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Joseph Giacomin, Brunel University
Wednesday 7th October 3pm, Roberts 110
Human Centred Design: a business paradigm for 21st century enterprise
The 21st century is characterised by ever growing expectations regarding experiences, quality of life, privacy and ethics. With the growing pressure for human centred products, systems and services, the activity of design has taken centre stage in most customer driven innovation. Having often been described as the "century of the human mind", the current period is rich in new products, systems and services which are characterised by interactivity, emotion and meaning. This seminar will define the paradigm of human centred design, an approach which is being followed by ever greater numbers of businesses. The multidisciplinary paradigm will be defined in comparison to the main competing paradigms of technology-driven design and sustainable design, the business implications will be discussed and application examples will be provided.
Professor Joseph Giacomin is the Director of the Human Centred Design
Institute (HCDI) of Brunel University.
Human Centred Design integrates multidisciplinary expertise towards enhancing human well-being and empowering people. In its most basic form it leads to products, systems and services which are physically, perceptually, cognitively and emotionally intuitive. In its most advanced form it discovers and unlocks latent needs and desires, supporting the achievement of desired futures for society.
He teaches undergraduate and postgraduate university modules in Human
Factors with particular emphasis on matters of perception and emotion,
and guest lectures widely at universities, governmental organisations
and businesses. He has produced more than 60 professional publications
including a recent book of thermal photography titled Thermal: seeing
the world through 21st century eyes, and provides consultancy services
to the design and manufacturing sectors.
He is a member of the editorial boards of Ergonomics and of the
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration (IJVNV). He is a
Fellow of the Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors (FErgS), a
Fellow of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures
and Commerce (FRSA), a member of the Associazione Per Il Disegno
Industriale (ADI) and a member of the Royal Photographic Society (RPS).
Professor Joseph Giacomin has a Ph.D. from Sheffield University in the
United Kingdom and has both Master's and Bachelor's degrees from the
Catholic University of America in Washington D.C. U.S.A.. He has worked
for both the American military and the European automobile industry.
UCLIC research seminars are on Wednesdays at 3pm during term-time. Please see notices for
confirmation of the room number for each seminar.
Ted White, Uppsala University – 23rd September 2015
"How mobile phones affect the sustainability of the work/life balance of their users"
This study examined the relationship between sustainability of mobile
phone users and work-life balance. Twenty-seven interviews were
performed on managerial level mobile phone owners over the duration of a
month and half. The study extends Clark’s¹ original Border theory that
fails to mention how mobile phones (or indeed any other information and
communication technology) influence the borders between the two domains.
This study found technology has a definitive impact with separate users
groups emerging from the data; border-extenders, border-adapters and
1. Clark, S.C.: Work/family border theory: a new theory of work/family balance. Hum. Relat. 53, 747–770 (2000)
I, Ted White, was born and raised in Johannesburg, South Africa but
spent a couple years living in Windsor, United Kingdom. I am currently a
PhD psychology student at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
but am currently on an Erasmus Mundus mobility scholarship completing
my studies in the Visual Information and Interaction division at Uppsala
University, Sweden, for 23 months. My PhD topic is “Evolving border
theory and self-regulation theory for a mobile phone generation” and
looks at how cell phones blur the boundaries between home-work and cause
an imbalance extending boundary and socio-cognitive theory. My PhD is
anticipated to be completed by June/July 2016.
I am also a senior lecturer in the School of Computing at the University of South Africa, where I partnered with Google to launch Google Chromebooks into South Africa and Africa. This was done as a community engagement project in order to provide low-cost high impact devices to students at both a primary, secondary and tertiary levels. This was the first official Google sanctioned usage of the Chromebooks in South Africa and in Africa.
Thomas Gable & Bruce Walker, Georgia Tech – 4th September 2015
This is How We Roll: HCI Driving Research in the Sonification Lab
The Sonification Lab at Georgia Tech is an interdisciplinary lab under the School of Psychology and the School of Interactive Computing at Georgia Tech. The lab focuses on development and evaluation of technologies that allow humans to interact with systems when they either cannot see or cannot look at an interface visually, or in an effort to enhance a visual interface to improve the user experience. One of the four pillars of the lab is driving technology where their focus looks at ways to enhance the drivers’ interaction within the driving environment. The lab’s approach to driving research will be discussed, along with plenty of examples of recent research projects.
Bruce N. Walker is a professor in the School of Psychology and the School of Interactive Computing at Georgia Tech, and founder of the Sonification Lab. Dr. Walker completed his Ph.D. at Rice University in Human Factors Psychology and Human-Computer Interaction in 2001. He is a Core Faculty Member in the GVU Center, a member of the Center for Music Technology (GTCMT) and the Center for Biologically Inspired Design (CBID), and a Project Director in the WirelessRERC. Dr. Walker is currently the Past-President of the International Community for Auditory Display (ICAD).
Thomas M. Gable is an Engineering Psychology PhD student in the Sonification lab within the Georgia Tech School of Psychology. His research interests are centered on the intersection of human beings and technology as it relates to situation awareness, workload, and attention. He is involved in many of the driving projects in the Sonification lab and is one of the scenario developers for the School of Psychology's driving simulator. Thom graduated with a BA in Psychology from The College of Wooster and received his Masters in Psychology from Georgia Tech.
Gloria Mark, University of California, Irvine – 1st July 2015
Precision Tracking of Digital Activity in situ: Patterns in Attention Focus, Mood and Stress
The recent revolution in sensor technology is enabling new ways to measure human behavior in situ with precision. My goal is to understand digital technology use in real world environments, and how it affects human mood and behavior. Using a mixed-methods approach, I study how digital media use is related to multitasking, stress, mood, and focus. I will present data from information workers tracked in the workplace for multiple days, and from 124 Millennials tracked for multiple days, all waking hours. We collected this data using sensors and biosensors, SenseCams, experience sampling, and repeated surveys. This approach enables us to answer numerous questions, such as: To what extent do people multitask and self-interrupt? How do online and offline social interactions affect mood? What activities do people carry out when focused and bored throughout their workday? How can we explain what causes workplace distractions? What effects does email use have on focus, stress and mood? What factors are associated with productivity? I will present answers to these questions, and will discuss how these results can inform the design of computer technologies and practices that could be used to improve people's mood, focus and stress management.
