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Professor Albert Weale FBA

Emeritus Professor of Political Theory and Public Policy

Professor Albert Weale FBA
  • Name: Professor Albert Weale FBA
  • Position: Emeritus Professor of Political Theory and Public Policy / Programme Director of Executive MPA in Global Public Policy and Management.
  • Room: 4.02, 29/30 Tavistock Sq.
  • Telephone: 020 7679 4993
  • Email:

I was born in Brighton in 1950, and at the age of five went to St Luke’s Primary School. At eleven I went to Varndean Grammar School for Boys, and from my second year there was in the accelerated O level stream. At fifteen I started A levels, doing English, History and Economics. In the autumn of 1967 I won a place at Clare College Cambridge, where I read Theology. Between leaving school in December 1967 and going to Clare in October 1968, I was a volunteer with Community Service Volunteers at a youth centre in Amesbury, Wiltshire.

After graduating in Theology in 1971, my original intention had been to write a thesis on the philosophical theology of Paul Tillich, a figure in whom I still retain an interest, but became absorbed by questions in political philosophy and the philosophy of the social sciences. I was fortunate that my supervisor at the time, Dorothy Emmet, was an expert both in philosophy of religion and in the philosophy of the social sciences, and she was crucial in my being able to make the transition from one field to the other.

In 1974 I was awarded the Sir James Knott Fellowship in the Department of Politics at the University of Newcastle. In 1976 I was awarded a Lectureship in the Department of Politics at the University of York. In 1985 I moved to the University of East Anglia as Professor of Politics and in 1992 I moved to the Department of Government at the University of Essex as Professor of Government. In January 2010 I became Professor of Political Theory and Public Policy at UCL.

My main intellectual influences have been the work of John Rawls and H.L.A. Hart in contemporary political theory, and John Stuart Mill and Henry Sidgwick in the history of political thought.

In 2005, together with a number of other researchers, I published a brief intellectual autobiography devoted to my interest in health policy called ‘Political Ideals and Personal Encounters’ in Adam Oliver (ed.), Personal Histories in Health Research (London: The Nuffield Trust, 2005). The full volume can be downloaded from the Nuffield Trust web-site through the following link:

I still keep an interest in religion and in December 2006 I participated in a Dana Centre discussion on religion and science called ‘God Rest Ye Merry Scientists…’. You can see the web-cast by following the following link:

Albert Weale is Professor of Political Theory and Public Policy and currently holds an ESRC Professorial Fellowship in 'Social Contract, Deliberative Democracy and Public Policy'. He joined the Department in January 2010. Educated at the University of Cambridge (1968-74), he started his career as Sir James Knott Fellow in the Department of Politics, University of Newcastle (1974-76) before going on to be Lecturer in Politics (1976-83) and Assistant Director of the Institute for Social and Economic Research (1982-85) at the University of York (1976-85). He was appointed Professor of Politics at the University of East Anglia (1985-992) and Professor of Government at the University of Essex (1992-2009). In addition, he has held visiting positions at Yale University, the University of Dar Es Salaam and Australian National University.

During the tenure of his ESRC Professorial Fellowship, his current research is focused on questions of social contract theory, deliberative democracy and public policy. The aim of this research is to show how social contract theories of economic justice share a common conceptual basis with deliberative accounts of democracy, with clear implications for the design and evaluation of public policy.

His main teaching interests link Political Theory and Public Policy, and in particular he teaches the module 'Social Values and Public Policy'. He also has an interest in methods of Political Theory research. During his career, he has successfully supervised some 20 PhD students.

He has always thought that academic thinking about key political and policy concepts should go together with involvement in current policy deliberation, and over the years he has been associated with a number of organisations that are devoted to independent analysis of policy issues. He currently chairs the Nuffield Council on Bioethics (, a position he has held since January 2008. His association with the Council goes back to December 1994 when he chaired the Working Party on Animal-to-Human Transplants, the report of which was published in March 1996. He joined the Council as a member in 1998 and served two terms until 2004, sitting as a member on their Working Party on The Use of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries and Pharmacogenetics.

