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Institute of Archaeology

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Oscar Salvador Toro Bardeci

Oscar Salvador Toro Bardeci

Ethnoarchaeology of settlement pattern and mobility of Pehuenche groups on the Western Andes of southern Chile  

 

Email: oscar.toro.17@ucl.ac.uk
Section: World Archaeology
Supervisors:

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Ethnoarchaeology of settlement pattern and mobility of Pehuenche groups on the Western Andes of southern Chile  

This PhD is a research about the seasonal occupation and exploitation of Araucaria forests by Pehuenche indigenous groups in southern Chile to identify the cultural and environmental factors that influence settlement patterns in historical times (c.1710-2016 AD) and how this compares with as well as generates archaeological evidence.

Research methods include intensive ethnographic work combined with archaeological survey and a characterization of the geographic and ecological environment of the Alto Biobío region as well as historical research into Pehuenche and Mapuche land claims since the Spanish-Indigenous parliaments during the 18th century. I have been developing contacts in the Alto Biobío region and will be working through two communities: One is situated in Queuco valley, who have remained fairly isolated from Chilean society and still maintain seasonal access to their ancestral forest lands. The other was re-located during the building of a dam by the end of 20th century to a new locality in Biobío valley where they are surrounded by non-indigenous settlements, located 'new' forest areas and internally agreed how to apportion seasonal access to these.

The aim of this research is to contribute into the broad discussion within archaeology, related to identify the material signature of seasonal settlements of nomadic groups in mountainous areas, including how social organisation, ideology, landscape perception, economy, and state policies influence and are influenced by the spatial arrangement, both within and between settlements. It has relevance not only for the historical processes of how indigenous groups interacted with colonial societies but also current concerns over land rights and use of the environment.

Funding

Becas Chile Scholarship (Conicyt)

Education

  • BA, Anthropology with mention in Archaeology, University of Chile, 2010
  • BA, Archaeology, University of Chile, 2010
  • MA, History, University of Chile, 2015
    Publications

    Toro, O., J. Olea, G. Gallardo y G. Castillo (2015). Arqueología en el valle de Chada. Una perspectiva regional. Editorial Grafic Suisse, Santiago.

    Silva, F., O. Toro, J. Vega, M. Becerra, E. Palacios, L. Valenzuela y J. Jara (2015). Los preceptos legales y sus efectos en los sitios arqueológicos. Una mirada desde la institucionalidad chilena. En Estudios de Impacto Ambiental y la protección del patrimonio arqueológico: ponencias del simposio 16 del XVIII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Argentina, editado por Sebastián Matera, Marisa Kergaravat y Gisela Spengler, pp. 105-125. La Imprenta Digital SRL, Buenos Aires.

    Toro, O. (2015). La movilidad y el rol fronterizo de las poblaciones pehuenches en el siglo XVIII (Frontera del Biobío). Actas del XIX Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Chilena: 363-366.

    Toro, O. (2012). Lo que cuentan los actuales piñoneros sobre los antiguos recolectores. El uso del espacio en dos aleros del Sur de Chile (Provincia de Cautín, IX Región de la Araucanía). Actas del XVIII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Chilena: 403-411.

    Toro, O. (2012). Ocupaciones prehispánicas tardías en los bosques templados del sur de Chile. Una aproximación desde el uso del espacio en reparos rocosos. Boletín de la Sociedad Chilena de Arqueología 41-42: 11-28.

    Toro, O. (2010). Las "casas de piedra" de los "mapuche antiguo". Enfoque etnoarqueológico para el uso de aleros durante la transición Arcaico-Formativo, en la cuenca del lago Calafquén (Sur de Chile). Werkén 13: 231-246.