Gloria Mark is a Professor in the Department of Informatics, University of California, Irvine. Her research focuses on the studying the impact of digital technology in real-world contexts. Her current projects include studying precision tracking of information workers' digital media use and mood, the use of ICTs in environments disrupted by conflict, and workplace social media. She received her PhD in Psychology from Columbia University. Prior to joining UCI in 2000, she worked at the German National Research Center for Information Technology (GMD, now Fraunhofer Institute) and has been a visiting researcher at Microsoft Research, IBM, Boeing, and The MIT Media Lab. In 2006 she received a Fulbright scholarship where she worked at the Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany. She has published in top conferences and journals in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. She has been the technical program chair for the ACM CSCW¹12, ACM CSCW'06, and ACM GROUP¹05 conferences, is the general chair for the ACM CHI¹17 conference, and is on the editorial board of ACM TOCHI and Human-Computer Interaction. Her work has also appeared in the popular press such as The New York Times, the BBC, NPR, Time, and The Wall Street Journal.
Positive Computing: Technologies for psychological wellbeing and human potential
Digital technologies have made their way into all the aspects of our lives that, according to psychology, influence our wellbeing -- everything from social relationships and curiosity to engagement and learning. By bringing together research and methodologies well-established in psychology, education, neuroscience and human-computer interaction, we can begin to cultivate a new field dedicated to the design and development of technology that supports wellbeing and human potential. Positive computing has been call the "buzzword you need to know for 2015" by the Washington Post and Forbes.
More specifically, in this seminar I will present an introduction to our Human-Computer interaction work aiming to support psychological wellbeing. The suggested HCI framework builds on psychology, education, design and other disciplines addressing intrapersonal factors of wellbeing such as motivation, engagement, reflective thought and mindfulness, interpersonal factors such as empathy, and extrapersonalsuch as altruism.
For more information visit positivecomputing.org
Calvo is Professor at the University of Sydney, and ARC Future Fellow.
He has taught at several Universities, high schools and professional
training institutions. He worked at the Language Technology Institute in
Carnegie Mellon University, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina)
and on sabbaticals at the University of Cambridge and the University of
Memphis. Rafael also has worked as an Internet consultant for projects
in the US, Australia, Brasil, and Argentina. Rafael is the recipient of 5
teaching awards for his work on learning technologies, and the author
of two books and many publications in the fields of learning
technologies, affective computing and computational intelligence. Rafael
is Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
and of IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing and Senior Member of
IEEE. Rafael is Editor of the Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing and
“Positive Computing” (MIT Press) with DorianPeters. For more
information visit: rafael-calvo.com
Abigail Sellen, Microsoft Research Cambridge – 10th June 2015
Designing Computer Systems That See
The last decade has witnessed rapid advancements in computer vision systems, not just in the world of gaming, but in many aspects of everyday life from medical systems to augmented reality. Computer systems “that see” enable new forms of input, can track and identify people, can capture and model the physical world around us, and can be combined with other system capabilities such as conversational agents. But the challenge in developing these systems is much more than technical. In this talk I explore the process of designing computer vision applications from a human perspective, and through our own attempts to build them for a variety of real world settings. In doing so, I propose that such systems need to make their users aware of the differences between how computer systems and how people sense, perceive, analyse and respond to the world. This has implications beyond computer vision to more general notions of “smart” systems in an era where artificial intelligence has again taken hold of our collective imagination.
Abigail Sellen is a Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research Cambridge where she manages the Human Experience & Design Group. Prior to Microsoft, she worked at Hewlett-Packard Labs, Rank Xerox EuroPARC, Apple Computer and Bell Northern Research. Abigail first became interested in Human-Computer Interaction through a summer internship at Apple while working on her doctorate in Cognitive Science with Don Norman. She has since published extensively on many diverse topics including the book "The Myth of the Paperless Office" (with co-author Richard Harper). Alongside her honorary professorship at UCL, she is also a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, Fellow of the British Computer Society, and a member of the ACM SIGCHI Academy.
Kathrin Gerling, University of Lincoln – 3rd June 2015
Understanding Vulnerability at Play: Exploring Games for and with Audiences with Special Needs
have a range of positive effects of games on our physical, cognitive,
and emotional well-being. However, most design efforts focus on
non-disabled players, and despite recent advances in game accessibility
research, it remains unclear how audiences with special needs experience
games, and whether they have full access to the benefits of play.
As a first step toward better understanding games for diverse audiences, this talk explores games for and with audiences with special needs, focusing on vulnerability that can emerge either from the involvement in the design process, or the engagement with games. It presents results from projects examining how older adults in long-term care engage with games, what the experiences of persons using wheelchairs playing movement-based games were, and how non-disabled students and young people using powered wheelchairs experienced the process of designing wheelchair-controlled video games.
Results suggest that designing games for and with audiences with special needs has potential to create empowering experiences, but may also unintentionally expose vulnerability among several parties. To this end, this talk outlines lessons learned from these projects to support future efforts aiming to bring the benefits of play to diverse audiences.
Kathrin Gerling is a Lecturer in Computer Science at the University of Lincoln, where she is part of the Lincoln Social Computing Research Centre (LiSC) and a member of the Games Research Group.
Her main research areas are human-computer interaction and accessibility; her work examines interactive technologies with a purpose besides entertainment. She is particularly interested in how interfaces can be made accessible for audiences with special needs, and how interactive technologies can be leveraged to support healthy lifestyles. Her PhD research examined the potential of games to provide cognitive and physical stimulation for older adults, and her research on wheelchair-based game input, KINECTWheels, has been published at leading international venues, and was featured in the media.
Kathrin holds a PhD in Computer Science from the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, and she received a Master’s degree in Cognitive Science from the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany. Before joining academia, she worked on different projects in the games industry, and still enjoys thinking about issues related to game usability and player experience.
Participatory Design with Children: Shedding Light on How Children Can Influence Technology Design
While there is little disagreement that children should be involved in the early stages of technology design, child-computer interaction researchers have grappled with how to ensure children’s input has an influence on technology. In learning technology design in particular there are often competing tensions between pedagogical knowledge and children’s ideas, emphasising the power relations between child and adult. In my talk, I will present two case studies of learning technology design: a serious game teaching conflict resolution skills and a reading app supporting children with dyslexia in their literacy. In taking two different approaches to children’s participation, I will argue that children’s influence on technology design is very much shaped by the designer’s goals and epistemology.
