Sebastian Gardner


Department of Philosophy

University College London

Gower Street

London WC1E 6BT

Tel: 020 7679 2965

Fax: 020 7679 3275



My office is Room 2.1, on the 2nd floor of 33-35 Torrington Place, which is the building immediately opposite Waterstone's. For help with location, please see:


I joined the Philosophy Department at UCL in 1998. My main research interests lie in Kant, German Idealism, nineteenth-century German philosophy, and aesthetics.







1.     Irrationality and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).


2.     Kant and the 'Critique of Pure Reason' (London: Routledge, 1999).


3.     Art and Morality, ed. Jose Luis Bermudez and Sebastian Gardner (London: Routledge, 2003).


4.     Sartre's 'Being and Nothingness' (London: Continuum, 2009).


Selected papers & reviews


1.     'The Unconscious', in The Cambridge Companion to Freud, ed. Jerome Neu (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 136-160.


2.     'The Nature and Source of Emotion', in Art, Mind and Psychoanalysis: Essays in Honour of Richard Wollheim, ed. James Hopkins and Anthony Savile (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), pp. 35-54.


3.     'Other Minds and Embodiment', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 94, 1993-94, 35-52.


4.     'Psychoanalytic Explanation', in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed. Samuel Guttenplan (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), pp. 493-500.


5.     'Wallace Stevens and Metaphysics: The Plain Sense of Things', European Journal of Philosophy 2, 1994, 322-344.


6.     'Psychoanalysis, Science, and Commonsense', Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2, 1995, 93-113.


7.     'Psychoanalysis, Contemporary Views', in The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, ed. Robert Wilson and Frank Keil (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999), pp. 683-5.


8.     'Schopenhauer, Will and the Unconscious', in The Cambridge Companion to Schopenhauer, ed. Christopher Janaway (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 375-421.


9.     'Value and Idealism', in Philosophy, the Good, the True and the Beautiful, Royal Institute of Philosophy: Supplement 47, ed. Anthony O'Hear (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 1-18.


10.  'Psychoanalysis and the Personal/Sub-personal Distinction', Philosophical Explorations 3, no. 1, 2000, 96-119.


11.  'The Argument for Transcendental Idealism', in Kant und die Berliner Aufklaerung, Akten des IX. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses, ed. Volker Gerhard, Rolf-Peter Horstmann and Ralph Schumacher (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2001), Band II, pp. 549-557.


12.  'Psychoanalysis: Overview', in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes (Oxford: Elsevier/Pergamon, September 2001), pp. 12328-36.


13.  'German Idealism I', Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76, 2002, 211-228.


14.  'The Romantic-Metaphysical Theory of Art', European Journal of Philosophy 10, 2002, 275-301.


15.  'The Unconscious Mind', in The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870-1940, ed. Thomas Baldwin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 107-115.


16.  'Kemp Smith's Reading of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason', Introduction to new edition of Norman Kemp Smith, A Commentary to Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason' (London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2003), pp. xiii-xxiv.


17.  'Tragedy, Morality and Metaphysics', in Art and Morality, ed. Jose Luis Bermudez and Sebastian Gardner (London: Routledge, 2003), pp. 218-259.


18.  'Critical Notice of Richard Moran, Authority and Estrangement: An Essay on Self-Knowledge', Philosophical Review, vol. 113, no. 2, April 2004, 249-267.


19.  'Sartre, Intersubjectivity, and German Idealism', Journal of the History of Philosophy 43, no. 3, 2005, 325-351.


20.  Review of Henry Allison, Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense, 2nd edn (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005.09.04:


21.  'The Primacy of Practical Reason', in The Blackwell Companion to Kant, ed. Graham Bird (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 259-274.


22.  'Sartre, Schelling, and Onto-Theology', Religious Studies 42, 2006, 247-271.


23.  'Wollheims Aesthetik', Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie 54, 2006, 733-742.


24.  'Philosophical Aestheticism', in The Oxford Handbook of Continental Philosophy, ed. Brian Leiter and Michael Rosen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 75-121.


25.  'The Limits of Naturalism and the Metaphysics of German Idealism', in German Idealism: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives, ed. Espen Hammer (London: Routledge, 2007), pp. 19-49.


26.  'The Status of the Wissenschaftslehre: Transcendental and Ontological Grounds in Fichte', Internationales Jahrbuch des Deutschen Idealismus − Metaphysik im Deutschen Idealismus / International Yearbook of German Idealism − Metaphysics in German Idealism 5, 2007, 90-125.


27.  'Nietzsche, the Self, and the Disunity of Philosophical Reason', in Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy, ed. Ken Gemes and Simon May (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 1-31.


28.  'Eduard von Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious', in Thinking the Unconscious: Nineteenth-Century German Thought, ed. Angus Nicholls and Martin Liebscher (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 173-199.


29.  'The Transcendental Dimension of Sartre's Philosophy', in Reading Sartre, ed. Jonathan Webber (London: Routledge, 2010), pp. 48-72.


30.  'Jenes Lichtbild: The Possibility of a Theory of Tragedy', in Vom Umgang mit dem Tragischen, ed. Christopher Hamilton, Gottfried Schweiger and Clemens Sedmak (Transcript Verlag: Bielefeld, 2010), pp. 35-56.


31.  'Idealism and Naturalism in the Nineteenth Century', in Edinburgh Critical History of Philosophy: The Nineteenth Century, ed. Alison Stone (Edinburgh: Ediburgh University Press, forthcoming 2010).


32.  'Kant's Practical Postulates and the Limits of the Critical System', Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain 63, 2011, 187-215.


33.  'Psychoanalytic Theory: A Historical Reconstruction' (Symposium with Beatrice Longuenesse: 'Freud and philosophy'), Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86, 2012, 41-60.


34.  'Schopenhauer's Contraction of Reason: Clarifying Kant and Undoing German Idealism', Kantian Review 17, 2012, 1-27.


35.  'Transcendental Philosophy and the Possibility of the Given', in Mind, Reason, and Being-in-the-World: The McDowell-Dreyfus Debate, ed. Joseph K. Schear (London: Routledge, 2013), pp. 110-142.


36.  'Nietzsche's Philosophical Aestheticism', in Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche, ed. Ken Gemes and John Richardson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).


37.  'The Unconscious: Transcendental Origins, Idealist Metaphysics, and Psychoanalytic Metapsychology', in The Impact of Idealism, ed. Karl Ameriks (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).


38.  'Schopenhauer's Deconstruction of German Idealism', in The Oxford Handbook to German 19th Century Philosophy, ed. Michael Forster and Kristin Gjesdal (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).