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Institute of Archaeology

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Daniela Paz Osorio Ferrada

Daniela Paz Osorio Ferrada

Early occupation of the Altiplano of Chile, Peru and Bolivia: Technology, activities and mobility routes, an interpretative model

 

Email: daniela.osorio.15@ucl.ac.uk

Section: Archaeological Sciences

Supervisors:

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Early occupation of the Altiplano of Chile, Peru and Bolivia: Technology, activities and mobility routes, an interpretative model

The focus of this research is understanding how the Altiplano of Chile, Peru and Bolivia was occupied during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (12.500-10.500 years BP). This study will take the existence of an Altiplano peopling route as a general hypothesis, with the idea of explaining the exploration processes of extreme environments previously discounted as potential early occupation spaces.

The study will focus on technology, seen as a social and dynamic product and a key cultural index (Andrefsky 2005), because technology allows recognising cultural patterns in the manufacturing process, while at the same time understanding the actions that were carried out with the lithic toolkit. In addition, the different activities developed in early archaeological contexts will be identified, considering other materials from those contexts (Gamble 1999), with the idea that the hunter-gatherers are not only defined by what they eat, but also by what they do (Ingold 2000). This will enable development of a general framework by recognising the differences and similarities between the different contexts.


The focus of this research is understanding how the Altiplano of Chile, Peru and Bolivia was occupied during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (12.500-10.500 years BP). This study will take the existence of an Altiplano peopling route as a general hypothesis, with the idea of explaining the exploration processes of extreme environments previously discounted as potential early occupation spaces. The study will focus on technology, seen as a social and dynamic product and a key cultural index (Andrefsky 2005), because technology allows recognising cultural patterns in the manufacturing process, while at the same time understanding the actions that were carried out with the lithic toolkit. In addition, the different activities developed in early archaeological contexts will be identified, considering other materials from those contexts (Gamble 1999), with the idea that the hunter-gatherers are not only defined by what they eat, but also by what they do (Ingold 2000). This will enable development of a general framework by recognising the differences and similarities between the different contexts. The purpose will be to generate a model that considers cultural evidence, palaeoenvironmental conditions and radiocarbon dates to interpret how the Altiplano was occupied. This study will also address mobility and dispersal routes, based on the notions that the knowledge of hunter-gatherers about new areas is developed in relation to salient features in the landscape (Kelly 2003) - the Cordillera de los Andes being one of these potential features. The assumption is that the determinants of dispersal dynamics are not only the characteristics of each environment, but also the degree of similarity of the new area to those previously occupied (Steele and Rockman 2003). In this sense, it would be possible to understand the Altiplano as a big axis to follow, which allowed transfer of acquired knowledge to new situations while the people were moving.

Funding

Scholarship from the Chilean Government for PhD Studies (Becas Chile Doctorado en el Extranjero, CONICYT)

Education

  • Archaeologist, University of Chile. 2013

  • BA, Anthropology with a specialisation in Archaeology, University of Chile, 2007
    Publications

    Osorio, D., J. Capriles, P. Ugalde, K. Herrera, C. Salas, M. Sepúlveda, E.Gayo, C. Latorre, D. Jackson & C. Santoro. 2016. Hunter-Gatherer Mobility Strategies in the High Andes of Northern Chile during the last Pleistocene-Holocene transition (ca. 11,500-9,500 CAL BP). Manuscript accepted under corrections. Journal of Field Archaeology.

    Osorio, D., M. Sepúlveda, C. Castillo & M. Corvalán. 2015. Análisis lítico y funcionalidad de sitio de los aleros de la precordillera de Arica (Centro-Sur Andino), durante el Período Arcaico (ca. 10,000-3,7000 años AP). Intersecciones en Antropología (In press).

    Herrera, K.A, P. C. Ugalde, D. Osorio, J. M. Capriles, Salomón Hocsman & Calogero M. Santoro. 2015. Análisis tecno-tipológico de instrumentos líticos del sitio Arcaico Temprano Ipilla 2, Puna de Arica, Chile. Chungara. Revista de Antropología Chilena 47 (1): 41-52.