Mina Vasalou is a senior lecturer in the London Knowledge Lab at the UCL Institute of Education. Her background is in Design and Human-computer interaction. In her recent work, she has been exploring how children can participate in learning technology design, with a particular interest in how the situated local design context shapes their influence on technology. She was a co-organiser of a recent workshop on participatory design and serious games in CHI Play and is currently organising a special issue on this topic.
Building an Interdisciplinary View of Personal Digital Archiving
This paper builds on work carried out as part of a recent investigation (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dis/icarus/projects/recordkeeping) into the binary opposition between personal and corporate recordkeeping. It will present an interdisciplinary view of the emerging field of ‘personal digital archiving’ which has been constructed by combining an archival perspective with a selection of material taken from HCI. It will ask questions about the usefulness of such a view and explore the potential for further collaboration between archives and records management and HCI in the question of personal digital archiving.
Jenny Bunn is a Lecturer on the Archives and Records Management programme at UCL. She has worked extensively as an archivist in institutions including The Royal Bank of Scotland and The National Archives and holds a PhD in Archive Studies. She is a committee member of the Archives and Records Association’s Section for Archives and Technology, a joint editor of Archives and Records and a founder member of the Cardigan Continuum (https://thecardigancontinuum.wordpress.com/) – an archives and records management reading group. Her current research interests include born digital description, digital curation and personal digital archiving.
Petr Slovak, TU Wien – 6th May 2015
Supporting learning of social and emotional skills by digital technology
I will discuss a series of on-going projects in which we aim to
understand how digital technology can facilitate the development and
learning of social and emotional skills. Drawing on recent results to be
presented at CHI'15 and CSCW'15, I will emphasise two specific case
studies. In the first, we cooperate with a MSc. counselling program at
the University of Nottingham to explore how feedback of bio-signals and
other data can be used to support the training of student counsellors.
The second then focuses on how technology can facilitate social and
emotional skills learning more broadly, working in collaboration with
researchers and developers of 'Social and Emotional Learning' (SEL)
curricula in educational psychology. These curricula are already
deployed in over 40% of primary schools within US, as part of prevention
programs for both in-risk and general populations, thus providing an
opportunity for an interesting test-bed for new technologies in this
This research is funded by the OEAW DOC Fellowship and pursued in cooperation between HCI group at Technical University of Vienna, Mixed Reality Lab and Culture Lab (counselling part); as well as with Committee for Children and Microsoft Research Redmond (SEL curricula part).
Petr Slovak is a Doctoral Candidate in the HCI Group at Vienna University of Technology, supervised by Geraldine Fitzpatrick. He holds a BSc in Psychology/Sociology in addition to BSc. & MSc. in Computer Science, and his PhD is funded by the DOC Fellowship from Austrian Academy of Sciences. Petr's research focuses on support for teaching of social and emotional skills in educational and therapeutical settings, with specific interest on empathy. As part of his PhD project, Petr has built collaborations with researchers from University of Nottingham (UK), Newcastle University (UK), Philips Research (NL), Committee for Children (US), and Microsoft Research (Redmond, US).
Wally Smith, University of Melbourne – 5th May 2015
What stage magic reveals about our interactions with technology
In this talk I argue that we can draw insights from stage magic about people's interactions with technology. A general perspective is established by using Lucy Suchman's recent notion of 'human-machine reconfigurations' to compare conjuring performances with displays of computerised life forms. Analysis of recent projects in social robotics, for example, suggests that technologists often rely on techniques of 'dissimulation' that mirror the craft of the magician. Having set this broad perspective, the talk will then consider the detailed nature of the deception enacted in conjuring. I argue that we need to go beyond recent accounts of stage illusions by cognitive scientists that emphasize their basis in perceptual and attentional errors. Instead, a detailed analysis of conjuring tricks reveals a form of 'narrative failure' in which spectators are led to follow a particular (erroneous) story of events. The approach is illustrated through an analysis of a selected trick, Martin Gardner's 'Turnaround'. In considering the implications for people's interactions with technology, it will be shown how that this pattern of narrative failure depends on properties of artefacts, in particular symmetry and stable occlusion. I will conclude by discussing the possible implications of this form of narrative failure for the radical misconceptions that sometimes lie at the heart of industrial accidents.
Wally Smith is a Senior Lecturer in the Interaction Design Lab, Department of Computing and Information Systems at the University of Melbourne. His other current research projects are on the use of social media for smoking cessation, the design of mobile apps for student fieldwork, and the design of digital tools for citizen-produced history and heritage.
Ronald Poppe, Utrecht University – 29th April 2015
Hands off! Playing games with your body
The introduction of computer games has caused a drop in the amount of time children spend playing in a physically active way. We'd like to reverse the trend: by combining digital play and body movement, we aim at creating engaging and fun game experiences. I will present some of our research projects in which body and face motion is used to play games. The talk will focus on sensing technology, adaptive game play and social aspects of these games.
Ronald Poppe received the Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from the University of Twente, The Netherlands on the topic "Discriminative Vision-Based Recovery and Recognition of Human Motion". In 2009, 2010 and 2012, he was a visiting researcher at the Delft University of Technology, Stanford University and University of Lancaster, respectively. He is currently an assistant professor at Utrecht University. His research interests include the analysis of human motion from videos and other sensors, the understanding and modelling of human (communicative) behaviour and the applications of both in real-life settings.
Ben Cowan, University College Dublin – 25th March 2015
Lexical alignment in human-computer communication: Audience Design or Priming?
A common observation in dialogue research is that people tend to converge, or align, linguistically with their dialogue partners. Specifically, alignment at the lexical level has been shown to be influenced by our judgements of our interlocutor an as effective communication partner. As speech interfaces grow in popularity, the research presented looks at lexical alignment in the context of spoken human-computer dialogue, looking to understand the role of partner design and behaviour in this effect.
Our preliminary results show strong lexical alignment effects when communicating with computer partners, similar to those seenin human-human interaction, yet no significant partner modelling effects based on judgements impacted by voice anthropomorphism or partner comprehension behaviour. These findings give support to the notion that lexical alignment can be a a strong driver of word choice in human-computer dialogue. They also give tentative evidence for a priming based account in understanding why we align with automated dialogue partners.
