*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

The following provide an introduction to the subject

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

The Hastings Center (New York) has completed a two-year project on enhancement technologies supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities under the direction of Erik Parens. That project focused especially on cosmetic surgery, cognitive/psychiatric enhancement and gene therapy. A book on enhancement technologies edited by Erik Parens will be published shortly by Georgetown University Press. For information, contact Erik Parens.

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *


Allen, David B, Norman Fost. 1990. Growth hormone for short stature: panacea or Pandora's box? Journal of Pediatrics. 117(1, pt. 1): 16-21.

Anderson, W French. 1985. Human gene therapy: scientific and ethical considerations. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy. 10(3): 275-291.

Anderson, W French. 1994. Genetic engineering and our humanness. Human Gene Therapy. 5(6): 755-759.

Anonymous. Smart drugs not smart. FDA Consumer. v. 26, May 1992, p. 3-4.

Barondes, Samuel H. 1994. Thinking about Prozac. Science. Vol 263(5150) 1102-1103..

Baylis, Francoise. 1996. Women and Health Research: Working for Change. Journal of Clinical Ethics 7:3, 135-149.

Baylis, Francoise, Jocelyn Downie. 1996 Child Abuse and Neglect: Cross-cultural Considerations. In Hilde Nelson, ed. Feminism and Families, New York: Routledge, 173-187.

Beyene Y. 1989. From Menarche to Menopause: Reproductive Lives of Peasant Women in Two Cultures. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Bing, Elizabeth and Esselyn Rudikoff. 1970. Divergent ways of coping with hermaphrodite children. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality (December 1970):73-88.

Bordo, Susan. 1993. Unbearable Weight. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Breggin, P. 1994. Talking Back to Prozac. New York: St. MartinUs Press.

Brock, Dan. 1992. The Human Genome Project and Human Identity. Houston Law Review 29(1): 7-22.

Brock, Dan. 1996 (unpublished). Enhancement of Human Functions: Some Distinctions for Policy Makers. Working paper presented to Hastings Center project on enhancement technologies, May 1996.

Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, Routledge: London and New York.

Callahan, Daniel. 1994. Aging and the goals of medicine. Hastings Center Report. 24(5): 39-41.

Canterbury, R J., E. Lloyd. 1994. Smart drugs: Implications of student use. Journal of Primary Prevention. Vol 14(3) 197-207.

Caplan, Paula. 1994. Thinking Critically About Research on Sex and Gender. Harper Collins: New York.

Caplan, Arthur. 1992. Is aging a disease? In Arthur Caplan, If I were a Rich Man Could I buy a Pancreas? And Other Essays on the Ethics of Health Care, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Cardenas, Diana D. 1993. Cognition-enhancing drugs. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. Vol 8(4) 112-114.

Castro-Magana, Mariano, Moris Angulo and Platon J.Collipp. 1984. Management of the child with ambiguous genitalia, Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. Vol.18 (4): 172- 188.

Chase, Cheryl.1993. Letters from Readers, The Sciences, July/August 1993.

Daniels, Norman. 1992. Growth Hormone Therapy for Short Stature: Can We Support the Treatment/Enhancement Distinction? Growth: Genetics and Hormones 8 (Supplement 1), 46-48.

Davis, Kathy. 1995. Reshaping the Female Body: the Dilemma of Cosmetic Surgery. New York: Routledge.

Dean W, J. Morgenthaler and S. Fawkes. 1993. Smart Drugs II: The Next Generation. Menlo Park: Health Freedom Publications.

Dewhurst, J. and D.B.Grant. 1984. Intersex Problems. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 59: 1191-1194.

Diamond, M. 1996. Response: Considerations for sex assignment. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 22, 161-174.

Diamond M. 1996. Prenatal disposition and the clinical management of some pediatric conditions. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 1996, 22:139-147.

Diekema, Douglas S. 1990. Is taller really better? Growth hormone therapy in short children. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine. 34(1): 109-123.

Diller, Lawrence. 1996. The Run on Ritalin: Attention deficit Disorder and Stimulant Treatment in the 1990s. Hastings Center Report 26(2):12-18.

Donahoe, Patricia K. 1991. Clinical management of intersex abnormalities. Current Problems in Surgery (August): 546-579.

Edgerton, Robert B. 1964. Pokot intersexuality: An east African example of the resolution of sexual incongruity, American Anthropologist, 66(6): 1288-1299.

Elliott C. 1997. Hedgehogs and Hermaphrodites: Toward a More Anthropological Bioethics. In R. Carson and C. Burns, Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics: ATwenty Year Retrospective and Critical Appraisal. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 197-211.

