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Prof Fred Fitzke
Telephone:020 7608 6834
Fax:020 7608 6834
Address:Institute of Ophthalmology, UCL,
11-43 Bath Street,
Appointments:Professor of Visual Optics and Psychophysics, Inst Ophthalmology - Visual Neuroscience, Institute of Ophthalmology
The Laboratory of Physiological Optics research covers two broad areas
the development of novel techniques for imaging the eye and
investigations of visual function using psychophysical methods.
These non-invasive methods are used to understand properties of human vision and how these are affected by well-defined ocular anomalies. The major clinical conditions under study are retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma.
Several novel methods of imaging have made visible elements of the living human eye which until recently have only been seen in post mortem eyes. We have modified a prototype confocal Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscope to provide high magnification images of the photoreceptor mosaic in the living human eye.
The sponge-like structure of the lamina cribrosa through which all the nerve fibres leave the eye to reach the brain can be seen with sufficient quality to provide quantitative image analysis.
Autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium arising from the age pigment, lipofuscin, reveals its distribution in the normal eye and ocular abnormalities.
Approximately ten times improved depth resolution has been achieved with the new prototype Ocular Coherence Tomography-based imaging device. This high resolution instrument provides images at different depths within the retina which approaches some of the structural details normally seen only with the microscope.
Psychophysical investigations have shown characteristic changes in visual function associated with the structural changes revealed in the imaging studies. The depth plane of best visual acuity was found to correspond to the depth plane of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. Abnormal elongation of the pores of the lamina cribrosa is associated with visual loss in the corresponding part of the visual field. Quantitative autofluorescence imaging reveals a relation between abnormal levels and rod and cone photoreceptor dysfunction.
The combination of imaging and functional studies in the living human eye allows us to further our understanding of the underlying causes of visual loss and the effects of interventions.
New methods of detecting loss of visual field and acuity have been developed. These rely on quantitative analysis techniques combined with presentation of complex data to allow earlier detection of visual field loss.
The manner in which different abnormalities of vision affect specific aspects of visual function are being investigated. For example conventional visual acuity tests may reveal little loss of function despite severe degradation of vision. This leads to the need for new tests of visual function which can more completely describe function.
Specific abnormalities of magnocellular and parvocellular function in glaucoma are being studied to further our understanding of these processes. The use of motion detection perimetry has revealed abnormalities of visual function which precede conventional perimetric losses.
- Human Visual Development
- Normal and pathological aging of the retina
- Visual Optics and Psychophysics
Displaying 50 most recent publications. For the full list please visit UCL Discovery
- Cordeiro MF,Moss SE,fitzke FW (2012) FLUORESCENT MARKER FOR CELL DEATH IN THE EYE.
- Robson AG,Lenassi E,Saihan Z,Luong VA,Fitzke FW,Holder GE,Webster AR (2012) Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with photopic and scotopic fine matrix mapping in patients with retinitis pigmentosa: 4- to 8-year follow-up. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53(10), 6187 - 6195. 10.1167/iovs.12-10195.
- Dev Borman A,Ocaka LA,Mackay DS,Ripamonti C,Henderson RH,Moradi P,Hall G,Black GC,Robson AG,Holder GE,Webster AR,Fitzke F,Stockman A,Moore AT (2012) Early onset retinal dystrophy due to mutations in LRAT: molecular analysis and detailed phenotypic study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53(7), 3927 - 3938. 10.1167/iovs.12-9548.
- Luhmann UF,Lange CA,Robbie S,Munro PM,Cowing JA,Armer HE,Luong V,Carvalho LS,MacLaren RE,Fitzke FW,Bainbridge JW,Ali RR (2012) Differential modulation of retinal degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 chemokine signalling. PLoS One, 7(4), e35551. 10.1371/journal.pone.0035551.
- Crossland MD,Luong VA,Rubin GS,Fitzke FW (2011) Retinal specific measurement of dark-adapted visual function: validation of a modified microperimeter. BMC Ophthalmol, 11, 5. 10.1186/1471-2415-11-5.
- Schmitz-Valckenberg S,Lara D,Nizari S,Normando EM,Guo L,Wegener AR,Tufail A,Fitzke FW,Holz FG,Cordeiro MF (2011) Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging. Br J Ophthalmol, 95(8), 1134 - 1139. 10.1136/bjo.2010.189498.