Dr Benjamin Cowan is a Lecturer at Universty College Dublin's School of Information and Communication. His research broadly looks to understand how interface design affects user perceptions, emotions and behaviours in human-computer based interactions. His recent work has focused on how design and system actions affect user linguistic choices in human-computer dialogue as well as how to form, break and rebuild habits in interaction. He also has a strong interest in how negative emotions manifest in interaction and how these impact user behaviour.
Mike Byrne, Rice University – 24th March 2015
The Butterfly Legacy: How badly-designed voting systems are as much a threat to election integrity as fraud and hacking
Voting in the United States is unique in that local jurisdictions are responsible for administering all elections, including national elections. This has resulted in a wildly heterogeneous assortment of voting systems. The U.S. Presidential election in 2000 brought issues of voting system usability to the public consciousness via the “butterfly ballot” and ubiquitous media coverage of hanging chads. This prompted federal legislation that led to widespread adoption of electronic voting systems. However, fundamental questions about voting system usability were not answered before this sweeping change: Just how usable were the technologies being replaced? How do new electronic systems compare to those systems? How do security concerns about electronic voting factor in? We now have data that help answer some of these questions but which raise serious concerns about the systems used to implement American democracy. Errors rates larger than the margin of victory in some races appear at multiple points in the voting process, and this problem is likely to persist and possibly worsen without concerted efforts from multiple sources, including the HCI community.
Mike Byrne is a Professor of Psychology and Computer Science at Rice University. His primary research areas are concerned with usability of technological systems and mathematical/computational models of human cognition and performance with a strong interest in understanding human error. This includes basic scientific work on theories of human cognition and performance as well as applied usability testing efforts, particularly in the area of voting. His research has been funded by the NSF, NASA, the Office of Naval Research, and NIST. Mike received a B.S. in Engineering and a B.A. in Psychology from the University of Michigan in 1991. The Georgia Institute of Technology awarded him an M.S. in Psychology in 1993, an M.S. in Computer Science in 1995, and a Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology in 1996. He has served as an associate editor for the journals Human Factors and Cognitive Science, as well as serving on the editorial boards of the journals Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, and Human Factors.
Danaë Stanton Fraser, University of Bath – 18th March 2015
Towards humans and robots in public space
I will start my talk by providing a brief overview of current projects within the CREATE Lab. I will then focus on our work within the EPSRC Being There project. Being There is examining the social and technological aspects of being able to appear in public in proxy forms. Our work at Bath is particularly exploring trust in communication. I will discuss a recent study we carried out on tele- present handshaking and also the involvement of a creative cohort as part of our impact plan throughout the project.
Danaë Stanton Fraser is a Professor in Psychology at the University of Bath where she leads the CREATE Lab http://www.bath.ac.uk/psychology/research/castl/create-lab/. Her research interests include the design and evaluation of mobile and pervasive technologies, spatial learning and identity and trust. Danaë’s work is underpinned by a process of co-design with end users and industrial partners in the development and evaluation of technologies. Danaë has obtained grants from the EPSRC, ESRC, AHRC, charities and industry and has held joint research grants with industrial partners including: BBC, Microsoft, Vodafone, IBM, ScienceScope, Nokia, HP and BT. She is currently an investigator on the AHRC REACT Hub; the EPSRC Being There project and the EPSRC SuperID project. She has published over seventy papers in high-impact international journals and conferences.
Raymond Bond, Ulster University – 11th March 2015
Human Computer Interaction in Healthcare: Current Work and Opportunities
This presentation will provide an overview of Human
Computer Interaction (HCI) research studies that have been carried out
by Ulster University. The presentation will focus on HCI research
within the healthcare domain. At Ulster, we have developed HCI systems
for patients to encourage the self-management of chronic diseases as
well as interactive user interfaces for medical professionals. We
believe optimal HCI in healthcare can help both the patient and the
physician. 1) The patient will only likely engage with good HCI (for
example – if they are required to continuously record their own vital
signs in the home – currently branded as connected health) and 2) the
physician can make better decisions more efficiently and accurately with
optimal HCI. As a result of our recent studies in this area, we are
launching a commercial User Experience Laboratory (UX-Lab), which will
allow enterprises to empirically evaluate their products using state of
the art usability testing equipment which entail psycho-physiology
sensors (eye tracking, electro-dermal activity, heart rate variability
etc.) to derive biometrics for objectively determining the user
experience. In addition to evaluating the usability of medical devices
and software, we have also evaluated the usability of medical
(diagnostic) images and signals. For example, we recorded the eye gaze
and scan path of world leading cardiologists whilst they read the
12-lead electrocardiogram and we have also analysed eye gaze patterns
from radiographers whilst they interpreted X-RAY images. Such studies
will be discussed in this presentation. In summary, I will provide a
brief overview of previous work and make predictions about future HCI
research in healthcare (which may include natural and intelligent
[adaptive] user interfaces for the patient, nurse and the doctor).
Dr Raymond Bond obtained a first class honours degree (BSc) in Interactive Multimedia Design (2007) and a PhD in Computing Science (2012) both from the Faculty of Computing and Engineering at Ulster University. He also holds a postgraduate certificate in higher education practice. Dr Bond lectures in Health Informatics and Computer Graphics and Animation. He is a member of the Smart Environment Research Group (serg.ulster.ac.uk) and has scientific research interests in intelligent Human Computer Interaction, Usability Engineering, Medical Visualisation, Virtual Simulation Based Training in Medicine and Computerised Electrocardiography.
Saskia Bakker, Eindhoven University of Technology – 4th March 2015
Design for Peripheral Interaction
Interactive devices such as mobile phones play an important, but often needlessly obtrusive role in everyday life. This can be prevented when people could interact with these devices without focused attention. This talk will address ‘peripheral interaction design’: interaction design which can effortlessly be used as part of people’s everyday routines without inappropriately attracting attention.
Saskia Bakker is an assistant professor at the Industrial Design department of the Eindhoven University of Technology. In 2013, she obtained her PhD, on her dissertation entitled "Design for Peripheral Interaction", from the Eindhoven University of Technology. With a background in industrial design, her expertise lays in research-through-design in the areas of tangible interaction, peripheral interaction and classroom technologies. She will work as a visiting research at UCLIC from March 2015 until June 2015.
