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publications from the Richardson lab

Doctoral (PhD) Theses:

Iannarelli, P. (2015).  Oligodendrocyte population dynamics and plasticity probed by genetic manipulaton in mice.  Doctoral Thesis, University College London  [PDF]

Psachoulia, K. (2010). NG2 cells in adult neural plasticity.  Doctoral Thesis, University
College London.* [PDF]


Fogarty, M.H. (2006). Fate-mapping the mouse neural tube by Cre-loxP transgenesis.  Doctoral Thesis, University of London. [PDF]


*the degree awarding authority changed in ~2008 from University of London to University College London

Selected journal articles:


Tripathi, R.B., Jackiewicz, M., McKenzie, I.A., Kougioumtzidou, E., Grist, M. and Richardsion, W.D. (2017). Remarkable stability of myelinating oligodendrocytes in mice.  Cell Reports 21, 316-323.  [PDF] [supplementary info]

*Jolly, S., *Bazargani, N., Quiroga, A., #Attwell, D., #Richardson, W.D. and #Li, H., (2018).  G protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 modulates astrocyte glutamate transporters and neuronal NMDA receptors and is neuroprotective in ischemia.  Glia 66, 47-61.  doi:
10.1002/glia.23198  *equivalent contributions  #joint senior authors  [PDF]

Kougioumtzidou, E., *Shimizu, T., *Hamilton, N.B., *Tohyama, K., Sprengel, R., Monyer, H., Attwell, D.** and Richardson, W.D.** (2017).  Signalling through AMPA receptors on oligodendrocyte precursors promotes myelination by enhancing oligodendrocyte survival.
  eLife 2017; 6:e28080.  doi: 10.7554/eLife.28080 .   *equivalent contributions   **joint senior authors  [PDF]

*Xiao, L., *Ohayon, D, McKenzie, I.A., Emery, B., Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2016).  Rapid production of new oligodendrocytes is required in the earliest stages of motor-skill learning.  Nat Neurosci 19, 1210-1217 *equal contributions  [PDF]  [supplementary info]

Crawford, A.H., Tripathi, R.B., Richardson, W.D.* and Franklin, R.J.M.* (2016). The developmental origin of oligodendrocyte lineage cells determines their response to demyelination and susceptibility to age-related decline.  Cell Reports 15, 761-773. *joint senior authors* [PDF] 

Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2016). Evolution of the CNS regulatory program. Brain Res. 1641, 111-121. [PDF]

Bergles, D.E. and Richardson, W.D. (2015). Oligodendrocyte development and plasticity. In Glia;  Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (Cold Spring Harbor) (eds. BA Barres, MR Freeman, B Stevens)  pp139-165.  Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol.  In press.  [PDF]

*McKenzie, I.A., *Ohayon, D., Li, H., Paes de Faria, J., Emery, B., Tohyama, K. and Richardson, W.D. (2014).
Motor skills learning requires active central myelination.  Science 346, 318-322.  * equal contributions  [PDF]  [supplementary info]   Insight article by Long and Corfas (Science 346, 298-299)

Pouwels, P.J.W., Vanderver, A., Bernard, G., Wolf, N.I., Dreha-Kulczewski, S.F., Deoni, S.C.L., Bertini, E., Kohlschutter, A., Richardson, W., ffrench-Constant, C., Kohler, W., Rowitch, D. and Barkovich, A.J. (2014).  Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies: translational research progress and prospects. Annals Neurol.  76, 5-19.  doi: 10.1002/ana.24194  [PDF]

Paes de Faria, J., Kessaris, N., Andrew, P., Richardson, W.D. and Li, H. (2014).  New Olig1 null mice confirm a non-essential role for Olig1 in oligodendrocyte development.  BMC Neurosci. 15, 12.  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-12  [PDF] [additional info]

Young, K.M., Psachoulia, K., Tripathi, R.B., Dunn, S.-J., Cossell, L., Attwell, D., Tohyama, K. and Richardson, W.D. (2013). Oligodendrocyte dynamics in the healthy adult CNS: evidence for myelin remodelling.  Neuron 77, 873-885.  [PDF] [supplementary info]