He is also one of the Vice-Presidents of the British Academy ( and has special responsibility for public policy matters. In addition, he has chaired seminars for the Public Health Service and the Charity Commission. He chaired the King's Fund Grants Committee and sat on the Management Committee between 1997 and 2001 and he also currently chairs the Advisory Board of the ESRC Genomics Forum ( at the University of Edinburgh. He was a member of the Politics and International Studies Panel for the Research Assessment Exercise in 1992 and 1996 and chaired the Panel in 2001.


Single Authored
  • Equality and Social Policy (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978), pp. xi+149
  • Political Theory and Social Policy (London: Macmillan, 1983), pp. xi+227
  • The New Politics of Pollution (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992), pp. xi+227
  • Democracy (London: Macmillan, 1999), pp. viii+236.
  • Democratic Citizenship and the European Union (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), pp. ix+156.
  • Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, revised and expanded second edition, 2007), pp. xxi+270.
  • Democratic Justice and the Social Contract (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. xxi+302.
Jointly Authored
  • Lone Mothers, Paid Work and Social Security, with J. Bradshaw, A. Maynard and D. Piachaud, (London: Bedford Square Press, 1984), pp. 195
  • Controlling Pollution in the Round, with T. O'Riordan and Louise Kramme, (London: Anglo-German Foundation, 1991), pp. xvii+238
  • The Theory of Choice, with S. Hargreaves Heap, M. Hollis, B. Lyons, R. Sugden, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), pp. xv+398
  • Environmental Governance in Europe: An Ever Closer Ecological Union?, with G. Pridham, M. Cini, D. Konstadakopulos, M. Porter and B. Flynn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Edited Books
  • Cost and Choice in Health Care (London: King Edward's Hospital Fund, 1988), pp. x+85
  • Innovation and Environmental Risk, with Lewis Roberts, (London: Belhaven Press, 1991), pp. xiv+186
  • Environmental Standards in the European Community in an Interdisciplinary Framework, with Michael Faure and John Vervaele, (Antwerp: MAKLU, 1994), pp. 277. ISBN 90-6215-430-1.
  • Citizenship, Democracy and Justice in the New Europe, with Percy Lehning (London and New York : Routledge, 1997), pp. xi+212. ISBN 0 415 15819 2 (hb) 0 415 15820 6 (pb).
  • Political Theory and European Union: Legitimacy, Constitutional Choice and Citizenship, with Michael Nentwich (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), pp. xiv+205. ISBN 0 415 17313 2.
  • Risk, Democratic Citizenship and Public Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.144. ISBN 0 19 726283 X.
  • Democratic Politics and Party Competition: Essays in Honour of Ian Budge, with Judith Bara (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. xx1+315.

Journal articles (refereed)