- Cordeiro MF,Migdal C,Bloom P,Fitzke FW,Moss SE (2011) Imaging apoptosis in the eye EYE, 25(5), 545 - 553. 10.1038/eye.2011.64.
- Ali RR,Bainbridge JWB,Smith AJ,Fitzke FW,Holder GE,Stockman A,Bhattacharya SS,Rubin GS,Yzer S,van den Born I,Moore AT (2010) Clinical Trial of Gene Therapy for Early Onset Severe Retinal Dystrophy Resulting from Defects in RPE65 HUMAN GENE THERAPY, 21(9), 1174 - 1175.
- Ali RR,Bainbridge JW,Smith AJ,Robbie S,Fitzke FW,Holder GE,Stockman A,Yzer Z,Van den Born I,Rubin GS (2010) Clinical trial of gene therapy for early onset severe retinal dystrophy resulting from defects in RPE65 HUMAN GENE THERAPY, 21(10), 1393 - 1393.
- Cordeiro MF,Guo L,Coxon KM,Duggan J,Nizari S,Normando EM,Sensi SL,Sillito AM,Fitzke FW,Salt TE,Moss SE (2010) Imaging multiple phases of neurodegeneration: a novel approach to assessing cell death in vivo CELL DEATH DIS, 1. 10.1038/cddis.2009.3.
- Allen R,Ho-Yen GO,Beckingsale AB,Fitzke FW,Sciscio AG,Saleh GM (2009) Post-capsulotomy dysphotopsia in monofocal versus multifocal lenses Clin.Exp.Optom., 92(2), 104 - 109.
- Sallo FB,Rechtman E,Peto T,Stanescu-Segall D,Vogt G,Bird AC,Fitzke FW (2009) Functional aspects of drusen regression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Br.J.Ophthalmol..
- Mantel I,Ramchand KV,Holder GE,Ohbayashi M,Morohoshi K,Patel N,Toda M,Fitzke FW,Bird AC,Ono SJ (2009) Macular and retinal dysfunction of unknown origin in adults with normal fundi: Evidence for an autoimmune pathophysiology (vol 84, pg 90, 2008) EXP MOL PATHOL, 87(2), 166 - 166. 10.1016/j.yexmp.2009.05.003.
- Schmitz-Valckenberg S,Guo L,Cheung W,Moss SE,Fitzke FW,Cordeiro MF (2009) [In vivo imaging of retinal cell apoptosis following acute light exposure.] Ophthalmologe.
- Luhmann UF,Robbie S,Munro PM,Barker SE,Duran Y,Luong V,Fitzke FW,Bainbridge J,Ali RR,Maclaren R (2009) The drusen-like phenotype in aging Ccl2 knockout mice is caused by an accelerated accumulation of swollen autofluorescent subretinal macrophages Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci..
- Schmitz-Valckenberg S,Ong EL,Rubin GS,Peto T,Tufail A,Egan CA,Bird AC,Fitzke FW (2009) STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES OVER TIME IN MacTel PATIENTS Retina.
- Schmitz-Valckenberg S,Fleckenstein M,Gobel AP,Sehmi K,Fitzke FW,Holz FG,Tufail A (2008) Evaluation of autofluorescence imaging with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope and the fundus camera in age-related geographic atrophy Am.J.Ophthalmol., 146(2), 183 - 192.
- Allen RJ,Saleh GM,Litwin AS,Sciscio A,Beckingsale AB,Fitzke FW (2008) Glare and halo with refractive correction Clin.Exp.Optom., 91(2), 156 - 160.
- Rath PP,Jenkins S,Michaelides M,Smith A,Sweeney MG,Davis MB,Fitzke FW,Bird AC (2008) Characterisation of the macular dystrophy in patients with the A3243G mitochondrial DNA point mutation with fundus autofluorescence British Journal of Ophthalmology, 92(5), 623 - 629. 10.1136/bjo.2007.131177.
- Robson AG,Michaelides M,Luong VA,Holder GE,Bird AC,Webster AR,Moore AT,Fitzke FW (2008) Functional correlates of fundus autofluorescence abnormalities in patients with RPGR or RIMS1 mutations causing cone or cone rod dystrophy Br.J.Ophthalmol., 92(1), 95 - 102.