Philips, T., Bento-Abreu, A., Nonneman, A., Haeck, W., Staats, K., Geelen, V., Hersmus, N., Kusters, B., Van Den Bosch, L., Van Damme, P., Richardson, W.D. and Robberecht, W. (2012). Oligodendrocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain 136, 471-482.  [PDF]


Chikka, A., Nitarska, J., Grazini, U. and Richardson, W.D. (2012). Transcription Factor Positive Regulatory Domain 4 (PRDM4) recruits Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) to mediate histone arginine methylation and control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.  J. Biol. Chem. 287, 42995-43006.  [PDF]


Tsai, H.-H., Li, H., Fuentealba, L., Molofsky, A.V., Taveira‑Marques, R., Zhuang, H., Tenney, A., Murnen, A.T., Fancy, S.P.J., Merkle, F., Kessaris, N., Alvarez-Buylla, A.*, Richardson, W.D.* and Rowitch, D.H.* (2012).  Regional astrocyte allocation regulates CNS synaptogenesis and repair.  Science 337, 358-362.  * joint senior authors  [PDF]


Clarke, L.E., Young, K.M., Hamilton, N.B., Li, H., Richardson, W.D. and Attwell, D. (2012). Properties and fate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, motor cortex and piriform cortex of the mouse.  J.Neurosci. 32, 8173-8185. [PDF]


Richardson, W.D., Young, K.M., Tripathi, R.B. and McKenzie, I. (2011).  NG2-glia as multipotent neural stem cells: fact or fantasy?  Neuron 70, 661-673.  [PDF]


Tripathi, R.B., Clarke, L.E., Burzomato, V., Anderson, P.N., Kessaris, N., Attwell, D., and Richardson, W.D. (2011). Dorsally- and ventrally-derived oligodendrocytes have similar electrical properties but myelinate preferred tracts.  J. Neurosci.31, 6809-6819.  [PDF]


Li, H., Paes de Faria, J., Andrew, P., Nitarska, J. and Richardson, W.D. (2011). Phosphorylation regulates OLIG2 co-factor choice and the motor neuron-oligodendrocyte fate switch.  Neuron 69, 918-929 [PDF] [suppl info]


Tripathi, R.B., Rivers, L.E., Jamen, F. Young, K.M. and Richardson, W.D. (2010). NG2 glia generate new oligodendrocytes but few astrocytes in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of demyelinating disease. J. Neurosci. 30, 16383-16390. [PDF] [suppl info]


Young, K.M., Mitsumori, T., Pringle, N., Grist, M. and Richardson, W.D. (2010). An Fgfr3‑iCreERT2 transgenic mouse line for studies of neural stem cells and astrocytes.  Glia 58, 943-953.  [PDF]  [suppl Fig.S1] [suppl Fig.S2]


Zawadzka, M., Rivers, L.E., Fancy, S.P.J., Zhao, C., Tripathi R., Jamen, F., Young, K.M., Goncharevich, A., Pohl, H., Rizzi, M., Rowitch, D.H., Kessaris, N., Suter, U., Richardson, W.D.* and Franklin, R.M.J.*  (2010). CNS-resident glial progenitor/stem cells produce Schwann cells as well as oligodendrocytes during repair of CNS demyelination.  Cell Stem Cell 6, 578-590.  * joint senior authors   [PDF]

Richardson, W.D. (2009).  Oligodendrocyte Specification.  In, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Larry Squire, editor).  Elsevier. [PDF]

Psachoulia, K., Jamen, F., Young, K.M. and Richardson, W.D. (2009).
  Cell cycle dynamics of NG2 cells in the postnatal and ageing mouse brain.  Neuron Glia Biology 5, 57-67. [PDF]


Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2009).  The evolution of Olig genes and their roles in myelination.  Neuron Glia Biology 4, 129-135.  [PDF]


