink emissions?
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Urban Transport and Energy
The Urban Transport & Energy research group studies all surface modes of transport for passengers and freight across space and time.
We focus on:
- planning, design and operation of low carbon transport system
- low carbon transport technologies
- new mobility services and business models
- big data
Our areas of research include:
- discrete choice and demand modelling techniques
- activity-based models
- freight transport modelling
- residential location choices
- spatial econometrics
- data collection methods for behavioural modelling.
Our activities, approaches and aims synergise with the low carbon and smart cities vision. We also work closely with other universities and institutes, such as:
- UK Department for Transport (DfT)
- UCL CASA (Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis)
- MIT ITS Lab (Intelligent Transportation Systems)
- Singapore–MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) Centre
- University of the Aegean – TransDeM Lab
- University of Naples – Transport division
For more information, please contact:
Dr. Maria Kamargianni , Head of the Urban Transport & Energy group.
Head of Group
Schäfer A., Heywood J.B., Jacoby H.D., Waitz I.A., 2009. Transportation in a Climate-Constrained World, MIT Press.
Schäfer A., 2010, “Energy for Urban Transport”, invited chapter in: Urban Transport in the Developing World: A Handbook for Policy and Practice (H. Dimitriou and R. Gakenheimer, eds.), Edward Elgar.
Schäfer A., 2004, “Passenger Demand for Travel and Energy Use”, invited chapter in: Encyclopedia of Energy (4): 793-804, Academic Press/Elsevier Science.
Schäfer A., 2001, “Transportation”, invited chapter in: Encyclopedia of Global Change, Oxford University Press.
Polydoropoulou, A., M. Kamargianni, and A. Tsirimpa (2013). “Car Use Addiction vs. Ecological Consciousness: Which one Prevails on Mode Choice Behavior?” In book: Travel Behaviour Research, Editors: Roorda, M., and E. Miller.
Kamargianni, M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2011). “Exploring Teenagers’ Travel Behavior for School and After-School Activities: Implications on Safety.” in Book: ICTIS 2011: Multimodal Approach to Sustained Transportation System Development -Information, Technology, Implementation,Volume I: Highway Transportation, pp. 1896-1904.
Gucwa M., Schäfer A., 2013. “The Impact of Scale on Energy Intensity in Freight Transportation”, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 23:41-49.
Dray L., Schäfer A., Ben-Akiva M., 2012. “Technology Limits to Reducing Transport Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions”, Environmental Science and Technology, 46(9): 4734–4741.
Schäfer A., Heywood J.B., Weiss M.A., 2006, “Future Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine Automobile Technologies: A 25 Year Life-Cycle and Fleet Impact Assessment”, Energy—The International Journal, 31(12): 1728-1751.
Schäfer A., Jacoby H.D., 2006, “Vehicle Technology Dynamics under CO2-Constraint: A General Equilibrium Analysis”, Energy Policy, 34(9): 975-985.
Schäfer A., Jacoby H.D., 2005, “Technology Detail in a Multi-Sector CGE Model: Transport under Climate Policy”, Energy Economics, 27(1): 1-24.
Schäfer A., 2005, “Structural Change in Energy Use”, Energy Policy, 33(4): 429-437.
Schäfer A., 2000, “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from World Passenger Transport: Reduction Options”, Transportation Research Record 1738: Energy, Air Quality, and Fuels, paper no. 00-1182, pp. 20-29, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.
Schäfer A., Victor D.G., 2000, “The Future Mobility of the World Population”, Transportation Research A, 34(3): 171-205. Also published in: L.Lundqvist, K.Button, P.Nijkamp, 2003, The Automobile - Classics in Transport Analysis 7, Edward Elgar Publishing LTd.
Kamargianni, M., M. Ben-Akiva, and A. Polydoropoulou (2014). "Integrating Social Interaction into Hybrid Choice Models." Transportation, 41(6): 1263-1285. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11116-014-9550-5
Kamargianni, M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2014). "Generation’s Y Travel Behavior and Perceptions Towards Walkability Constraints." Transportation Research Record, 2430(2): 59-71. Available at: http://trb.metapress.com/content/km2551767750423r/
Kamargianni, M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2013). “Hybrid Choice Model to Investigate Effects of Teenagers’ Attitudes Towards Walking and Cycling on Mode Choice Behavior.” Transportation Research Record, 2382(1): 151-161. - Ryuichi Kitamura Paper Award - TRB Section on Travel Analysis Methods.
Kamargianni, M., A. Polydoropoulou, and K. Goulias (2012). “Teenager's Travel Patterns for School and After-School Activities.” Social and Behavioral Sciences, 48: 3635-3650.