  • ‘Power Inequalities’, Theory and Decision 7 (1976) pp. 297-313.
  • ‘An Anti-Egalitarian Fallacy', Philosophy 52 (1977) pp. 352-54
  • ‘Consent', Political Studies 26:1 (1978) pp. 65-77
  • ‘Paternalism and Social Policy', Journal of Social Policy 7 (1978) pp. 157-72
  •  ‘Statistical Lives and the Principle of Maximum Benefit', Journal of Medical Ethics, 5: 4, (1979) pp. 185-95
  • ‘A Contractual Reformulation of Certain Aspects of Welfare Economics' (with Robert Sugden) Economica 46 (1979) pp. 111-23
  • ‘The Impossibility of Liberal Egalitarianism' Analysis, 40 (1980) pp. 13-19
  • ‘Equality, Risk-Aversion and Contractarian Social Choice', (with Peter Lambert) Theory and Decision 13 (1981) pp. 109-27
  • ‘Invisible Hand or Fatherly Hand? Problems of Paternalism in the New Perspective on Health', Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 7 (1983) pp. 784-807
  • ‘Regulating for Equal Employment Opportunities: The Case of the Disabled Quota' (with R. MacDonnell) Journal of Law and Society 11 (1984) pp. 105-14
  • ‘The Welfare State and Two Conflicting Ideals of Equality' Government and Opposition 20 (1985) pp. 315-27
  • ‘Ideology and Welfare' Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs 2:3 (1986) pp. 197-219.
  • ‘Administrative Reorganisation and Policy Change' (with Tim O'Riordan) Public Administration 67:3 (1989) pp. 277-94
  • ‘Equality, Social Solidarity and the Welfare State' Ethics 100:3 (1990) pp. 473-88
  • ‘Resourcing the National Health Service' Journal of Law and Society 17:1 (1990) pp. 140-52
  • ‘Between Economy and Ecology? The Single Market and the Integration of Environmental Policy' (with Andrea Williams) Environmental Politics 1:4 (1992) pp. 45-64
  • ‘Social Policy and European Union' Social Policy and Administration 28:1 (1994) pp. 5-19
  • 'Environmental Administration in Six European States: Secular Convergence or National Distinctiveness?' (with Geoffrey Pridham, Andrea Williams and Martin Porter), Public Administration 74: 2 (1996) pp. 255-74.
  • ‘Environmental Rules and Rule-Making in the European Union' Journal of European Public Policy 3: 4 (1996) pp. 594-611.
  • ‘European Environmental Policy by Stealth: The Dysfunctionality of Functionalism?' Environment and Planning C 17: 1 (1999) pp. 37-51.
  • 'Analysing Parliamentary Debate with Computer Assistance' (with Judith Bara and Aude Bicquelet), Swiss Political Science Review, 13:4 (2007), pp.577-605. (
  • ‘Political Representation and the Normative Logic of Two-Level Games’ (with Deborah Savage), European Political Science Review, 1:1, (2009), pp.63-81.
  • ‘Is Rule by Majorities Special?’ (with Hugh Ward), Political Studies, 58:1 (2010), pp. 26-46.
  • ‘Co-Payments in the NHS: An Analysis of the Normative Arguments’ (with Sarah Clark), Health Economics, Policy and Law, 5:2 (2010), pp. 225-46.
  • ‘New Modes of Governance, Political Accountability and Public Reason’, Government and Opposition, 46: 1 (2011), pp.58-80.
  • Bicquelet, Aude and Weale, Albert (2011) 'Coping with the Cornucopia: Can Text Mining Help Handle the Data Deluge in Public Policy Analysis?', Policy and Internet, 3: 4, article 5. Available at: http:/? (Last accessed 5 June 2012.)
  • 'In A Different Parliamentary Voice?' (with Aude Bicquelet and Judith Bara), Gender and Politics, 8: 1 (2012), pp. 83-121.
  • 'Social Values in Health Priority Setting: A Conceptual Framework', (with Sarah Clark) Journal of Health Organization and Management, 23: 6, (2012) pp. 293-316.
  • ‘Debating Abortion, Deliberative Reciprocity and Parliamentary Advocacy’(with Aude Bicquelet and Judith Bara), Political Studies, 60 (2012), pp. 643-67.
  • ‘The Right to Health versus Good Medical Care? ’Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 15: 4 (2012), pp. 473-93.
  • ‘The Property-Owning Democracy versus the Welfare State’, Analyse und Kritik, 35: 1, pp. 37-54.
  • Political Legitimacy and European Monetary Union: Contracts, Constitutionalism and the Normative Logic of Two-Level Games’ (with Richard Bellamy), Journal of European Public Policy, 22: 3, (2015).

Periodical articles (non- refereed)

  • ‘Mr Fowler's Psychology: Reform of Social Security' Political Quarterly 56 (1985) pp. 321-30.
  • ‘The Ethics of Rationing' British Medical Bulletin 51:4 (1995) pp. 831-41.
  • ‘The Kaleidoscopic Competition of European Environmental Regulation' European Business Journal 7:4 (1995) pp. 19-25.
  • ‘From Little England to Democratic Europe?' New Community 21:2 (1995) pp. 215-25.
  • ‘Grinding Slow and Grinding Sure? The Making of the Environment Agency' Environmental Management and Health 7:2 (1996) pp. 40-43.
  • ‘The UK's Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution after Twenty Five Years' (with Andrea Williams) Environmental Management and Health 7: 2 (1996) pp. 35-39.
  • ‘Science Advice, Democratic Responsiveness and Public Policy’, Science and Public Policy, 28:6 (2001) pp.413-21.
  • ‘Trust and Political Constitutions’ Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 4:4 (2001), pp.69-83.
  • ‘Metrics versus Peer Review?’, Political Studies Review, 7:1, (2009), pp. 39-49.
  • ‘Political Theory and Practical Public Reasoning’, Political Studies, 58:2 (2010), pp. 266-81.
  • ‘Ethical Arguments Relevant to the Use of GM Crops’, New Biotechnology, 27: 5, 583-87.
  • ‘Brian Michael Barry’, Proceedings of the British Academy: Biographical Memoirs of Fellows IX , (2010)166, pp. 3-23.