Tony Easty, University Health Network/University of Toronto – 18th February 2015
The Development of a Human Factors-Informed Approach to Improving Health Care Safety in Canada
In this talk, I will trace the origins of the application of human factors methods to issues of patient safety in health care in Canada, giving the background to safety issues and the gradual introduction of a human factors-informed approach in several jurisdictions. I will provide examples of projects that have been undertaken and will talk about the spectrum of activities presently underway.
Anthony (Tony) Easty
is a Senior Scientist and the Inaugural Chair-holder of the Baxter
Chair in Health Technology at the University Health Network/University
of Toronto. He is also an associate professor at the Institute of
Biomaterials and Biomedical engineering at the university and chair of
the management committee for the Centre for Global eHealth Innovation.
Since 1978, he has served in many capacities including Senior Director
for the University Health Network’s Department of Medical Engineering
and Director of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Mount
Sinai Hospital in Toronto.
For the past seven years, Dr. Easty’s research focus has been the usability and safety of medical technologies throughout the health care system in a wide variety of environments of use, with a special focus on medication safety and safety in home care. These research activities are supported by a wide range of funding agencies. He has established the HumanEra Team, educated at the PhD and Masters levels in human factors engineering, cognitive psychology and biomedical engineering.
Kristina Höök, KTH – 11th February 2015
Designing for Somaesthetics
is the study and understanding of how to improve our bodily, or
somatic, agency . We need to focus on; become more aware of, train
and find a sensory-aesthetic appreciation, similar to how we must study
any other subject at which we want to excel. Certain movements, brought
about through critically aware somatic training, are good for us. This
concept, relatively new to HCI, looks at our bodies as the centre of our
experiential existence and looks at design, from the perspective of
providing for better bodily experiences, ones which do not harm our
bodies, but rather allow for fuller and more pleasurable experiences and
interactions. With the shift towards wearable technologies together
with a renewed interest in the role of the human body in interaction
(most notable perhaps through technologies such as Wii-motes or Kinect),
we have, together with IKEA, engaged in the possible bodily experiences
we can design for. By designing applications with an explicit focus on
aesthetics, somaesthetics, empathy with ourselves and others, we aim to
move beyond treating our bodies as mere input-output machines, using
impoverished interaction modalities, towards richer, more meaningful
interactions based on our human ways of living in the world. We are
interested in the full range of rich body-/movement-based experiences,
as they unfold over time that new technologies and infrastructure may
Kristina Höök is a professor in Interaction Design at the Royal Institute of Technology and also works part-time at SICS (Swedish Institute of Computer Science). She is the director of the Mobile Life centre. Höök has published numerous journal papers, books and book chapters, and conference papers in highly renowned venues. A frequent keynote speaker, she is known for her work on social navigation, seamfulness, mobile services, affective interaction and lately, designing for bodily engagement in interaction through somaesthetics. Her competence lies mainly in interaction design and user studies helping to form design. She has obtained numerous national and international grants, awards, and fellowships including the Cor Baayen Fellowship by ERCIM (European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics), the INGVAR award and she is an ACM Distinguished Scientist. She has been listed as one of the 50 most influential IT-women in Sweden every year since 2008. She is an elected member of Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA).
John Rooksby, University of Glasgow – 21st January 2015
Mobile Devices in Everyday Use
phones and other digital devices have, for many, become a mundane part
of everyday life. They are used frequently throughout the day, often in
brief snatches, and often in forgettable ways that are embedded within
the goings-on of everyday life. In this talk I will outline a study in
which we have been collecting log data about how people use mobile
devices. The log data we collect includes what times devices are
unlocked and locked, what apps are launched, and when a device is being
charged. I will describe issues in making sense of this log data, and
explain why it is important to couple data collection with qualitative
enquiry. I will describe two qualitative components of our work: firstly
interview studies with people who have used our loggers, and secondly a
video study in which we observed how people used their mobile devices
while watching TV in their homes.
John Rooksby is a Research Associate in Computing at Glasgow University. He holds a PhD in Computer Science from Manchester University. He is interested in the human aspects of software development and use. His current research concerns how and why people engage with mobile apps and hardware, and how developers can identify and support patterns of use.
Tom Rodden, University of Nottingham –14th January 2015
Unremarkable infrastructures: From Home Networks to Smart Grids
We are familiar in HCI with designing novel user experiences that are stimulation entertaining and engaging. However, this talk will not be about entertainment or excitement. Rather I wish to focus on the mundane and how we think of supporting user interaction with the increasingly complex digital systems infrastructures that surround us. These infrastructures are increasingly interwoven with our everyday activities as we share the world we inhabit with a diverse set of digital devices. However, these infrastructures have changed very changed little and are still reliant on protocols and approaches that were established in the early days of the Internet although the context of use and the expectations of those who would use it are radically altered.
Reconsidering our digital infrastructure is a major intra-disciplinary challenge for computing. In this talk I wish to start by exploring the challenges currently faced in the effective management of home networks as an example of the need for HCI to work more closely with colleagues in the systems community to balance the current set of technical drivers with broader user oriented infrastructures highlighting how understanding of users can be used to make significant changes to the underlying infrastructure.
Envisioning a future smart infrastructure that draws upon user activities present an equally significant challenge that requires a close partnership across computing. Drawing upon our work on autonomous systems I wish to consider how we might engage users with an infrastructure that is yet to exist and solicit their views in order to help shape it.
Finally, I will conclude a number of critical challenges that need to
be addressed if we are to really develop infrastructures that are
unexciting, dull and unremarkable.
Tom Rodden (rodden.info) is a Professor of Interactive Computing at the University of Nottingham. His research brings together a range of human and technical disciplines, technologies and techniques to tackle the human, social, ethical and technical challenges involved in ubiquitous computing and the increasing used of personal data. He co-directs the Mixed Reality Laboratory (www.mrl.nott.ac.uk) an interdisciplinary research facility that is home of a team of over 70 researchers. He founded and currently co-directs the Horizon Digital Economy Research Institute (www.horizon.ac.uk). He has previously directed the EPSRC Equator IRC (www.equator.ac.uk) a national interdisciplinary research collaboration exploring the place of digital interaction in our everyday world. He is a fellow of the British Computer Society and was elected to the ACM SIGCHI Academy in 2009 and is a Fellow of the ACM.