    Calogero, C.M., D. Osorio, P. C. Ugalde, M. Sepúlveda, I. Cartajena, V. G. Standen, E. M. Gayo, A. Maldonado, M M. Rivadeneira, C. Latorre, B. T. Arriaza, F. Rothhammer, P. de Souza, C. Carrasco & L. Núñez. 2014. Cazadores, recolectores y pescadores arcaicos del Desierto de Atacama. Entre el Pacífico y los Andes, Norte de Chile (ca. 10.000-3.700 años a.p.). In Prehistoria de Chile, edited by M. Uribe and F. Falabella. Ed. Andrés Bello, Santiago, Chile, 2015.

    Latorre, C., C. M. Santoro, P. C. Ugalde, E. M. Gayó, D. Osorio, C. Salas-Egaña R. De Pol-Holz, D. Joly, J. A. Rech. 2013. Late Pleistocene human occupation of the hyperarid core in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Quaternary Science Review 77: 19-30.

    Santoro, C. M., D. Osorio, V. G. Standen, P. C. Ugalde, K. Herrera, E. M. Gayó, Francisco Rothhammer, Claudio Latorre. 2011 (published in 2013). Ocupaciones humanas tempranas y condiciones paleoambientales en el Desierto de Atacama durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 15: 295-314.

    Osorio, D. 2012. Las primeras ocupaciones de Hakenasa: Implicancias para el poblamiento de la Puna Seca. Actas del XVIII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Chilena: 165-175. Sociedad Chilena de Arqueología, Santiago de Chile.

    Ugalde, P., C. Salas, C. Latorre, D. Osorio, D. Jackson, C.Santoro. 2012. Poblamiento temprano del norte de Chile (18-25°S): estudio interdisciplinario arqueológico y paleoambiental. Actas del XVIII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Chilena : 197-206. Sociedad Chilena de Arqueología, Santiago, Chile.

    Osorio, D, D. Jackson, P. C. Ugalde, C. Latorre, R. de Pol-Holz, C. M. Santoro. 2011. Hakenasa cave and its relevance for the peopling of the Southern Andean Altiplano. Antiquity 85 (330): 1194-1208.

    Santoro, C., P. Ugalde, C. Latorre, C. Salas, D. Osorio, D. Jackson, E. Gayó. 2011. Ocupación humana pleistocénica en el Desierto de Atacama: Primeros resultados de la aplicación de un modelo predictivo de la investigación interdisciplinaria. Chungara, Revista de Antropología Chilena 43 (Special number 1): 355-366.

    Conference papers

    Osorio, D., J.M Capriles, P. C Ugalde, K. Herrera, M. Sepúlveda, D. Jackson, C. M Santoro. 2015. "High-Elevation Foraging and Mobility Strategies during the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Transition in the Andes of Northern Chile". Session Paleoenvironmental and cultural landscapes of the first (South) Americans, XIX INQUA Congress, Nagoya, Japan.

    Capriles, J. Albarracin-Jordan, U. Lombardo, D. Osorio, C. M. Santoro. 2015. "The Archaeological and Paleoenvironmental Context of Cueva Bautista: A Late Pleistocene Human Occupation in the Bolivian Highlands". Session Paleoenvironmental and cultural landscapes of the first (South) Americans, XIX INQUA Congress, Nagoya, Japan.

    Santoro, C.M., C. Latorre, E. Gayó, D. Jackson, A. Maldonado, P. Ugalde, J. Rech, D. Osorio, J. Capriles, K. Herrera, D. Joly, R. de Pol-Holz. 2014. "Climate change and cultural trajectories in the Atacama Desert" Session "Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Initial Occupation of Southern Hemisphere Deserts", 4th Southern Deserts Conference, Mendoza, Argentina.