Thanos, S., Bristow A. L., Wardman, M. R. (2015), Residential sorting and environmental externalities: the case of non-linearities and stigma in aviation noise values. Journal of Regional Science, 55(3) 468–490
Thanos, S., White, M. (2014), Expectation Adjustment in the Housing Market: Insights from the Auction System in Scotland. Housing Studies, 29 (3): 339-361
Dunse, N., Thanos, S., Bramley, G. (2013), Planning Policy, Housing Density and Consumer Preferences. Journal of Property Research, 30(3): 221-238
Thanos, S., Bristow, A. L., Wardman, M. R. (2012), Theoretically Consistent Temporal Ordering Specification in Spatial Hedonic Pricing Models Applied to the Valuation of Aircraft Noise. Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, 1(2): 103-126
Thanos, S., Wardman, M. R., Bristow A. L. (2011), Valuing aircraft noise: Stated Choice experiments reflecting inter-temporal noise changes from airport relocation. Environmental and Resource Economics, 50(4): 559-583
Yun, S., and Lee, J. (2015), “Advancing social acceptance towards renewable energy systems adoption with a socio-technical perspective.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 95: 170-181.
Yoon, H, Yun, S., Lee, J., and Phillips, F. (2015). “Entrepreneurship in East Asian Regional Innovation Systems: Role of Social Capital.” Technological Forecasting & Social Change (accepted)
Kim Y., Yun, S., and Lee, J. (2014). “Can Companies Induce Pro-Social Consumption? The Impact of Knowledge and Social Embeddedness to Airline Sustainability Programs in the U.S.” Sustainability, 6 (1): 3338-3356.
Yun, S., and Lee, J. (2013). “An innovation network analysis of science clusters in South Korea and Taiwan.” Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, 21(2): 277-289.
Conferences (peer reviewed)
Dubé, J., Legros, D., Thanos, S. (2015). “Spatial Effect in Real Estate Modelling: Differentiating between Multidirectional and Unidirectional Effects.” Paper to 44th Annual Conference of the Regional Science Association, International British and Irish Section, 17-18 Aug 2015, Dublin
Dubé, J., Legros, D., Thanos, S. (2014). “Putting Time into Space: Expectations and Causality Issues in the Price Determination Process.” Paper to the International Association for Applied Econometrics annual conference, 26-28 June 2014, London, UK
Thanos, S., Bristow, A. L., Wardman, M. R. (2013). “Non-linearities, stigma and self-selection influencing the values of noise nuisance.” Paper to 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, 15-18 September 2013, Innsbruck, Austria
Thanos, S., Bristow, A. L., Wardman, M. R. (2012). “Temporal Ordering Specification in Spatial Hedonic Pricing Models.” Paper presented at the 19th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, June 27-30, 2012, Prague, Czech Republic
Kamargianni, M., M. Ben-Akiva, and A. Polydoropoulou (2014). "Integrating Social Interaction into Hybrid Choice Models." Presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the Transport Research Board (TRB), Washington D.C., 12-16 January, 2014.
Kamargianni, M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2014). "Social Networking Effect on Net Generation’s Trip Making Behavior. Findings from a Latent Class Model." Presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the Transport Research Board (TRB), Washington D.C., 12-16 January, 2014.
Kamargianni, M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2014). "Generation’s Y Travel Behavior and Perceptions Towards Walkability Constraints among Three Distinct Geographical Areas." Presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the Transport Research Board (TRB), Washington D.C., 12-16 January, 2014.
Kamargianni, M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2014). "Modeling Teenager’ Mode Choice Behavior based on their Walking Liking and Disliking Attitudes. Findings from a Latent Class Multinomial Mixed Model." Presented at the World Symposium on Transport and Land Use Research, Delft, 23-27 June 2014.
Kamargianni M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2014). "Investigation of the Effect of ICT Usage on Adolescent Females’ Travel Patterns and Mode Choice Behavior." Paper accepted for presentation at the 5th International Conference on Women's Issues in Transportation (WIiT) - Bridging the Gap, Paris, France, 14-16 April, 2014.
Kamargianni, M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2013). “Does Social Networking Substitute for or Stimulate Teenagers’ Travel? Findings from a Latent Class Model.” Paper presented at the 3rd International Choice Modeling Conference (ICMC), 3-5 July, 2013, Sydney, Australia. - Best Student Paper Award in Choice Modelling – Awarded by the Journal of Choice Modelling.
Kamargianni M., and A. Polydoropoulou (2013). “Development of a Hybrid Choice Model to Investigate the Effects of Teenagers’ Attitudes Towards Walking and Cycling on Mode Choice Behavior.” Paper presented at the 92nd TRB Annual Meeting, January 13-17, 2013, Washington, DC. - Ryuichi Kitamura Best Paper Award - TRB Section on Travel Analysis Methods.
Kamargianni, M., A. Polydoropoulou, K. Goulias, and K. Kamargiannis (2013). “To Walk or not to Walk to School? Teenagers’ travel Behavior and Perceptions towards Walkability Constraints.” Presented at the World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR), July 2013, Rio, Brasil.
Polydoropoulou, A., K.G. Goulias, A. Tsirimpa, M. Kamargianni, I. Kourounioti and I. Tsouros (2013). “Innovative Data Collection for Modeling Green Transport In Islands.” Presented at the World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR), July 2013, Rio, Brasil.