Mark-Alexander Sujan, Warwick University – 3rd December 2014
Studies of Resilience in Healthcare: Clinical Handover and Organisational Learning
In this seminar I will describe two examples of research
projects around resilience in healthcare. The first research project
investigated clinical handover in the emergency care setting (funded by
the NIHR HS&DR programme). I will explore how practitioners adapt
their behaviour through dynamic trade-offs in order to manage competing
organisational priorities. The second research project developed and
evaluated a proactive tool for organisational learning based on staff
narratives and staff surveys (funded by the Health Foundation). This
tool is an example of how useful learning can be generated from
ordinary, everyday clinical events rather than from extraordinary
Relevant publications for these projects:
- Sujan M, Chessum P, Rudd M et al. Managing competing organizational priorities in clinical handover across organizational boundaries. J Health Services Research & Policy 2014 (in press)
- Sujan M, Spurgeon P, Inada-Kim M, Rudd M, Fitton L, Horniblow S, et al. Clinical handover within the emergency care pathway and the potential risks of clinical handover failure (ECHO): primary research. Health Serv Deliv Res. 2014;2(5).
- Sujan MA, Chessum P, Rudd M, Fitton L, Inada-Kim M, Spurgeon P, et al. Emergency Care Handover (ECHO study) across care boundaries: the need for joint decision making and consideration of psychosocial history. Emergency Medicine Journal. Online First September 11, 2013.
- Sujan MA. A novel tool for organisational learning and its impact on safety culture in a hospital dispensary. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2012;101:21-34.
- Sujan MA, Ingram C, McConkey T, Cross S, Cooke MW. Hassle in the dispensary: pilot study of a proactive risk monitoring tool for organisational learning based on narratives and staff perceptions. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2011 Jun;20(6):549-56.
Mark Sujan is Associate Professor of Patient Safety at Warwick Medical School.
Barry Brown, Stockholm University – 26th November 2014
On the iPhone: studying the co-present use of mobile devices
the last three years we have collected hundred of hours of recordings
of mobile device use in diverse settings. We have recorded drivers using
GPS to navigate, iPhone use recorded with wearable cameras, and remote
recordings of mobile phone screens with ambient audio. These videos let
us document how mobile devices have become threaded into diverse worlds
of activity and how reliant we have become on our mobile devices. In
this talk I will focus on the interaction and talk around mobile
devices, arguing that this can be as important as interaction with
mobile devices. A web search might be shared with a friend, GPS's
instructions can become the subject of a joke, or the composition of a
text message discussed with a partner. Our videos let us see how
conversations are influenced by mobile devices, through providing topics
and interruptions, but also how device use is co-ordinared to fit with
conversation, such as showing or narrating on phone activity.
Barry is a professor in Human Computer Interaction at the University of Stockholm, and is the Research Director of the Mobile Life VINN Excellence centre. His recent work has focused on the sociology and design of leisure technologies - computer systems for leisure and pleasure. In over 100 publications he has discussed activities as diverse as games, tourism, museum visiting, the use of maps, television watching and sport spectating. He recently co-edited the Sage handbook of digital technology research, and his new book titled “Enjoying Machines” is out next year with MIT press.
Sam Gilbert, University College London – 19th November 2014
Strategic ‘offloading’ of delayed intentions into the external environment
In everyday life, we frequently use external tools such as diaries and smartphone reminders to help us to remember delayed intentions. In this way, our intentions are represented in distributed systems extending beyond our brains and bodies. However, surprisingly, there has been little empirical research into the causes and consequences of ‘intention offloading’. In this talk I will present a series of studies - using online web-based tasks and functional neuroimaging - to address these questions. These studies show that participants are highly sensitive to task demands when deciding whether or not to offload their intentions, and point to a critical influence of metacognitive confidence evaluations. Understanding these factors can lead to efficient design of artefacts to promote behavioural independence.
Sam Gilbert completed his PhD and postdoctoral research at the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and is now a Royal Society University Research Fellow. He has also worked at New York University. His main research interests are the cognitive neuroscience of executive functions, prospective memory, and social cognition, and the functional architecture of human frontal lobes
Carolyn Canfield, University of British Columbia – 12th November 2014
Experience based co-design for system transformation led by older
persons moving in, out of and across Ontario’s healthcare system
Experience based co-design mobilizes the unique expertise of patients,
their families and carers for healthcare improvement. The clients of
care systems can best identify needs and direct development for
successful solutions to close service gaps and improve outcomes that
matter to patients.
Is it really possible to defer to those dependent on care to identify priorities for transformation, prepare specifications for technological aids and then co-produce innovative design, development, testing, implementation, evaluation and spread? If you’re not involving the end user in your technological solution, you are likely missing the problem.
Within the context of Canadian healthcare, with its similarities and contrasts to the NHS, Ontario's Northumberland PATH project is empowering 300 older persons with complex health conditions to reflect, redefine and reconfigure health services using technology to assist. Patient pursuit of wellbeing crosses system silos and targets user-identified drivers for an improved quality of life. I’ll introduce you to this innovative project’s origins, realization and achievement as a leading model of experience-based co-design that is rapidly implementing customer-led health delivery. Yes, there’s an app for that!
Carolyn Canfield is an independent citizen-patient collaborating with
healthcare teams, patients, families and provider organizations to embed
the patient voice in improvement processes. She champions patient
expertise as the creativity driver for system transformation, aiming to
fulfill the aspirations of clients and practitioners for care
excellence. Her energetic full-time commitment arises from premature
widowhood in 2008 following preventable harm. She has recently accepted
an appointment as honorary lecturer in the Department of Family
Practice, Faculty of Medicine, at the University of British Columbia.
Carolyn has just been named Canada's inaugural Patient Safety Champion
by the Canadian Patient Safety Institute and Accreditation Canada.
For more information ca.linkedin.com/pub/carolyn-canfield/23/a5/b54/
You can download the slides of this presentation here.
