Keith S. Brown Jr. (1979)
Ecological Geography and Evolution in Neotropical Forests

Keith S. Brown, Jr. 1979. Ecologia Geográfica e Evolução nas Florestas Neotropicais. 2 vols. (Tese apresentada à Universidade Estadual de Campinas como parte das exigências de um Concurso de Livre Docência, area de Ecologia). Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. 

© Keith S. Brown, Jr. 1979.

This two-volume work has been long out of print.  Quite apart from its importance in the understanding of Neotropical biogeography, this work has been useful as a taxonomic guide to heliconiines and some ithomiines for a generation of field biologists (my own copy, pictured above, has travelled extensively). With the permission of Keith Brown (August 2002), this website makes available all of the figures showing distribution patterns of butterflies and their identification.

The first volume contains the main text, and the distribution maps of the species covered. The second volume contains a complete gazeteer of neotropical place names, as well as distribution data to 0.25 deg. accuracy.

Adobe Acrobat files (low resolution):
Vol. 1
  cover, pp. i-ii, ix-x, xix-xxxi, 57
  (1.31 MB)
Vol. 1
  pp. 58-74 (1.12 MB)
Vol. 1
  pp. 75-87 (0.97 MB)
  pp. 88-101 (0.91 MB)

Vol. 2
Distribution data: Apéndice II
pp. 25-41: Mexico, Central America, French Guiana, Suriname & Guyana
(1.13  MB)

Vol. 2
Distribution data: Apéndice II
pp. 42-63:  Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador
(1.23  MB)

Vol. 2
Distribution data: Apéndice II
pp. 63-76: Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay (0.90  MB)

Vol. 2
Distribution data: Apéndice II
pp. 77-109: Brasil
(1.94  MB)

