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  • Dr Samuel Hardy
  • Honorary Research Associate
  • UCL Institute of Archaeology, 31-34 Gordon Square, London WC1H 0PY UK

Sam Hardy

Sam Hardy is an archaeologist and cultural heritage worker, specialising in the illicit trade in antiquities, the destruction of cultural heritage, and the politics an ethics of archaeological work in conflict zones and divided societies.  He is experienced in archaeological, ethnographic and historical research in challenging environments. 

Research Interests

  • The trade in illicit antiquities (conflict antiquities)
  • The destruction of cultural and community property, particularly in Cyprus, Greece and Turkey
  • The politics and ethics of archaeological work in conflict zones and divided societies
  • Precarious labour in the cultural heritage industry (unfree archaeology)
  • Hardy, S A. Forthcoming: “Threats to cultural heritage in the Cyprus Conflict”. In Grove, L and Thomas, S (Eds.). Heritage and crime. London: Palgrave.
  • Hardy, S A. Forthcoming: “Maintained in very good condition or virtually rebuilt? Destruction of cultural property and narration of violent histories.” Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, Volume 23.
  • Hardy, S A. Forthcoming: “Virtues impracticable and extremely difficult: The human rights of subsistence diggers”. In González-Ruibal, A and Moshenska, G (Eds.). Ethics, archaeology and violence. London: Springer.
  • Hardy, S A. Forthcoming: “Destruction, theft and rescue of archaeological artefacts in Cyprus, 1963-1974: From the intercommunal conflict until the foreign invasions”. In Nys, K and Jacobs, A, (Eds.). Cypriot material culture studies: From picrolite carving to proskynetaria. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Postgraduate Cypriot Archaeology Conference held in memory of Paul Åström, at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium) from 27th to 29th November 2008. Göteborg: Paul Åströms Förlag. Available at: http://conflictantiquities.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/hardy-2012-cyprus-illicit-antiquities-trade-intercommunal-conflict-paramilitary.pdf [postprint release date: 12th December 2012].
  • Hardy, S A. 2012: “Book review: The protection of cultural property in armed conflict. By Roger O’Keefe. Pp. xix, 404. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011 [2006] £31.99. (PB) ISBN 9780521172875”. Public Archaeology, Volume 11, Number 1, 53-55.
  • Hardy, S A. 2011: Interrogating archaeological ethics in conflict zones: Cultural heritage work in Cyprus. Brighton: University of Sussex – DPhil thesis. Available at: https://conflictantiquities.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/hardy-2011-cyprus-conflict-archaeological-ethics-official.pdf

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