Neil Maiden, City University London – 29th October 2014
Computer Science Research to Support the Residential Care of Older People with Dementia
for older people with dementia has become a strategic national
challenge, yet it continues to be afforded low social status, and has
high staff turnover and numbers of inexperienced carers. Increasing the
quality of care given in such constraining environments has become a
pressing issue, and digital technologies have capabilities to support
the delivery of increased care quality at reasonable cost. However,
there has been little computer science research dedicated to support
delivery of this care. In particular, digital technologies can be
applied to support person-centred care, a paradigm that seeks an
individualised approach and recognises the uniqueness of each resident
and understanding the world from the perspective of the person with
dementia. This seminar will report recent research that has developed
computerised support for two tasks to deliver person-centred care -
creativity and reflective learning. It will report the development of
new descriptive models of creative thinking and reflection in care that
informed technology development, then describe three new software
solutions to support creative thinking and reflection learning by carers
for people with dementia: (i) technology-based serious games to train
care staff in person-centred care techniques; (ii) digital life history
apps that provide interactive support for reflective learning and
creative thinking about daily resident care, and; (iii) a new mobile app
to provide creative support for resolving challenging behaviours. Each
app will be presented, and results from evaluations of each in different
care settings will be summarised.
Maiden is Professor of Systems Engineering at City University London.
He is and has been a principal and co-investigator on numerous EPSRC-
and EU-funded research projects with a total value of £30million. He has
published over 160 peer-reviewed papers in academic journals,
conferences and workshops proceedings. He was Program Chair for the 12th
IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering in Kyoto in
2004, and was Editor of the IEEE Software’s Requirements column from
2005 to 2013. Since 2010 he has been leading computing research
dedicated to support the residential care of older people with dementia.
Robert J.K. Jacob, Tufts University and UCL Interaction Centre – 22nd October 2014
Reality-Based Interaction, Next Generation User Interfaces, and Brain-Computer Interfaces
will begin with the notion of Reality-Based Interaction (RBI) as a
unifying concept that ties together a large subset of the emerging
generation of new, non-WIMP user interfaces. It attempts to connect
current paths of research in HCI and to provide a framework that can be
used to understand, compare, and relate these new developments. Viewing
them through the lens of RBI can provide insights for designers and
allow us to find gaps or opportunities for future development. I will
briefly discuss some past work in my research group on a variety of next
generation interfaces such as tangible interfaces and eye
movement-based interaction techniques. Then I will discuss our current
work on brain-computer interfaces and the more general area of implicit
Robert Jacob is a Professor of Computer Science at Tufts University, where his research interests are new interaction modes and techniques and user interface software; his current work focuses on adaptive brain-computer interfaces. He is currently a visiting professor at the University College London Interaction Centre; he has also been visiting professor at the Universite Paris-Sud and at the MIT Media Laboratory. Before coming to Tufts, he was in the Human-Computer Interaction Lab at the Naval Research Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University, and he is a member of the editorial boards of Human-Computer Interaction and the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies and a founding member for ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. He is Vice-President of ACM SIGCHI, and he has served as Papers Co-Chair of the CHI and UIST conferences, and Co-Chair of UIST and TEI. He was elected to the ACM CHI Academy in 2007, an honorary group of the principal leaders of the field of HCI, whose efforts have shaped the discipline and industry, and have led research and innovation in human-computer interaction.
Rebecca Fiebrink, Goldsmiths, University of London – 15th October 2014
Interactive Machine Learning for End-User Systems Building in Music Composition & Performance
I build, study, teach about, and perform with new human-computer
interfaces for real-time digital music performance. Much of my research
concerns the use of supervised learning as a tool for musicians,
artists, and composers to build digital musical instruments and other
real-time interactive systems. Through the use of training data, these
algorithms offer composers and instrument builders a means to specify
the relationship between low-level, human-generated control signals
(such as the outputs of gesturally-manipulated sensor interfaces, or
audio captured by a microphone) and the desired computer response (such
as a change in the parameters driving computer-generated audio). The
task of creating an interactive system can therefore be formulated not
as a task of writing and debugging code, but rather one of designing and
revising a set of training examples that implicitly encode a target
function, and of choosing and tuning an algorithm to learn that function.
In this talk, I will provide a brief introduction to interactive computer music and the use of supervised learning in this field. I will show a live musical demo of the software that I have created to enable non-computer-scientists to interactively apply standard supervised learning algorithms to music and other real-time problem domains. This software, called the Wekinator, supports human interaction throughout the entire supervised learning process, including the generation of training data by real-time demonstration and the evaluation of trained models through hands-on application to real-time inputs.
Drawing on my work with users applying the Wekinator to real-world problems, I'll discuss how data-driven methods can enable more effective approaches to building interactive systems, through supporting rapid prototyping and an embodied approach to design, and through “training” users to become better machine learning practitioners. I'll also discuss some of the remaining challenges at the intersection of machine learning and human-computer interaction that must be addressed for end users to apply machine learning more efficiently and effectively, especially in interactive contexts.
Rebecca Fiebrink is a Lecturer in Graphics and Interaction at
Goldsmiths, University of London. As both a computer scientist and a
musician, she is interested in creating and studying new technologies
for music composition and performance. Much of her current work focuses
on applications of machine learning to music: for example, how can
machine learning algorithms help people to create new digital musical
instruments by supporting rapid prototyping and a more embodied approach
to design? How can these algorithms support composers in creating
real-time, interactive performances in which computers listen to or
observe human performers, then respond in musically appropriate ways?
She is interested both in how techniques from computer science can
support new forms of music-making, and in how applications in music and
other creative domains demand new computational techniques and bring new
perspectives to how technology might be used and by whom.
Fiebrink is the developer of the Wekinator system for real-time interactive machine learning, and she frequently collaborates with composers and artists on digital media projects. She has worked extensively as a co-director, performer, and composer with the Princeton Laptop Orchestra, which performed at Carnegie Hall and has been featured in the New York Times, the Philadelphia Enquirer, and NPR's All Things Considered. She has worked with companies including Microsoft Research, Sun Microsystems Research Labs, Imagine Research, and Smule, where she helped to build the #1 iTunes app “I am T-Pain.“ Recently, Rebecca has enjoyed performing as the principal flutist in the Timmins Symphony Orchestra, as the keyboardist in the University of Washington computer science rock band “The Parody Bits,“ and as a laptopist in the Princeton-based digital music ensemble, Sideband. She holds a PhD in Computer Science from Princeton University and a Master's in Music Technology from McGill University
Katja Hofmann, Microsoft Research – 8th October 2014
Query Auto Completion (QAC) suggests possible queries to web search users from the moment they start entering a query.