Image files (high resolution):
(can also be downloaded directly from
p. i Title page
p. ii Copyright information
p. ix Index
p. x Index continued
p. xix Resumo (Portuguese)
p. xx Resumo continued (Portuguese)
p. xxi Resumo continued (Portuguese)
p. xxii Resumo continued (Portuguese)
p. xxiii Resumo continued (Portuguese)
p. xxiv Resumo continued (Portuguese)
p. xxv Summary (English)
p. xxvi Summary continued (English)
p. xxvii Summary continued (English)
p. xxviii Summary continued (English)
p. xxix Summary continued (English)
p. xxx Summary continued (English)
p. xxxi Summary continued (English)
p. 57 Key and Legend for Figures 5-84 (pp. 58-101)
  & Maps of Centres of Endemism
    Note: [Names given below in square brackets represent nomenclature revised
        according to Gerardo Lamas et al. (2002, in press)].
p. 58 Figure 5 Eueides procula
  Figure 6 E. lineata, E. libitina, E. emsleyi
p. 59 Figure 7 Eueides lampeto
  Figure 8 E. pavana
  Figure 9 E. eanes [E. heliconioides]
p. 60 Figure 10 Some geographic races of Eueides lybia
  Figure 11 E. tales
p. 61 Figure 12 Neruda godmani and a geographic race of N. metharme
  Figure 13 N. aoede
p. 62 Figure 14 Heliconius hecuba
  Figure 15 H. xanthocles
p. 63 Figure 16 Heliconius hierax, H. wallacei (part), H. nattereri
  Figure 17 H. burneyi (part), H. egeria, H. astraea
p. 64 Figure 18 Heliconius numata
p. 65 Figure 19 Heliconius ismenius
  Figure 20 H. pardalinus
p. 66 Figure 21 Heliconius hecale
p. 67 Figure 22 Heliconius atthis, H. ethilla
p. 68 Figure 23 Heliconius cydno superspecies (H. cydno, pachinus, heurippa, timareta, luciana, elevatus, besckei)
p. 69 Figure 24 Heliconius hecalesia, H. telesiphe
  Figure 25 H. hortense, H. clysonymus
p. 70 Figure 26 Heliconius melpomene
p. 71 Figure 27 Heliconius erato [including H. himera]
p. 72 Figure 28 Heliconius sara
p. 73 Figure 29 Heliconius demeter
  Figure 30 H. hewitsoni, H. antiochus
p. 74 Figure 31 Heliconius eleuchia, H. congener
  Figure 32 H. sapho
p. 75 Figure 33 Eutresis dilucida, Roswellia acrisione [now Athesis acrisione]
  Figure 34 Patricia oligyrtis, Olyras insignis
  Figure 35 Patricia dercyllidas, Athyrtis mechanitis
p. 76 Figure 36 Eutresis hypereia
  Figure 37 Olyras crathis
p. 77 Figure 38 Elzunia pavonii, E. humboldt
  Figure 39 Tithorea tarricina
p. 78 Figure 40 Tithorea harmonia
p. 79 Figure 41 Melinaea mnasias
  Figure 42 M. marsaeus
p. 80 Figure 43 Melinaea lilis [including M. scylax], M. ethra [including M. ethra (ethra) and part of M. satevis]
p. 81 Figure 44 M. ludovica [consisting of M. ludovica, M. idae (idae + vespertina)
   and part of M. satevis (satevis, aurantia + crameri)]
  Figure 45 Melinaea maenius [consisting of M. isocomma (isocomma, simulator, ssp. nov), M. menophilus (part)]
p. 82 Figure 46 Melinaea menophilus
  Figure 47 Sais rosalia
  Figure 48 Forbestra proceris, Sais browni
p. 83 Figure 49 Forbestra equicuola
  Figure 50 F. olivencia
p. 84 Figure 51 Mechanitis polymnia
p. 85 Figure 52 Mechanitis lysimnia
p. 86 Figure 53 Mechanitis menapis, M. mazaeus
p. 87 Figure 54 Scada kusa, S. karschina, S. zibia
  Figure 55 S. zemira, S. reckia
p. 88 Figure 56 Epityches eupompe, Garsauritis xanthostola [now Hypothyris xanthostola]
  Figure 57 Placidula euryanassa [now Placidina euryanassa], Rhodussa cantobrica [now Hypothyris cantobrica]
p. 89 Figure 58 Napeogenes peridia [lamia is now in N. pharo]
  Figure 59 N. cyrianassa [now in N. rhezia], N. achaea [quadrilis is separate species]
  Figure 60 N. cranto, N. harbona
p. 90 Figure 61 Napeogenes tolosa [larina now separate species], N. aethra [now N. larina]
p. 91 Figure 62 Napeogenes stella [duessa, jamariensis &c are separate species, H. duessa]
  Figure 63 N. omissa
  Figure 64 N. glycera
p. 92 Figure 65 Napeogenes apulia
  Figure 66 N. sylphis
p. 93 Figure 67 Napeogenes pheranthes [now included within N. pharo]
  Figure 68 N. inachia [pharo + N. pheranthes now in N. pharo]
p. 94 Figure 69 Hypothyris ninonia
  Figure 70 H. meterus [now in H. mansuetus], H. connexa, H. thea
p. 95 Figure 71 Hypothyris fluonia
  Figure 72 H. vallonia, H. semifulva
p. 96 Figure 73 Hypothyris gemella, H. daphnis, H. mansuetus
  Figure 74 H. moebiusi
p. 97 Figure 75 Hypothyris leprieuri
  Figure 76 H. mamercus
p. 98 Figure 77 Hypothyris euclea
p. 99 Figure 78 Hypothyris lycaste, H. anastasia
p. 100 Figure 79 Hyalyris fiametta, H. coeno
  Figure 80 H. latilimbata [now monotypic - munda is form of H. antea frater, fassli is in H. mestra]
  Figure 81 H. juninensis, H. praxilla
p. 101 Figure 82 Hyalyris oulita, H. leptalina
  Figure 83 H. frater [now included within H. antea]
  Figure 84 H. antea, H. excelsa

Updated: 15 March 2004