Li, H., He, Y., Richardson, W.D. and Casacchia, P. (2009). Two-tier transcriptional control of oligodendrocyte differentiation.  Curr. Opinion Neurobiol. 19, 479-485.  [PDF]


Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2009).  Genetics meets epigenetics:  HDACs and Wnt signalling in oligodendrocyte development and regeneration. Nat. Neurosci. 12, 815-817. (News and Views)  [PDF]

Rivers, L.E., Young, K.M., Rizzi, M., Jamen, F., Psachoulia, K., Wade, A., Kessaris, N. and Richardson, W.D. (2008).  PDGFRA/ NG2-positive glia generate myelinating oligodendrocytes and piriform projection neurons in adult mice.  Nat. Neurosci.
11, 1392-1401. [PDF]  [suppl info]


Pontecorvi, M., Goding, C.R., Richardson, W.D. and Kessaris, N. (2008). Expression of Tbx2 and Tbx3 in the developing hypothalamic-pituitary axis.  Gene Expression Patterns 8, 411-417.  [PDF]


Kessaris, N., Pringle, N.P. and Richardson, W.D. (2008). Specification of CNS glia from neural stem cells in the embryonic neuroepithelium.

Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B  363, 71-85.   [PDF]



Li, H., Lu, Y., Smith, H.K. and Richardson W.D. (2007).  Olig1 and Sox10 interact synergistically to drive myelin basic protein (mbp) transcription in oligodendrocytes.  J. Neurosci. 27, 14375-14382.  [PDF]  [suppl info]


Young, K., Fogarty, M., Kessaris, N. and Richardson, W.D. (2007).  Subventricular zone stem cells are heterogeneous with respect to their embryonic origins and neurogenic fates in the adult olfactory bulb.  J. Neurosci. 27, 8286-8296.   [PDF]  [suppl info]


Barrio, M.G., Taveira-Marques, R., Muruyama, Y., Yuk., D.‑I., Li, S., Wines-Samuelson, M., Shen., J., Smith, H.K., Xiang, M., Rowitch, D. and Richardson, W.D. (2007).  A regulatory network involving Foxn4, Mash‑1 and Delta‑like 4/Notch‑1 generates V2a and V2b spinal interneurons from a common progenitor pool.  Development  134, 3427-3436.  [PDF]


Kazakova, N., Li, H., Mora, A., Jessen, K., Mirsky, R., Richardson, W.D. and Smith, H.K. (2006).  A screen for mutations in zebrafish that affect myelin basic protein expression in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes.  Dev. Biol. 297, 1-13. [PDF]


Richardson, W.D., Kessaris, N., & Pringle, N.P. (2006). Oligodendrocyte Wars.  Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 11-18. [PDF]

Kessaris, N., Fogarty, M., Iannarelli, P., Grist, M., Wegner, M. and Richardson, W.D. (2006).  Competing waves of oligodendrocytes in the forebrain and postnatal elimination of an embryonic lineage.  Nat. Neurosci. 9, 173-179 [PDF]

Fogarty, M., Richardson, W.D. and Kessaris, N. (2005).  A subset of oligodendrocytes generated from radial glia in the dorsal spinal cord.  Development 132, 1951-1959. [PDF]

West, H., Richardson, W.D. and Fruttiger, M. (2005).  Stabilization of the retinal vascular network by reciprocal feedback between blood vessels and astrocytes.  Development 132, 1855-1862. [PDF]

Billon, N., Terrinoni, A., Jolicoeur, C., McCarthy, A., Richardson, W.D., Melino, G. and Raff, M. (2004). Roles for p53 and p73 during oligodendrocyte development. Development 131, 1211-1220. [PDF]

Kessaris, N., Jamen, F., Rubin, L.L., and Richardson, W.D. (2004). Cooperation between Sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor/ MAPK signalling pathways in neocortical precursors.  Development 131, 1289-1298. [PDF]