Elliott, C. 1994. Know Your Anomie: Walker Percy as Philosophical Diagnostician (review essay) Medical Humanities Review 1994, 8(1), pp. 81-6.

Elliott, C. 1993. A Caplanesque Collection (review essay) Medical Humanities Review 7(2), p. 77-80.

Elliott, C. 1992a. Where Ethics Comes From And What To Do About It. Hastings Center Report, 22(4), July/August, pp. 28-35.

Elliott, C (in press). Prozac and the Existential Novel: Two Therapies. Theoretical Medicine.

Epstein, Julia. 1990. Either/Or Neither/Both. Genders 1 7 ( Spring): 99-142.

Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 1992. Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about Women and Men . Second ed. New York: Basic Books.

Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 1993. The Five sexes: Why Male and Female are Not Enough. The Sciences, March/April, 20-25.

Finch, Caleb. 1990. Longevity, Senescence and the Genome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fost, Norman. 1991. "I was like--whoa": a commentary on Shapiro's Performance enhancement and the control of attributes. Southern California Law Review 65: 115-20.

Foucault, Michel. 1990 (1978). The History of Sexuality, Vol.I: An Introduction, Robert Hurley (Trans.), Vintage Books: New York.

Foucault, Michel. 1975. The Birth of the Clinic, Vintage Books: New York.

Freedman B., K. Glass. 1990. Weiss v. Solomon: A Case Study in Institutional Responsibility for Clinical Research. Law, Medicine and Health Care 18:395-403.

Freedman B. 1987. Equipoise and the ethics of clinical research. New England Journal of Medicine. 317(3): 141-145.

Freedman B. 1996.Duty and Healing: Foundations of Jewish Bioethic Published on the internet

Freedman B., A. Fuks, C. Weijer. 1993. In Loco Parentis: Minimal Risk as an Ethical Threshold for Research upon Children. The Hastings Center Report 23(1):13-19.

Gardner, William. 1995. Can human genetic enhancement be prohibited? Journal of Medicine & Philosophy. 20(1): 65-84.

Geertz, Clifford. 1984. Local Knowledge, Basic Books: New York.

Gilman, Sander. 1985. Difference and Pathology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Glass K. 1993. Informed Decision-making and Vulnerable Persons: Meeting the Needs of the Competent Elderly Patient or Research Subject. Queen's Law Journal 18:191- 238.

Glover, Jonathan. 1984. What Sort of People Should There Be? Genetic Engineering, Brain Control, and Their Impact on Our Future World.. New York: Penguin Books.

Grumbach, Melvin M. 1988. Growth hormone therapy and the short end of the stick. New England Journal of Medicine. 319(4): 238-241.

Gunew, Sneja. 1990. Feminist Knowledge: Critique and Construct, Routledge: London and New York.

Gustafson, James M. 1994. A Christian perspective on genetic engineering. Human Gene Therapy. 5(6): 747-754.

Harding, Sandra. 1991. Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Harris, John. 1992. Wonderwoman and Superman: The Ethics of Human Biotechnology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Herdt, Gilbert H. and Julian Davidson. 1988. The Sambia 'Turnim-Man': Sociocultural and clinical aspects of gender formation in male pseudohermaphrodites with 5-alpha reductase deficiency in Papua New Guinea, Archives of Sexual Behaviour, Vol. 17 (1): 33-56.

Herdt, Gilbert (ed.), 1994. Third Sex, Third Gender. Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History, Zone Books: New York.

Hoffmaster B., B. Freedman, G. Fraser, eds. 1989. Clinical Ethics: Theory and Practice. New Jersey: Humana Press.

Hoffmaster, B. 1992. Can ethnography save the life of medical ethics? Social Science & Medicine. 35(12): 1421-1431

Hyman, David A. 1990. Aesthetics and ethics: the implications of cosmetic surgery. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine. 33(2): 190-202.

Izquierdo, Gerardo and Kenneth I. Glassberg. 1993. Gender assignment and gender identity in patients with ambiguous genitalia, Urology, Vol. 42(3): 232-242.

Jazwinski, S. 1996. Longevity, genes and aging. Science 273: 54 - 59.

Jorgensen, O. L. Jens L. Christiansen. 1993. Growth hormone therapy -- brave new senescence: GH in adults. Lancet. 341(8855): 1247-1248.

Kahn, Jeffrey P. 1991. Genetic harm: bitten by the body that keeps you? Bioethics. 5(4): 289-308.

Kahn, Jeffrey P. 1991. Commentary on Zohar's "Prospects for 'genetic therapy' -- can a person benefit from being altered?" Bioethics. 5(4): 312-317.

Kass, Leon. 1995. Towards a More Natural Science. New York: The Free Press.

Kessler, Suzanne. 1990. The medical construction of gender case management of intersexual infants, Signs, Vol. 16(1): 3-26.

