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Four UCL scientists elected Fellows of the Royal Society

Four UCL scientists elected Fellows of the Royal Society

8 May 2017  More...

Four UCL scientists elected Fellows of the Royal Society

Four UCL scientists elected Fellows of the Royal Society

8 May 2017  More...

MSSL staff

Half a century of space at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory

Under the leadership of Harrie Massey (Quain Professor of Physics and head of the Physics Department), UCL became the leading UK university in space research during the 1950s. From this pioneering start sprung UCL’s Mullard Space Science Laboratory, which celebrates the 50th anniversary of its official opening this week.


An ultimate speed limit for cooling

How cold can it get? That depends how long you are willing to wait. The third law of thermodynamics, conjectured in 1912 by the Nobel laureate Walter Nernst, states that it takes an infinite time to cool a system to absolute zero – the coldest temperature possible.

National Astronomy Meeting Press Release

8 July 2013


Super-Freezer Supernove 1987A is a dust factory RAS Press Release Author information

Surprisingly low temperatures detected in the remnant of the supernova 1987A

may explain the mystery of why space is so abundant with dust grains and

molecules. The results will be presented by Dr Mikako Matsuura at the

National Astronomy Meeting 2013 in St Andrews on Friday 5 July.

In 1987, an explosion of a massive star was detected in our neighbouring

galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud, just 170,000 light years away. This

supernova, dubbed 1987A, released approximately thousand million times more

energy than that emitted by the Sun in one year.  Twenty five years later,

an international team of astronomers has used the Herschel Space Observatory

and Atacama Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study the supernova

remnant.  They found a vast reservoir of unexpectedly cold molecules and


"The powerful explosion we saw in 1987 scattered elements made by star into

space in the form of a very hot plasma. The gas has now cooled down to

temperatures between -250 to -170 degrees Celsius.  That’s surprisingly

cold, comparable to the icy surface of Pluto at the edge of our Solar

System.  The gas has formed molecules and some has even condensed into solid

grains of dust. The supernova has now become a super freezer!" said Dr


The Herschel observations show that the supernova produced dust and solid

material equal to about 250 000 times the mass of the Earth, or three

quarters of the mass of the Sun.  To date, scientists have believed that

supernova remnants contain only very energetic atomic gas, detectable at

optical X-ray wavelengths; the new observations show that this is not the

case. The discovery of such a large mass of dust should help us to

understand how supernovae slowly spread and fill galaxies with gas, dust and

small rocky particles, some of which may eventually end up in the next

generation of stars and planets. 

"We were surprised by the amount of dust and molecular gas in the reservoir

created by the supernova 1987A. The ALMA and Herschel observations show that

the reservoir contains carbon monoxide molecules equalling one tenth of the

mass of the Sun. Herschel shows that the dust mass was even larger - about

half the solar mass!" said Dr Matsuura.

"We don't get many opportunities to study supernova. These events are very

rare and the majority was found in very distant galaxies.  Even with

relatively close ones, like 1987A, it’s difficult – although they are very

bright at the time of the explosion, the light from the supernovae fades

very quickly making it very difficult to observe them a few years after the

explosion," said Dr Matsuura.  "Carl Sagan once said that: ‘We are all made

of star-stuff’.  These results will help us understand how that material

reached us!"

Author Information

The international team includes: Mikako Matsuura and M.J. Barlow of

University College London, Maarten Baes of Universiteit Gent, Eli Dwek of

NASA Goddard, Margaret Meixner of the Space Telescope Science Institute, J.

Kamenetzky and R. McCray of the University of Colorado at Boulder and

R. Indebetouw of the University of Virginia.

ALMA, an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North

America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA

construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of

North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and on

behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

(NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and

management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by

European-led Principal  Investigator consortia and with important

participation from NASA.

Page last modified on 08 jul 13 11:53