Woodruff, R.F., Fruttiger, M., Richardson, W.D. and Franklin, R.J.M. (2004).  Platelet-derived growth factor regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor numbers in adult CNS and their response following CNS demyelination.  Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 25, 252-262.[PDF]

Ivanova, A., Agochiya, M., Amoyel, M. and Richardson, W.D. (2003).  Receptor tyrosine phosphatase zeta/ beta in astrocyte progenitors in the developing chick spinal cord.  Gene Expression Patterns 4, 161-166. [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P., Howell, M., Colvin, J.S., Ornitz, D.M., and Richardson, W.D. (2003). Fgfr3 in astrocytes and their precursors: evidence that spinal cord astrocytes and oligodendrocytes originate in separate neuroepithelial domains.  Development 130, 93-102. [PDF]


Rowitch, D.H., Lu, Q.R., Kessaris, N., and Richardson, W.D. (2002). An oligarchy rules neural development.  Trends Neurosci. 25, 417-422. [PDF]


Fu, H., Qi, Y., Tan, M., Cai, J., Takebayashi, H., Nakafuku, M., Richardson, W.D., and Qiu, M. (2001).  Dual origin of spinal oligodendrocyte progenitors and evidence for the cooperative role of Olig2 and Nkx2.2 in the control of oligodendrocyte differentiation.  Development 129, 681-693.

Kessaris, N., Pringle, N. and Richardson, W.D. (2001).  Ventral neurogenesis and the neuron-glial switch.  Neuron 31, 677-680. [PDF]

Tekki-Kessaris, N., Woodruff, R., Hall, A.C., Gaffield, W., Kimura, S., Stiles, C.D., Rowitch, D.H., and Richardson, W.D. (2001). Hedgehog-dependent oligodendrocyte lineage specification in the telencephalon. Development 128, 2545-2554. [PDF]

Richardson, W.D (2001). Oligodendrocyte development. In Glial Cell Development (KR Jessen and WD Richardson, editors). Oxford University Press. In press. [pre-print]

van Heyningen, P., Calver, A.R. and Richardson, W.D. (2001). Control of progenitor cell number by mitogen supply-and-demand. Current Biology 11, 232-241. [PDF]

Woodruff, R.H., Tekki-Kessaris, N., Stiles, C.D., Rowitch, D.H. and Richardson, W.D. (2001). Oligodendrocyte development in the spinal cord and telencephalon: common themes and new perspectives. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. 19, 379-385. [PDF]

Fruttiger, M., Calver, A.R. and Richardson, W.D. (2000). PDGF is constitutively secreted from neuronal cell bodies but not from axons. Current Biology 10, 1283-1286. [PDF]

Sun, T., Jayatilake, D., Ataliotis, P., Afink, G.B., Nister, M., Richardson, W.D. and Smith, H.K. (2000). A human YAC transgene rescues craniofacial and neural tube development in PDGFRa knockout mice and uncovers a role for PDGFRa in prenatal lung growth. Development 127, 4519-4529. [PDF]

Richardson, W.D., Smith, H.K., Sun, T., Pringle, N.P., Hall, A. and Woodruff, R. (2000). Oligodendrocyte lineage and the motor neuron connection. Glia 29, 136-142. [PDF]

Fruttiger, M., Karlsson, L., Hall, A.C., Abramsson, A., Calver, A.R., Bostrom, H., Willetts, K., Bertold, C.-H., Heath, J.K., Betsholtz, C. and Richardson, W.D. (1999). Defective oligodendrocyte development and severe hypomyelination in PDGF-A knockout mice. Development 126, 457-467. [PDF]

Sun, T., Pringle, N.P., Hardy, A., Richardson, W.D. and Smith H.K. (1998). Pax6 influences the time and site of origin of glial precursors in the ventral neural tube. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 12, 228-239.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Guthrie, S., Lumsden, A., and Richardson, W.D. (1998). Dorsal spinal cord neuroepithelium generates astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes. Neuron 20, 883-893.  [PDF]

Calver, A.R., Hall, A.C., Yu, W-P., Walsh. F.S., Heath, J.K., Betsholtz, C. and Richardson, W.D. (1998). Oligodendrocyte population dynamics and the role of PDGF in vivo. Neuron 20, 869-882.  [PDF]


Pringle, N.P., Nadon, N.L., Rhode, D., Richardson, W.D. and Duncan, I.D. (1997). Normal temporal and spatial distribution of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the myelin- deficient (md) rat. J. Neurosci. Res. 47, 264-270.

