UCL Institute of the Americas


Dr Bethany Tasker

South-South Cooperation and International Norm Change: Brazil and Venezuela's Development Assistance Programmes, 2005-2016


PhD completed in 2018 | > UCL Discovery - open access


Professor Maxine Molyneux and Dr Graham Woodgate

Bethany Tasker
This research explored the creation and dissemination of the South-South cooperation (SSC) norm regime as an alternative to the Northern-led cooperation model of the OECD Development Assistance Committee. Using Finnemore and Sikkink’s theory of the norm life cycle, it tracks SSC from its origins at Bandung in 1955 to its “tipping point” in 2009, as demonstrated in the Nairobi Resolution that solidified the SSC principles of respect for sovereignty, partnership, solidarity and mutual benefit. The aim of this research is to determine how the SSC norm regime was perceived in the South over the period 2005–2016. The focus is on the Latin American and Caribbean context, with Brazil and Venezuela identified as the two major actors in the region that emerged as SSC norm leaders during this time. Both countries used the tools of persuasion and demonstration to portray the value of SSC and promote the core SSC principles; however, they differed greatly in approach. These similarities and differences are explored via the case studies of two small Eastern Caribbean nations, St Lucia and Grenada. Using extensive interview data and programme information, the research examines how government officials and stakeholders in these two states, and throughout the region, perceived Brazil and Venezuela’s programmes and the SSC norm regime in general over this time period, and attempts to determine whether the regime gained traction in the South and to what extent.