Kamargianni, M., A. Polydoropoulou, and C. Antoniou (2012). “Attitudes And Perceptions Of High School Students As Road Users.” 5th Pan-Hellenic Road Safety Conference Volos, Greece, 25-26 October 2012.
Polydoropoulou, A., M. Kamargianni, and A. Tsirimpa (2012). “Car Use Addiction vs. Ecological Consciousness: Which one Prevails on Mode Choice Behavior?” Paper presented at the IATBR, Toronto, Canada, 15-19 July 2012.
Kamargianni, M., A. Polydoropoulou, and K.G. Goulias (2012). "Teenagers’ Travel Patterns for School and After-School Activities." Paper presented at the TRA2012 – Transport Research Arena Conference, Athens, Greece, April 2012.
Kamargianni, M. (2011). "Evaluation of road safety interventions and social marketing strategies in provincial areas. Case study: island of Chios, Greece." 24th World Road Congress Proceedings: Roads for a Better Life: Mobility, Sustainability and Development. Available at: http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=1285880
Kamargianni, M., Matyas M., Li W., Schäfer A., 2015. Feasibility Study of Mobility as a Service Concept in London. Report to Department for Transport, UK
Schäfer A., Dray L., Andersson E., Ben-Akiva M.E., Berg M., Boulouchos K., Dietrich P., Fröidh O., Graham W., Kok R., Majer S., Nelldal B., Noembrini F., Odoni A., Pagoni I., Perimenis A., Psaraki V., Rahman A., Safarinova S., Vera-Morales M., 2011. Technology Opportunities and Strategies towards Climate-Friendly Transport (TOSCA), Final Project Report to European Commission, May 2011.
Thanos, S., Dunse, N. (2012), The changing effects on domestic energy expenditure from housing characteristics and the recent rapid energy price movements. Research report to the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, 18 May 2012.
Bramley, G., Dunmore, K., Dunse, N., Gilbert, C., Thanos, S. and D. Watkins (2010), The Implications of Housing Type/Size Mix and Density for the Affordability and Viability of New Housing Supply. Report to National Housing and Planning Advice Unit, Communities and Local Government, Fareham UK
RCUK Centre of Energy Epidemiology – Residential Location Choice and Transport Energy Demand
This project uses an integrated modelling approach to capture trade-offs between housing/domestic and transport consumption costs, developing a novel methodological framework to explicitly include energy demand.
For more information, please contact Maria Kamargianni and Sotirios Thanos.
RCUK Centre of Energy Epidemiology – MOT tests
This project provides a novel analysis framework for the spatial aspects of car travel, measured by vehicle miles travelled, extended to include a variable decomposition approach that captures potential asymmetries and hysteresis in a spatial setting.
The results provide support to the car use saturation hypothesis through both the negative VMT trend and the positive impact of motorisation rate that captures car dependence, rather than car use intensity.
For more information, please contact Sotirios Thanos.
Feasibility Study for "Mobility as a Service" concept for London – FS-MaaS
The objective of the FS-MaaS project is to propose the design of a Mobility as a Service (MaaS) concept for London, and examine its feasibility.
The feasibility study indicates that the introduction of MaaS-London will benefit both the supply and the demand side. It’s a feasible product that can well serve London transport market and contribute to London’s 2020 vision.
For more information, please contact Maria Kamargianni.
Reinventing Multimodal Sustainable Urban Transport: Demand Analysis of a ‘Mobility as a Service’ Concept for London
This research contributes to the understanding of consumer demand for buying and using MaaS, as well as its potential impact on private vehicle ownership. Special attention will be paid to the effect of mobility service bundling on the diffusion of innovative transport modes.
For more information, please contact Melinda Matyas and Maria Kamargianni
Exploring the factors affecting Electric Vehicle Purchasing Behaviour in Greater London
This project investigates the factors affecting consumers’ electric vehicle (EV) purchasing behaviour.
By defining consumers’ preference factors, targeted corporate marketing and government policies can be developed to accelerate diffusion of EFV.
For more information, please contact Sunyoung Yun and Maria Kamargianni.
Analysing Londoners’ Transitions from Motorised Modes to Cycling
The aim of this project is to analyse the demographic and trip characteristics of cyclists in London to identify the most promising population segments and areas that cycling policies could target.
For more information, please contact Maria Kamargianni and Jakub Muscat.
Integration of Car Sharing and Bike Sharing System: A case study of Taiyuan, China
This project proposes an integrated urban transport system based on car sharing and bike sharing for developing countries using a Chinese city as case study. It will forecast the benefit of such a system to energy savings and climate change mitigation.
For more information, please contact Weibo Li and Maria Kamargianni.
Technology Opportunities and Strategies to Climate friendly transport – TOSCA
TOSCA, which was presented as a success story by the European Commission’s “Towards Low Carbon Transport in Europe” publication in 2012, simulated the energy use and CO2 emissions impact of emerging surface and air transportation technologies.
18 March 2016
The tipping point: A new direction in movement