Richardson, W.D., Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P. and Hall, A.C. (1997). Origins of spinal cord oligodendrocytes: possible developmental and evolutionary relationships with motor neurons. Dev. Neurosci. 19, 54-64.  [PDF]

Hall, A.C., Giese, N.A. and Richardson, W.D. (1996). Spinal cord oligodendrocytes develop from ventrally-derived progenitor cells that express PDGF alpha-receptors. Development 122, 4085-4094.  [PDF]

Fruttiger, M.., Calver, A.R., Kruger, W., Mudhar, H.S., Michalovich, D., Takakura, N., Nishikawa, S.-I. and Richardson, W.D. (1996). PDGF mediates a neuron-astrocyte interaction in the developing retina. Neuron 17, 1117-1131.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P., Guthrie, S., Roelink, H., Lumsden, A., Peterson, A.C. and Richardson, W.D. (1996). Determination of neuroepithelial cell fate: induction of the oligodendrocyte lineage by ventral midline cells and Sonic hedgehog. Dev. Biol. 177, 30-42.  [PDF]

Richardson, W.D., Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P., Collarini, E.J. and Hall, A.C. (1995). Embryonic origin and early development of oligodendrocytes. In: Glial Cell Development. K.R. Jessen and W.D. Richardson, eds. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York), pp53-70.

Yu, W.-P., Collarini, E.J., Pringle, N.P. and Richardson, W.D. (1994). Embryonic expression of myelin genes: evidence for a focal source of oligodendrocyte precursors in the ventricular zone of the neural tube. Neuron 12, 1353-1362.  [PDF]

Ninkina, N.N., Stevens, G.E.M., Wood, J.S., and Richardson,W.D. (1993). A novel Brn3-like POU transcription factor expressed in subsets of rat sensory and spinal cord neurons. Nucleic Acids Res., 21, 3175-3182.

Mudhar, H.S., Pollock, R.A., Wang, C., Stiles, C., and Richardson, W.D. (1993). PDGF and its receptors in the developing rodent retina and optic nerve. Development 118, 539-552.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., and Richardson, W.D. (1993). A singularity of PDGF alpha receptor expression in the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube may define the origin of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Development 117, 525-533.  [PDF]

Barres, B.A., Hart, I.K., Coles, H.S.R., Burne, J.F., Voyvodic, J.T., Richardson, W.D. and Raff, M.C. (1992).  Cell death and control of cell survival in the oligodendrocyte lineage.  Cell 70, 31-46.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Mudhar, H.S., Collarini, E.J. and Richardson, W.D. (1992). PDGF receptors in the rat CNS: during late neurogenesis, PDGF alpha-receptor expression seems to be restricted to glial cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage.  Development 115, 535-551.  [PDF]


Pringle, N., Collarini, E.J., Mosley, M.J., Heldin, C.‑H., Westermark, B and Richardson, W.D.  (1989). PDGF A chain homodimers drive proliferation of bipotential (O-2A) glial progenitor cells in the developing rat optic nerve. EMBO J. 8, 1049-1056.  [PDF]

Richardson, W.D., Pringle, N.P., Mosley, M.J., Westermark, B. and Dubois-Dalcq, M. (1988). A role for platelet-derived growth factor in normal gliogenesis in the central nervous system.  Cell 53, 300-310.  [PDF]

Richardson, W.D. and Westphal, H. (1981).  A cascade of adenovirus early functions is required for expression of adeno-associated virus.  Cell, 27, 133-141.  [PDF]

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