The Department of Science and Technology Studies, UCL is an interdisciplinary centre for the integrated study of science's history, philosophy, sociology, communication and policy, located in the heart of London. Founded in 1921. Award winning teaching and research. Rated as outstanding by students at every level.


MSc: Join us on Open Day

Open Day 14 January 2015

Open Dayspacer

BSc: Seen our campaign? 

Next STS Open Day 04 February 2015

STSUCL wind turbinesspacer

Balmer publications

This page lists some of Dr Balmer's publications.

> 020 7679 3924
> 22 Gordon Square, room 2.2


Click on title for details:

Secrecy and Science: A Historical Sociology of Biological and Chemical Warfare (Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2012)

Britain and Biological Warfare: Expert Advice and Science Policy 1930-65 (Basingstoke:Palgrave, 2001).

Biotechnology Policy

B. Balmer and M. Sharp, 'The Battle for Biotechnology: Scientific and Technological Paradigms in the Management of Biotechnology in Britain in the 1980s', Research Policy Vol. 22 (1993) pp.463-478.

Science Policy and Genetics

B. Balmer and B.R. Martin, ‘Who’s Doing What in Human Genome Research?’, Scientometrics Vol. 22 No. 3 (1991), pp. 369-377.

B. Balmer, 'Gene Mapping and Policy Making: Australia and the Human Genome Project', Prometheus, Vol.12 No.1 (1994) pp.3-18. 

B. Balmer, 'Managing Mapping in the Human Genome Project' in Social Studies of Science, Vol.26 (1996) pp.531-73. 

B. Balmer, 'The Political Cartography of the Human Genome Project', Perspectives on Science Vol.4 No.3 (1996) pp.249-282.

B. Balmer, ‘Transitional Science and the Human Genome Mapping Project Resource Centre’ in Glasner, P and Rothman, H (eds), Genetic Imaginations: Ethical, Social and Legal Issues in Human Genome Research (Ashgate Publishing, 1998) pp.7-19.

B. Balmer, R. Davidson, N. Morris, 'Funding Research through Directed Research Programmes: AIDS and the Human Genome Project in the UK', Science and Public Policy, vol. 25, no. 3 (June 1998), pp. 185-194.

J. Turney and B. Balmer, 'The Genetic Body' in R. Cooter and J. Pickstone, Medicine in the 20th Century (Harwood, 2000).

History of Biological and Chemical Warfare Policy

'The Drift of Biological Weapons Policy in the UK 1945-65' in The Journal of Strategic Studies Vol.20 No.4 (December 1997) pp.115-145.

J. Agar and B. Balmer, 'British Scientists and the Cold War: The Defence Research Policy Committee and Information Networks, 1947-1963, Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, vol. 28, no. 2, (1998), pp. 209-252.

G. Carter and B. Balmer, 'Chemical and Biological Warfare and Defence, 1945-90' in R. Bud and P. Gummett (eds.) Cold War, Hot Science: Applied Research in Britain's Defence Laboratories 1945-1990 (Harwood, 1999).

B. Balmer, Britain and Biological Warfare: Expert Advice and Science Policy 1930-65 (Basingstoke:Palgrave, 2001).

B. Balmer, 'Biological Weapons: The Threat in Historical Perspective', Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol. 18 No. 2 (April-June 2002) pp120-137.

B.Balmer, 'Killing "Without the Distressing Preliminaries": Scientists' Defence of the British Biological Warfare Programme', Minerva Vol.40 (2002), pp57-75.

B.Balmer, 'Using the Population Body to Protect the National Body: Germ Warfare Tests in the UK after WWII', for Goodman, J, McElligott, A and Marks, L (eds.) Useful Bodies: Humans in the Service of Medical Science in the Twentieth. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press (2003).

B.Balmer, ‘How Does an Accident Become an Experiment? Secret Science and the Exposure of the Public to Biological Warfare Agents’, Science as Culture Vol.13 (2) pp.197-228 (June 2004).

B.Balmer, 'The British Program' in, Wheelis, M, Rozsa, L and Dando, M (eds), Deadly Cultures: Biological Weapons Since 1945 (Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, 2006).

B.Balmer, ‘A Secret Formula, A Rogue Patent and Public Knowledge about Nerve Gas: Secrecy as a Spatial-Epistemic Tool’, Social Studies of Science, 36 (5) (2006) pp.691-722.