Review articles

  • ‘William Beveridge: The Patriarch as Planner', Political Studies 27 (1979) pp. 285-93
  • ‘Representation, Individualism and Collectivism', Ethics 91 (1981) pp. 457-65
  • ‘Social Justice in the Liberal State', Minnesota Law Review 65 (1981) pp. 685-700
  • ‘Social Choice Versus Populism? An Interpretation of Riker's Political Theory', British Journal of Political Science 14 (1984) pp. 369-85
  • ‘Can Homo Economicus Have a Political Theory?' Political Studies 38:3 (1990) pp. 517-25
  • ‘The Greening of the European Polity?' West European Politics 14:4 (1991) pp. 193-98.
  • ‘Nature versus the State? Markets, States and Environmental Protection' Critical Review 6:2-3 (1992) pp. 153-70.
  • ‘William Riker and the Theory of Democracy' Democratization 2:3 (1995) pp. 377-95.
  • ‘Can We Democratise Decisions on Risk and the Environment?, Government and Opposition, 36: 3 (2001) pp.355-78.
  • ‘The Journal as a System of Norms’, British Journal of Political Science, 40: 3, (2010) pp. 277-85.


  • ‘Rational Choice and Political Principles', in R. Harrison ed., Rational Action, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 93-113.
  • ‘Procedural Fairness and Rationing the Social Services', in Noel Timms ed., Social Welfare: Why and How? Routledge, 1980, pp. 233-57.
  • ‘Issues of Value and Principle in Social Policy', in Martin Loney et. al., eds., Social Policy and Social Welfare. (Open University Press, 1983), pp. 104-16.
  • ‘Politics as Collective Choice', in A. Leftwich ed., What is Politics? The Activity and its Study. Basil Blackwell, 1984. Translated as 'La Politica Como Eleccion Colectiva' in A. Leftwich (compilador) Que es la Politica? Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1987 (translation of 'Politics as Collective Choice').
  • ‘Toleration, Individual Differences and Respect for Persons', in J. Horton and S. Mendus eds., Perspectives on Toleration, Methuen, 1985, pp. 16-35
  • ‘Why are We Waiting? The Problem of Unresponsiveness in the Public Social Services', in R. Klein and M. O'Higgins eds. The Future of Welfare. Basil Blackwell, 1985, pp. 150-65.
  • ‘Consent' The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought ed. David Miller et. al., Basil Blackwell, 1987 pp. 95-97
  • ‘Paternalism' The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought ed David Miller et. al., Basil Blackwell, 1987 pp. 367-68
  •   ‘How Much is Due to Health Care Providers?' in Martin Bell and Susan Mendus (eds.) Philosophy and Medical Ethics, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 97-109
  •  ‘Concluding Thoughts: An Outside View' in M. Bulmer, J. Lewis and D. Piachaud, The Goals of Social Policy Unwin Hyman, 1989, pp. 317-24
  • ‘The Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources: A Democrat's Dilemma' in P. Byrne (ed.) Medicine, Medical Ethics and the Value of Life, John Wiley and Sons, 1989
  • ‘The Limits of Democracy' in Alan Hamlin and Philip Pettit (eds.) The Good Polity, Basil Blackwell, 1989, pp. 35-47
  •  ‘Rational Choice and Political Analysis' in A. Leftwich (ed.) New Developments in Political Science Edward Elgar, 1990, pp. 196-210
  • ‘Freedom of Speech versus Freedom of Religion?' in Commission for Racial Equality, Free Speech, Discussion Papers 2, 1990, pp. 49-58.
  • ‘Social Policy' in A. Gamble et. al., (eds.) Developments in British Politics 3 Macmillan, 1990, pp. 197-220
  • ‘Citizenship Beyond Borders' in M. Moran and U. Vogel (eds) Frontiers of Citizenship Macmillan, 1991, pp. 155-65.
