Institute of Archaeology


Carol Bell - Honorary Senior Research Associate

Carol Bell
  • Honorary Senior Research Associate
  • MA, PhD
  • Email: carol.bell@ucl.ac.uk
  • UCL Institute of Archaeology, 31-34 Gordon Square, London WC1H 0PY UK

After a long career in the City of London in Investment Banking, Carol entered the UCL Institute of Archaeology as a postgraduate in 2000 and was awarded a PhD in 2005 on 'The influence of economic factors on settlement continuity across the LBA/Iron Age transition on the northern Levantine littoral'. This thesis was published as a book in 2006.

Since gaining her PhD, she has participated in teaching MA courses on Bronze and Iron Age Archaeology of the Mediterranean and Near East at UCL and became an Honorary Research Associate in 2010. She has also participated in many conferences and seminars on inter-regional trade of metals and other goods. Recent field projects have included post excavation study of material from Maroni Vournes in Cyprus and the Western Marmarica Coastal Survey, Libya (east of Tobruk).

A scientist by training, she is Treasurer of the Institute for Archaeometallurgical Studies (IAMS), Chairman of the British School at Athens and serves on the Council of Cardiff University. She is also an Honorary Fellow of Swansea University and the University of Wales Trinity St Davids.

Research Interests

  • The archaeology of trade in the Bronze and Iron Ages in the Mediterranean and Near East
  • Collapse of Bronze Age societies (and societal collapse generally).
  • Synthesis of archaeological and scientific data across wide geographic areas and integration with textual evidence where it exists.
  • The expansion of Phoenician trading networks between 1200 and 900 BC.

I am currently working with PhD candidate Jonathan Wood on an archaeological science approach to investigating the westward expansion of the Phoenicians as related to silver artefacts. I am also closely associated with the Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies (IAMS), which is based at the Institute of Archaeology and serve on its Board as Treasurer.


Selected recent publications

  • 2016. With Silvia Ferrara. Tracing Copper in the Cypro-Minoan Script. Antiquity 90 352: 1009-1021
  • 2016. Phoenician Trade: The First Three Hundred Years. In, Moreno Garcia, J. C., Dynamics of Production and Economic Interaction in the Near East in the First Half of the 1st Millennium BCE. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • 2015. Maroni-Vournes Mycenaean Wares: A Very Pictorial Assemblage. In Macdonald, C. et al (Eds) The Great Islands. Studies of Crete and Cyprus presented to Gerald Cadogan. Athens: Kapon Editions.
  • 2012. The Merchants of Ugarit. Oligarchs of the LBA Trade in Metals? In, Kassianidou, V. and G. Papasavvas (eds.), Eastern Mediterranean Metallurgy and Metalwork in the Second Millennium BC, Proceedings of a conference in honour of James D. Muhly, Nicosia 10-11 October 2009. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • 2009. Continuity and change: the divergent destinies of LBA ports in Syria and Lebanon across the LBA/Iron Age Transition". In, Bachhuber, C. and G. Roberts (eds.), Forces of Transformation: The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • 2006. The Evolution of Long Distance Trading Relationships across the LBA/Iron Age Transition on the Northern Levantine Coast: Crisis, Continuity and Change. Oxford: BAR International Series 1574.
  • 2005. Intra-Regional Variation in Long Distance LBA Trading Relationships on the Northern Levant Coast - The Key to Site Survival?, in C. Briault, J. Green, A. Stellatou and A. Kaldelis (eds), SOMA 2003. Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology. BAR International Series, 1391, 9-14. Oxford: BAR.
  • 2005. Wheels within wheels? A view of Mycenaean trade from the Levantine emporia, in R. Laffineur and E. Greco (eds) Emporia: Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean, 363-370. Liège: Université de Liège.