- Bainbridge JW,Smith AJ,Barker SS,Robbie S,Henderson R,Balaggan K,Viswanathan A,Holder GE,Stockman A,Tyler N,Petersen-Jones S,Bhattacharya SS,Thrasher AJ,Fitzke FW,Carter BJ,Rubin GS,Moore AT,Ali RR (2008) Effect of gene therapy on visual function in Leber\'s congenital amaurosis N.Engl.J.Med., 358(21), 2231 - 2239.
- Schmitz-Valckenberg S,Guo L,Maass A,Cheung W,Vugler A,Moss SE,Munro PM,Fitzke FW,Cordeiro MF (2008) Real-time in vivo imaging of retinal cell apoptosis after laser exposure. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(6), 2773 - 2280.
- Mantel I,Ramchand KV,Holder GE,Ohbayashi M,Morohoshi K,Patel N,Toda M,Fitzke FW,Bird AC,Ono SJ (2008) Macular and retinal dysfunction of unknown origin in adults with normal fundi: evidence for an autoimmune pathophysiology Exp.Mol.Pathol., 84(2), 90 - 101.
- Schmitz-Valckenberg S,Fan K,Nugent A,Rubin GS,Peto T,Tufail A,Egan C,Bird AC,Fitzke FW (2008) Correlation of functional impairment and morphological alterations in patients with group 2A idiopathic juxtafoveal retinal telangiectasia Arch.Ophthalmol., 126(3), 330 - 335.
- Robson AG,Michaelides M,Saihan Z,Bird AC,Webster AR,Moore AT,Fitzke FW,Holder GE (2008) Functional characteristics of patients with retinal dystrophy that manifest abnormal parafoveal annuli of high density fundus autofluorescence; a review and update Doc.Ophthalmol., 116(2), 79 - 89.
- Maass A,Leithner PLV,Luong V,Guo L,Salt TE,Fitzke FW,Cordeiro MF (2007) Assessment of Rat and Mouse RGC Apoptosis Imaging in Vivo with Different Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes, 32, 851 - 861.
- Guo L,Salt TE,Luong V,Wood N,Cheung W,Maass A,Ferrari G,Russo-Marie F,Sillito AM,Cheetham ME,Moss SE,Fitzke FW,Cordeiro M (2007) Targeting amyloid-β in glaucoma treatment Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(33), 13444 - 13449. 10.1073/pnas.0703707104.
- Schalch W,Cohn W,Barker FM,Kopcke W,Mellerio J,Bird AC,Robson AG,Fitzke FF,van Kuijk FJ (2007) Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin - the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study Arch.Biochem.Biophys., 458(2), 128 - 135.
- Coffey PJ,Gias C,McDermott CJ,Lundh P,Pickering MC,Sethi C,Bird A,Fitzke FW,Maass A,Chen LL,Holder GE,Luthert PJ,Salt TE,Moss SE,Greenwood J (2007) Complement factor H deficiency in aged mice causes retinal abnormalities and visual dysfunction Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(42), 16651 - 16656. 10.1073/pnas.0705079104.
- Patel JI,Hykin PG,Schadt M,Luong V,Fitzke F,Gregor ZJ (2006) Pars plana vitrectomy with and without peeling of the inner limiting membrane for diabetic macular edema Retina, 26(1), 5 - 13.
- Liew SH,Gilbert CE,Spector TD,Mellerio J,van Kuijk FJ,Beatty S,Fitzke F,Marshall J,Hammond CJ (2006) Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density Exp.Eye Res., 82(5), 915 - 920.
- Verdon-Roe GM,Westcott MC,Viswanathan AC,Fitzke FW,Garway-Heath DF (2006) Exploration of the psychophysics of a motion displacement hyperacuity stimulus Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 47(11), 4847 - 4855.
- Guo L,Salt TE,Maass A,Luong V,Moss SE,Fitzke FW,Cordeiro MF (2006) Assessment of neuroprotective effects of glutamate modulation on glaucoma-related retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 47(2), 626 - 633.
- Patel JI,Hykin PG,Schadt M,Luong V,Fitzke F,Gregor ZJ (2006) Pars plana vitrectomy for diabetic macular oedema: OCT and functional correlations Eye, 20(6), 674 - 680.
- Wilkins MR,Fitzke FW,Khaw PT (2006) Pointwise linear progression criteria and the detection of visual field change in a glaucoma trial Eye, 20(1), 98 - 106.
- Patel JI,Hykin PG,Schadt M,Luong V,Bunce C,Fitzke F,Gregor ZJ (2006) Diabetic macular oedema: pilot randomised trial of pars plana vitrectomy vs macular argon photocoagulation Eye, 20(8), 873 - 881.