This popular feature of web search engines is thought to reduce physical and cognitive effort when formulating a query. Perhaps surprisingly, despite QAC being widely used, users’ interactions with it are poorly understood. This paper begins to address this gap. We present the results of an in-depth user study of user interactions with QAC in web search. While study participants completed web search tasks, we recorded their interactions using eye-tracking and client-side logging. This allows us to provide a first look at how users interact with QAC. We specifically focus on the effects of QAC ranking, by controlling the quality of the ranking in a within-subject design.
We identify a strong position bias that is consistent across ranking conditions. Due to this strong position bias, ranking quality affects QAC usage. We also find an effect on task completion, in particular on the number of result pages visited. We show how these effects can be explained by a combination of searchers’ behavior patterns, namely monitoring or ignoring QAC, and searching for spelling support or complete queries to express a search intent. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the important implications of our findings for QAC evaluation.
Dr. Katja Hofmann is a postdoctoral researcher in the Machine Learning and Perception group at Microsoft Research Cambridge. Her research focuses on online evaluation and online learning, with the goal of developing interactive systems that learn directly from their users. This work is highly interdisciplinary, and brings together and expands insights from information retrieval, reinforcement learning, and human-computer interaction.
Duncan Brumby, UCL Interaction Centre – 1st October 2014
Improving the everyday interactions with your phone, and maybe medical devices too
Smartphones are a pretty big deal. Many of us now begin our day with our phone’s alarm clock. On the way to work we read email while listening to music. We use our phone to navigate novel cities. At the end of the day, we relax by queuing up content on our phone to watch on a connected television. All of this is done on a small computer, which weighs the same as 12 coins, and has a tiny 4-inch screen. Smartphones are a pretty big deal. In this talk, I will describe our recent work that has investigated how low-level design decisions influence the way that people use and interact with their phone. First, I will consider how the auto-locking feature on a phone can dissuade users from regularly interleaving attention between other ongoing activities (Brumby & Seyedi, mobileHCI 2012). Second, I will consider how current generation smartphones handle incoming-calls, and explore alternatives to the dominate full-screen notification model, which forcibly interrupts whatever activity the user was already engaged in (Böhmer et al., CHI 2014). Finally, I will discuss our recent work investigating how people search for content on a display (Brumby et al., CHI 2014).
About the speaker:
Duncan Brumby is a Senior Lecturer at University College London working in the UCL Interaction Centre. He received his doctorate in Psychology from Cardiff University in 2005, after which he was a post-doc in Computer Science at Drexel University, until joining UCL in 2007. Dr. Brumby’s research has been published in leading HCI and Cognitive Science outlets. His work on multitasking has received best paper nominations at CHI (2014, 2012, 2007), and his work on interactive search is one of the most-cited articles from the Human-Computer Interaction journal 2008-2010. To support his work, Dr. Brumby has attracted funding from the EPSRC. He is Associate Editor for the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, is an Associate Chair for the ACM CHI conference (2012-2015) and ACM mobileHCI conference (2012-2013).
m.c. schraefel, University of Southampton
Wednesday 21st October 3pm, Room 405, 66-72 Gower Street
Future Athlete vs Future Invalid: how Performance vs Prevention Make a (POTENTIALLY profound) Difference for Health (Interaction Technology Design)
What if we as HCI researchers in CS could make a profound difference to
the health of people's lives - including our own? What if in the near
future the nation turned to you and said We are experiencing better
quality of life because HCI took us in a new direction that not only did
we create amazing new technology to support health, people from
individuals to communities, engaged - we became stronger smarter faster
and more kind.
This goal to make a real impact in developing and sustaining health practices (not an app for that is there??) is the challenge some of us have been contemplating for the past year, and we have a few ideas on what would help achieve this vision of enhanced quality of life for all. Fundamental to this approach is an epistemological shift from Prevention - specifically illness prevention - to Performance: helping people achieve our potential.
In this talk i'll present a Performance Design model - the Future Athlete vs Future Invalid + Performance ALigned Design - and show how by understanding 5 ways the body and brain are part of the same complex systems, we can design systems that enhance knowledge skills and practice - so we can thrive away from devices and become resilient to brilliant. Your feedback will be much appreciated.
Guarantees: even if you are not in HCI you will learn some skills/assessments you can take into the rest of your week/term/life that will be useful to you. Even if it's the roll of a can of coke in illness aleviation.
WHO AM I -m.c. schraefel, phd, ceng, fbcs, cscs. Relative to HCI i hold
a chair in Computer Science and Human Performance at the University of
Southampton; I'm just winding up a Research CHair award from the ROyal
Academy of Engineering and Microsoft Research on design and evaluation
of systems to support creativity. I'm currently the head of the Agents
Interaction and Complexity Group and direct the WellthLab - for Human
Systems Interaction, and i also started looking after Research for our
department, Electronics and Computer Science. I am a visiting scientist
in the Decentralised Information Group at CSAIL/W3 MIT. I also hold a
variety of certifications (and practitioner insurance) in strength and
conditioning, functional neurology and nutrition . THis means i get to
work with real people dealing with a lot of performance aspirations. i
love the brain/body connection. If you'd like to see an example of
applied research working in industry here's a vid of a pilot we ran on
the brain/body connection in support of creativity
tinyurl.com/in5ogilvy. As a side note and part of that b/b-c, music is a
big deal. I am amazed at what is possible with even an old ipad for
full on sound and music exploration. That's a lot of info, but here's my
reason for sharing: you have choices about where you spend your time
wed oct 21, and i'd like those of you who spend this 40 or so minutes
with us to be as sure as possible of joy, delight and no regrets. Please
connect with me @mcphoo and let me know any questions you may have
ahead of time. Look forward to meeting you all. Thank you to Anna Cox
and Clan for the invitation.
how we frame things is how we imagine our problems and our solutions. In heatlh for HCI - our primary paradigm
m.c. schraefel, phd., cscs, ceng, fbcs
Page last modified on 24 jun 13 10:27 by Harry J Griffin