Kessler Suzanne J. and Wendy McKenna. 1978. Gender: An Ethnomethodological Approach, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kirmayer, Laurence. 1988. Mind and Body as Metaphors: Hidden Values in Biomedicine. In M. Lock and D. Gordon, eds. Biomedicine Examined. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 57-93.

Kirmayer, Laurence. 1993. Healing and the Invention of Metaphor: The Effectiveness of Symbols Revisited. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 17(2): 161-195.

Kirmayer, Laurence. 1989. Cultural Variations on the Response to Psychiatric Disorders and Emotional Distress. Social Science and Medicine 29(3),327-339.

Klerman G. 1982. Psychotropic Hedonism vs. Pharmacological Calvinism. Hastings Center Report 2(4)1-3.

Knapp, M.J. 1994. A 30-week randomized clinical trial of high-dose Tacrine in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. JAMA 271:985-991.

Kramer, Peter D. 1993. Listening to Prozac. New York: Viking.

Lantos, John, Mark Siegler, Leona Cuttler. 1989. Ethical issues in growth hormone therapy. JAMA. 261(7): 1020-1024.

Laqueur, Thomas. 1990. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Lev-Ran, Arye. 1974. Gender role differentiation in hermaphrodites, Archives of Sexual Behaviour, Vol. 3(5): 391-424.

Lock, Margaret. 1993. Encounters with Aging: Mythologies of Menopause in Japan and North America. California: University of California Press

Lock, Margaret. 1994. Menopause in Cultural Context. Experimental Gerontology 29 (3/4): 307-317.

Lock, Margaret. 1986. Ambiguities of Aging: Japanese experience and conceptions of menopause. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 10: 23-46.

Lock, Margaret. 1996. Death in technological time: locating the end of meaningful life. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 10 (4): 575-600.

Lock, Margaret. 1996. Displacing suffering: the reconstruction of death in North America and Japan. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 125 (1): 207-243.

Lock, Margaret. 1997. Perfecting society: reproductive technologies, genetic testing, and the planned family in Japan, Pragmatic Women and Body Politics, M. Lock and P. Kaufert (Eds.), Cambridge University Press.

Lock, Margaret, S. Lindenbaum, eds. 1993 Knowledge, Power and Practice: The Anthropology of Medicine and Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Macer, Darryl. Balk, Roger A. Freedman, Benjamin. Goulet, Marie-Claude. 1991. New creations? Hastings Center Report. 21(1): 32-35.

Meyer, Jon K. and Donna J. Peter. 1979. Sex reassignment. Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 36: 1010-1015.

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino. 1994. Intersexuality and the diagnosis of gender identity disorder. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, Vol. 23(1): 21-40.

Money, John. 1965. Psychological evaluation of the child with intersex problems. Pediatrics, Vol. 36: 51.

Money, John. 1991. Biographies of Gender and Hermaphroditism in Paired Comparisons, The Handbook of Sexology, J. Money and H. Usaph (Eds.), Elsevier: New York.

Money, John. 1987. Gender identity and gender transposition: Longtitudinal outcome study of 24 male hermaphrodites assigned as boys, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, Vol. 13(2): 75-92.

Money, John. 1985. Pediatric sexology and hermaphroditism, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, Vol. 11(3): 139-156.

Money, John. 1968. Hermaphroditism and pseudohermaphroditism, Textbook of gynecologic endocrinology, J. J. Gold Ed.), Hoeber: New York.

Murphy, Timothy F. 1995. Abortion and the ethics of genetic sexual orientation research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. 4(3): 340-350, 1995.

Murphy, Timothy F. 1990. Reproductive controls and sexual destiny. Bioethics. 4(2): 121-142

Murphy, Timothy F. 1986. A cure for aging? Journal of Medicine & Philosophy. 11(3): 237-255.

Murray, Thomas. 1994. Assessing genetic technologies: two ethical issues. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 10(4):573-582.

Murray, Thomas. 1990. Human gene therapy, the public, and public policy. Human Gene Therapy. 1(1): 49-54.

Murray, Thomas. 1988. In whose image? Ethical issues in genetic engineering. In: Winslade, William J., ed. Personal Choices and Public Commitments: Perspectives on the Medical Humanities. Institute for the Medical Humanities; Austin, Tex.: Texas Committee for the Humanities. Galveston, Texas, 101-113.

Murray T, W. Gaylin and R. Macklin. 1984. Feeling Good and Doing Better: Ethics and Nontherapeutic Drug Use. Clifton, New Jersey: Humana Press.

Nelson, James Lindemann. 1996. Measured fairness, situated justice: feminist reflections on health care rationing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 6(1): 53-68.