- Zambarakji HJ,Keegan DJ,Holmes TM,Halfyard AS,Villegas-Perez MP,Charteris DG,Fitzke FW,Greenwood J,Lund RD (2006) High resolution imaging of fluorescein patterns in RCS rat retinae and their direct correlation with histology. Experimental Eye Research, 82(1), 164 - 171.
- Michaelides M,Jenkins SA,Brantley MAJ,Andrews RM,Waseem N,Luong V,Gregory-Evans K,Bhattacharya SS,Fitzke FW,Webster AR (2006) Maculopathy due to the R345W substitution in fibulin-3: distinct clinical features, disease variability, and extent of retinal dysfunction. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 47(7), 3085 - 3097. 10.1167/iovs.05-1600.
- Robson AG,Saihan Z,Jenkins SA,Fitzke FW,Bird AC,Webster AR,Holder GE (2006) Functional characterisation and serial imaging of abnormal fundus autofluorescence in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normal visual acuity. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 90(4), 472 - 479.
- Guo L,Salt TE,Maass A,Luong V,Moss SE,Fitzke FW,Cordeiro MF (2005) Activation of group II mGlu receptors is neuroprotective in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in in vivo models of glaucoma NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, 49, 247 - 248.
- Michaelides M,Holder GE,Hunt DM,Fitzke FW,Bird AC,Moore AT (2005) A detailed study of the phenotype of an autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (CORD7) associated with mutation in the gene for RIM1 BR J OPHTHALMOL, 89(2), 198 - 206.
- Patel JI,Hykin PG,Schadt M,Luong V,Bunce C,Fitzke F,Gregor ZJ (2005) Diabetic macular oedema: pilot randomised trial of pars plana vitrectomy vs macular argon photocoagulation EYE.
- Bindewald A,Bird AC,Dandekar SS,Dolar-Szczasny J,Dreyhaupt J,Fitzke FW,Einbock W,Holz FG,Jorzik JJ,Keilhauer C,Lois N,Mlynski J,Pauleikhoff D,Staurenghi G,Wolf S (2005) Classification of fundus autofluorescence patterns in early age-related macular disease INVEST OPHTHALMOL VIS SCI, 46(9), 3309 - 3314.
- Robson AG,Harding G,van Kuijk FJ,Pauleikhoff D,Holder GE,Bird AC,Fitzke FW,Moreland JD (2005) Comparison of fundus autofluorescence and minimum-motion measurements of macular pigment distribution profiles derived from identical retinal areas PERCEPTION, 34(8), 1029 - 1034.
- Guo L,Tsatourian V,Luong V,Podoleanu AG,Jackson DA,Fitzke FW,Cordeiro MF (2005) En face optical coherence tomography: a new method to analyse structural changes of the optic nerve head in rat glaucoma BR J OPHTHALMOL, 89(9), 1210 - 1216.
- Zambarakji HJ,Keegan DJ,Holmes TM,Halfyard AS,Villegas-Perez MP,Charteris DG,Fitzke FW,Greenwood J,Lund RD (2005) High resolution imaging of fluorescein patterns in RCS rat retinae and their direct correlation with histology. Experimental Eye Research, 82, 164 - 171.
- Patel JI,Hykin PG,Schadt M,Luong V,Fitzke F,Gregor ZJ (2005) Pars plana vitrectomy for diabetic macular oedema: OCT and functional correlations EYE.
- Guo L,Moss SE,Alexander RA,Ali R,Fitzke F,Cordeiro MF (2005) Retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is related to intraocular pressure and IOP-induced effects on extracellular matrix Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 46(1), 175 - 182. 10.1167/iovs.04-0832.
- Dandekar SS,Jenkins SA,Peto T,Scholl HP,Sehmi KS,Fitzke FW,Bird AC,Webster AR (2005) Autofluorescence imaging of choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration ARCH OPHTHALMOL, 123(11), 1507 - 1513.
- Liew SH,Gilbert CE,Spector TD,Mellerio J,Marshall J,van Kuijk FJ,Beatty S,Fitzke F,Hammond CJ (2005) Heritability of macular pigment: a twin study INVEST OPHTHALMOL VIS SCI, 46(12), 4430 - 4436.
- 1986: Doctor of Philosophy, University of London