Neologisms of Jeremy Bentham

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Jeremy Bentham coined many new words of which international, maximize and minimize are the most well-known.

1) international

1780, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation,

2) maximize

Chapter XVII, ‘Of the Limits of the Penal Branch of Jurisprudence’. XXV. In the second place, with regard to the political quality of the persons whose conduct is the object of the law. These may, on any given occasion, be considered either as members of the same state, or as members of different states: in the first ease, the law may be referred to the head of internal, in the second case, to that of internationalx jurisprudence. x The word international, it must be acknowledged, is a new one; though, it is hoped, sufficiently analogous and intelligible. It is calculated to express, in a more significant way, the branch of law which goes commonly under the name of the law of nations: an appellation so uncharaeteristic, that, were it not for the force of custom, it would seem rather to refer to internal jurisprudence. The chancellor D'Aguesseau has already made, I find, a similar remark (Œvres, Tom. ii. p. 337, edit. 1773, 12.no.): he says that what is commonly called droit des gens, ought rather to be termed droit entre les gens. 1802, Principles of Judicial Procedure, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the superintendence of his executor, John Bowring, XI volumes (Edinburgh: 1843). Vol. II. 8/2

2a) maximization

By this means, appropriate moral aptitude may be maximized. 1817 ‘Papers Relative to Codification and Public Instruction’, "Legislator of the World": Writings on Codification, Law, and Education, eds. Philip Schofield and Jonathan Harris, in The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1998) p. ??

end in view, maximizing the subserviency of the proposed institution, to the public objects to the furtherance of which it is directed; viz. maximization of the quantity and value of the body of intellectual endowment and active talent in the several shapes in question; in other words, maximization of the extent, as measured by the number of the individuals in question: 1823 Leading Principles of a Const. Code The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the superintendence of his executor, John Bowring, XI volumes (Edinburgh: 1843). Vol. II 272

3) minimize

unfavourable to the maximization of felicity itself 1802, Principles of Judicial Procedure, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the superintendence of his executor, John Bowring, XI volumes (Edinburgh: 1843). Vol. II 8

The adjective branch..may be said to have two specific ends: the one positive, maximizing the execution and effect given to the substantive branch: the other negative, minimizing the evil [etc.]. 1825 Official Aptitude Maximized; Expense Minimized, ed. Philip Schofield (Clarendon Press, Oxford, (1993), ‘Observations on Mr. Secretary. Peel's House of Commons Speech’. (1830) 27

4) pisteutics

You may maximize attendance, and you may minimize 1827 Rationale of Judicial Evidence, Vol. 1, 124

2. Nonsense pisteutics.* This is the sort of science taught by him, by whom an alleged propensity, on his own part or on the part of any other person or persons, to give credit to testimony (or say assertion or report) concerning any supposed fact or class of facts, is represented as imposing on the will of persons in general an obligation, or affording to their understanding a sufficient reason, to entertain a persuasion of the existence of such fact or class of facts; and this, without regard to the probability or improbability of such fact or facts, as indicated by experience. * From [(Greek characters)] to believe. The reader will excuse this convenient barbarism. The Oxford English Dictionary lists many words as having first been used by Bentham (and gives 1600 Bentham quotations in the second edition and another 79 in the third edition)

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