B. Balmer, ‘How Does Secrecy Work? Keeping and Disclosing Secrets in the History of the UK Biological Warfare Programme’, in Rappert, B and McLeish, C (eds), A Web of Prevention: Biological Weapons, Life Sciences and the Governance of Research (London: Earthscan, 2007) pp.173-188.

B. Balmer (2010), "Keeping Nothing Secret: United Kingdom Chemical Warfare Policy in the 1960s", The Journal of Strategic Studies Vol 33 No 6 pp.871-893.

C.McLeish and B. Balmer, 'Discovery of the V-Series Nerve Agents' in Tucker, J (ed) Innovation, Dual-Use, and Security: Managing the Risks of Emerging Biological and Chemical Technologies (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2012).

Military Technologies and Society

B. Rappert and B. Balmer, ‘Rethinking “Secrecy” and “Disclosure” ’, in Rappert, B (ed), Technology and Security: Governing Threats in the New Millenium (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2007).
Translated as ‘Replanteando el secreto y la revelación’ in Gómez Rodríguez, A and Canales Serrano, AF (eds) Ciencia y Fascismos: La Ciencia Espańola de Posguerra (Barcelona: Laertes 2009)

B. Rappert, B. Balmer and J. Stone, ‘Science, Technology and the Military: Priorities, Preoccupations and Possibilities’, in Hackett, E et al (Eds), The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies (3rd Edition. Cambridge Mass: MIT Press, 2008).

The Subject-Researcher Relationship in Biomedical Research

Norma Morris, Jeremy C. Hebden, Tara Bland, Brian Balmer, 'Role of patient feedback in the design and implementation of clinical trials of optical tomography of the breast' in David A. Boas (Ed.) Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging: Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5138 pp.12-22, Oct 2003.

B.Balmer, ‘Commentary on T.B. Newman’s The Power of Stories Over Statistics’ in Hurwitz, B, Greenhalgh, T and Skultans, V (eds), Narrative Research in Health and Illness (Oxford: Blackwell, BMJ Books. 2004) pp.273-75.

N. Morris and B. Balmer, ‘Volunteer Human Subjects’ Understanding of their Participation in a Biomedical Research Experiment’, Social Science & Medicine, (2006), Vol 62 (4) pp 998-1008

N. Morris and B. Balmer, ‘Are You Sitting Comfortably? Perspectives of the Researchers and the Researched on ‘being comfortable’, Accountability in Research, (2006) Vol 13 pp111-133.

N. Morris, V. Armstrong and B. Balmer, 'Constructing a Safe Research Environment: Technology Talk Between Researchers and Volunteer Research Subjects', Health, Risk & Society (2009) 11(2):99-116.

History of the 'Brain Drain' Debate in the UK

Godwin, M, Gregory, J and Balmer, B (2009), 'The Anatomy of the Brain Drain Debate, 1950-1970s: Witness Seminar', Contemporary British History, Vol 1 pp35-60

Balmer, B, Godwin, M and Gregory, J (2009), 'The Royal Society and the 'Brain Drain': Natural Scientists Meet Social Science', Notes and Records of the Royal Society 63: 339-353

Balmer, B., Gregory, J., Godwin, M. (2013). La migración científica y el debate sobre la fuga de cerebros en el Reino Unido en los años sesenta. (Scientific Migration and the ‘Brain Drain’ debate in the UK in the 1960s). In Gómez Rodríguez, A., Canales, A. F. (Eds.). Estudios Políticos de la Ciencia: Políticas y Desarrollo Científico en el Siglo XX. Madrid: Plaza y Valdés. pp185-202.


S. Wyatt and B. Balmer, 'Home on the Range: What and Where is the Middle in Science and Technology Studies?' Introduction to special edition on Middle Range Theory in STS, Science, Technology & Human Values (2007) 32(6) pp619-626.

Davies,G., Balmer,B., Barker,K., Doubleday,R., Milne,R. (2008), Locating Technoscience: An on-line reader exploring the geographies of science and technology

Gómez, A., Balmer, B. (2013). 'Ciencia y política: una cuestión de fronteras'. In Gómez Rodríguez, A., Canales, A. F. (Eds.). Estudios Políticos de la Ciencia: Políticas y Desarrollo Científico en el Siglo XX. Madrid: Plaza y Valdés. pp15-34

Page last modified on 07 may 13 14:50 by Brian L Balmer

UCL Department of Science and Technology Studies (STS)
0207 679 1328 office | +44 207 679 1328 international | | @stsucl
postal address:  Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT | United Kingdom
street address: 22 Gordon Square, London, WC1E 6BT | maps