Nelson, James Lindemann. 1992. Genetic narratives: biology, stories and the definition of the family. Health Matrix. 2(1): 71-83.

Newman Kurt, J. Randolph, K. Anderson. 1992. The surgical management of infants and children with ambiguous genitalia: lessons learned from 25 years. Annals of Surgery. 215(6):644-53.

O'Leary, James C. 1993. An analysis of the legal issue surrounding the forced use of Ritalin: protecting a child's right to "just say no." New England Law Review. 27(4): 1173-1209.

Parens, Erik. 1995. The goodness of fragility: on the prospect of genetic technologies aimed at the enhancement of human capacities. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 5(2): 141-153.

Post, Stephen G. 1991. Selective abortion and gene therapy: reflections on human limits. Human Gene Therapy. 2(3): 229-233.

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1982. Splicing Life: The Social and Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering with Human Beings. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Resnik, David. 1994. Debunking the slippery slope argument against human germ-line gene therapy. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy. 19(1): 23-40.

Robertson, John A. 1996. Genetic Selection of Offspring Characteristics, 76 Boston Univ. Law Review 76: 421-482

Robertson, John A. 1998. Liberty, Identity, and Human Cloning. Texas Law Review 77: 1-85

Roscoe, Will. 1991. The Zuni Man-Woman.. Albuquerque: University Press of New Mexico.

Rose, M.R. 1991. Evolutionary Biology of Aging, New York: Oxford University Press.

Rothman, David J. 1994. Shiny, happy people: the problem with "cosmetic psychopharmacology." New Republic. 210(7): 34-38, 1994.

Russo, Mary. 1994. The Female Grotesque. Routledge: London and New York.

Rusting. R.L. 1992. Why do we age? Scientific American, December, 131-141.

Sabin J. and N. Daniels. 1994. Determining "Medical Necessity" in Mental Health Practice. Hastings Center Report 24(6):5-13.

Shah R., M. Woolley. C.Costin. 1992. Testicular feminization: the androgen insensitivity syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 27(6):757-60.

Shapiro, Michael H. 1991. The technology of perfection: performance enhancement and the control of attributes. Southern California Law Review 65: 11-113.

Simon, Williams. 1994. Deviance as history: The future of perversion. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, Vol. 23(1): 1-20.

Slomka, Jacquelyn. 1992. Playing with propranolol. Hastings Center Report. 22(4): 13-17.

Springer, Robert H. 1987. Transsexual surgery: some reflections on the moral issues involved. In: Shelp, Earl E., ed. Sexuality and Medicine. Volume II: Ethical Viewpoints in Transition. Boston: D. Reidel, pp. 233-247.

Stoller, Robert J. 1985. Presentations of Gender, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Suleiman, Susan R. (ed.) 1985. The Female Body in Western Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tauer, Carol A. 1995. Human growth hormone: a case study in treatment priorities. Hastings Center Report. 25(3, Suppl.): S18-S20.

Tauer, Carol A. 1994. The NIH trials of growth hormone for short stature. IRB: a Review of Human Subjects Research. 16(3): 1-9.

Walters, LeRoy. 1994. Human gene therapy: ethics and public policy. Human Gene Therapy. 2(2): 115-122.

Walters, LeRoy. 1991. Ethical issues in human gene therapy. Journal of Clinical Ethics. 2(4): 267-274.

White, Gladys B. 1993. Human growth hormone: the dilemma of expanded use in children. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 3(4): 401-409.

Whitehouse, Peter, Eric Juengst, Max Mehlman, Thomas Murray. 1996 (unpublished). Enhancing Cognition in the Intellectually Intact: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Draft working paper, presented to Hastings Center project on enhancement technologies, May 1996.

Wilkinson, Simon R. 1988. Small is hard as well as beautiful: encouragement rather than growth hormone. BMJ (British Medical Journal). 297(6650): 699-700.

Williams, Walter L. 1986. The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture. Boston: Beacon Press.

Wivel, Nelson A., Walters, Leroy. 1993. Germ-line Gene Modification and Disease Prevention: Some Medical and Ethical Perspectives. Science 262: 533-38.

Wright, Robert. 1994. The coverage of happiness: when Prozac meets universal coverage. New Republic. 210(11): 24-29.

Zimmerman, Burke K. 1991. Human germ-line therapy: the case for its development and use. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy. 16(6): 593-612.

Zohar, Noam J. 1991. Commentary on "Genetic harm: bitten by the body that keeps you?" Bioethics. 5(4): 309-311.

Zucker, K. J. 1996. Commentary on Diamond's "Prenatal Predisposition and the Clinical Management of Some Pediatric Conditions." Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 22, 148-160.

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

<-Back to the Enhancement Technologies Group main page