    Santoro, C.M., C. Latorre, P. Ugalde, D. Osorio, C. Salas, K. Herrera, W. Faundes, D. Jackson, J. Capriles. Poblamiento humano durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno en el Desierto de Atacama: Evidencias Arqueológicas y Paleoecológicas. Third National Congress of Archaeology of Bolivia (21-25 July) 2014.

    Osorio, D. 2014. "Reevaluación del Arcaico Temprano de la Puna Seca: Implicancias para el poblamiento inicial del Altiplano del Norte de Chile"/Reappraisal of the Early Archaic of the Dry Puna: Implications for the Initial Peopling of the Altiplano of Northern Chile. Presentation at the University Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia.

    Osorio, D. 2013."Primeras ocupaciones de las tierras altas de Arica" y "Tipología de puntas de proyectil del Arcaico Tardío del sitio Hakenasa/First occupations of Arica highlands" and "Projectile point typology of the Late Archaic of the Hakenasa site. At Workshop "Linked Worlds: Archaeology of hunter-gatherers and the transition to the production of food. Comparisons in and between both sides of the Andes" (21 to 24 October 2013). Archaeological Museum of the University of Tarapacá, San Miguel de Azapa, Arica, Chile. Researchers in charge: Dr. Salomón Hocsman and Professor Carlos Aschero.

    Santoro, C., C. C. Latorre, E. Gayó, D. Osorio, P. Ugalde, D. Osorio, C. Salas y S. Rodríguez. 2012. "La puesta en escena de los primeros poblamientos en el norte de Chile: paleoclima y paleocología durante la última transición glacial-interglacial"/"The mise-en-scene of the first peopling of northern Chile: palaeoclimate and palaeoecology during the last glacial-interglacial transition). XIX National Congress of Chilean Archaeology.

    2012, October. Participation in the Workshop "Tipología de artefactos de la piedra tallada. Una aproximación tecno-morfológica aplicada a conjuntos tempranos"/Typology of knapped stone artefacts. A techno-morphological approach applied to early groups). San Pedro de Atacama. Researcher in charge: Professor Carlos Aschero, University de Tucumán, Argentina.

    Santoro, C., P. Ugalde, C. Salas, D. Osorio, C. Latorre, E. Gayo. 2011. En busca de los primeros pobladores del Desierto de Atacama/In search of the first settlers of the Atacama Desert. XI Congress of the Association of Bolivian Studies, Sucre, Bolivia.

    Latorre, C, C. Santoro, E. Gayo, P. Ugalde, C. Salas. 2011. Archaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence for a late Pleistocene human settlement in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert (21°S). XVIII INQUA Meeting, Berna, Swiss.

    C. Santoro, C. Latorre, P. Ugalde, E. Gayó, M. Rivadeneira, D. Osorio & C. Salas.2011. Distribución especial y asentamientos humanos en el Desierto de Atacama. Cambios en los sistemas sociales y las condiciones climáticas en Taller: Distribución espacial en sociedades no aldeanas /Special distribution and human settlements in the Atacama Desert. Changes in social systems and climate conditions. At Workshop: Spatial distribution in non-village societies: from archaeological register to social interpretation. Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Chile.

    Osorio, D. 2009. "Las Primeras ocupaciones de Hakenasa. Implicancias para el poblamiento de la Puna Seca" /The first occupations of Hakenasa. Implications for the peopling of the Dry Puna. XVIII National Congress of Chilean Archaeology.

    C. Salas, C. Latorre, C. Santoro, D. Osorio, D. Jackson y P. Ugalde. 2010. "A new hypothesis and methodology for studying the early peopling of extreme northern Chile (17-21° S) based on palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental variability". XVIII National Congress of Chilean Archaeology.

    C. Santoro, C. Salas, C. Latorre, D. Jackson, P. Ugalde y D. Osorio. 2009. "Palaeoenvironmental, cultural and technological patterns in the hyperarid environments in the Atacama Desert, Extreme North of Chile, in the Pleistocene-Holocene transition". 53 International Congress of Americanists, Ciudad de México, México.