Bentham Project

Dr Tim Causer

Senior Research Associate

Tel: +44 (0)20 3549 5626

Email: Tim Causer

Address:  Bentham Project, UCL Laws, Room 203, Wolfson House, 4-8 Stephenson Way, London, NW1 2HE

Research interests: 

  • Convict transportation
  • Australian colonial history
  • the Norfolk Island penal settlement (1825-1855)
  • History of crime and punishment


  • Work on an AHRC-funded project editing Bentham's writings on convict transportation, the history of Australia, and colonialism.
  • Previous duties included the co-ordination of the Transcribe Bentham initiative (2010-2015), and work on the EC-funded tranScriptorium project (2013-2015).


Edited primary sources

Causer, T. (ed.), The Memorandoms of James Martin (UCL Bentham Project, 2014). Online publication.

Articles and book chapters

Causer, T., and Schofield, P. (2015), 'Jeremy Bentham and the Computer Age: Reflections on Crowdsourcing and the Transcription of Handwritten Documents', Annual Bulletin of Resources and Historical Collections Office, The Library of Economics, The University of Tokyo, vol. 5, pp. 2-19.

Causer, T., and Terras, M. (2014), '"Many hands make light work. Many hands together make merry work": Transcribe Bentham and crowdsourcing manuscript collections', in Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage, ed. M. Ridge (Ashgate), pp. 57-88.

Causer, T., and Terras, M. (2014), 'Crowdsourcing Bentham: Beyond the Traditional Boundaries of Academic History', International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, vol. 8 (1), pp. 46-64. Pre-publication version available in UCL Discovery.

B. Gatos, G. Louloudis, T. Causer, K. Grint, V. Romero, J.A. Sánchez, A.H. Toselli, and E. Vidal, ‘Ground-Truth Production in the tranScriptorium Project’, DAS 2014, 11th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, pp.237-44

Causer, T. (2012), 'Anti-transportation, "unnatural crime", and the "horrors" of Norfolk Island', Journal of Australian Colonial History, vol. 14, pp.230-40.

Causer, T., and Wallace, V. (2012), 'Building a Volunteer Community: Results and Findings from Transcribe Bentham', Digital Humanities Quarterly, vol. 6 (2).

Causer, T., Tonra, J., and Wallace, V. (2012), 'Transcription Maximized; Expense Minimized? Crowdsourcing and Editing The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham', Literary and Linguistic Computing, vol. 27 (2), pp. 119-137.

Causer, T. (2011), ‘“The Worst Types of Sub-human Beings”? The Myth and Reality of the Convicts of the Second Penal Settlement at Norfolk Island, 1825-1855’, Islands of History (Sydney, 2011), pp.8-31

Causer, T. (2011),‘Norfolk Island’s “suicide lotteries”: Legend and Reality’, Islands of History (Sydney, 2011), pp.61-68

Causer, T. (2008), ‘“On British Felony the Sun Never Sets”: Narratives of Political Prisoners in New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land, 1838-1853’, Cultural and Social History, Vol. 4 (5), pp.423-435.


Causer, T. (2015), 'Crime, Punishment and Redemption: A Convict's Story, by June Slee', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 101 (3), pp. 365-67.

Causer, T. (2014), 'Dark Paradise: Norfolk Island - Isolation, Savagery, Mystery, and Murder, by Robert Macklin', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 8 (1).

Causer, T. (2013), 'A Merciless Place: The lost story of Britain's convict disaster in Africa by Emma Christopher', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 7 (5).

Causer, T. (2011), 'Exiled: The Port Arthur convict photographs by Edwin Barnard', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 5 (4).

Causer, T. (2010), 'A Swindler’s Progress: Nobles and Convicts in the Age of Liberty by Kirsten McKenzie', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 4 (2).

Causer, T. (2008), 'Australia’s Birthstain: The Startling Legacy of the Convict Era by Babette Smith', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 3 (7).

Causer, T. (2008), 'Closing Hell’s Gates: The Death of a Convict Station by Hamish Maxwell-Stewart', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 3 (4).

Causer, T. (2008), 'Gender, Crime and Empire: Convicts, Settlers and the State in Early Colonial Australia by Kirsty Reid', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 3 (2).

Causer, T. (2007), 'The History of Australian Corrections, by Sean O'Toole', Reviews in Australian Studies, Vol. 2 (5).