  • ‘Principle, Process and Policy' in Tom and Dorothy Wilson (eds) The State and Social Welfare (Longman, 1991), pp. 237-51.
  •  ‘Close Encounters of the Third Sector Kind' in Shaun Hargreaves Heap and Angus Ross (eds) Mary Douglas and the Enterprise Culture University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh, 1992, pp. 203-18.
  • ‘Political Accountability and Normative Rationality' in Martin Hollis and W. Vossenkuhl (eds) Moralische Entscheidung und rationale Wahl Scientia Nova, 1992, pp. 175-81.
  • ‘Implementation Failure: A Suitable Case for Review?' in Erik Lykke (ed.) Achieving Environmental Goals: The Concept and Practice of Environmental Performance Review Belhaven Press, London and Florida, 1992, pp. 43-63.
  • ‘Vorsprung durch Technik? The Politics of German Environmental Regulation' in Kenneth Dyson (ed.) The Politics of German Regulation Aldershot, Dartmouth, 1992, pp. 159-83.
  • ‘Umweltbezogene Risikosteuerung durch transaktions- kostenorientierte Institutionen' in Gerd Rainer Wagner (ed.) Okonomische Risiken und Umweltschutz Munich, Verlag Franz Vahlen, 1992, pp. 27-45.
  • ‘Ecological Modernisation and the Integration of European Environmental Policy' in Duncan Liefferink and Arthur Mol (eds) European Integration and Environmental Policy (London and New York, Belhaven, 1993) pp. 196-216. ISBN 1 85293 282 1.
  • ‘Justice, Social Union and the Separateness of Persons' in David Gauthier and Robert Sugden (eds) Rationality, Justice and the Social Contract (New York and London: Harvester- Wheatsheaf, 1993) pp. 75-94.
  • ‘Environmental Protection, the Four Freedoms and Competition among Rules' in Michael Faure, John Vervaele and Albert Weale (eds) Environmental Standards in the European Union in an Interdisciplinary Framework (MAKLU: Antwerp, 1994), pp. 73-89. ISBN 90-6215-430-1
  • ‘Democracy and Disagreement' in Peter Jones (ed.) Party, Parliament and Personality. Essays Presented to Hugh Berrington (London and New York, 1995) pp. 22-41. ISBN 0-415-11526-4.
  • ‘The Single Market and Environmental Policy' (with Andrea Williams) in Paul Furlong and Andrew Cox (eds) The European Union at the Crossroads: Problems in Implementing the Single Market Project (Boston: Earlsgate Press, 1995) pp. 131-59. ISBN 1 873439 16 4.
  • ‘Democratic Legitimacy and the Constitution of Europe' in Richard Bellamy, Vittorio Bufacchi and Dario Castiglione (eds) Democracy and Constitutional Culture in the Union of Europe (London: Lothian Foundation Press, 1995) pp. 81-94. ISBN 1 872210 20 1.
  • ‘The Life You Risk Should Be Your Own' in Patricia Day, Daniel M. Fox, Robert Maxwell and Ellie Scrivens (eds) The State, Politics and Health: Essays for Rudolf Klein (Cambridge Mass. and Oxford: Blackwell, 1996) pp. 3-19. ISBN 1 55786 868 9.
  • ‘Environmental Regulation and Administrative Reform in Britain' in Giandomenico Majone (ed.) Regulating Europe (London and New York: Routledge, 1996) pp. 106-30. ISBN 0 415 14295 4 (hb) 0 415 14296 2 (pb).
  • 31. ‘Great Britain' in Martin Jänicke and Helmut Weidner (eds) National Environmental Policies. A Comparative Study of Capacity-Building (Berlin: Springer, 1997) pp. 89-108. ISBN 0 387 61519 9.
  • ‘Environmental Regulation' in Peter Vass (ed.), Regulatory Review 1997 (London: Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries, 1997) pp. 201-16. ISBN 0 85299 838 4 (pb).
  • ‘Majority Rule, Political Identity and European Union' in Percy Lehning and Albert Weale (eds) Citizenship, Democracy and the New Europe (London and New York: Routledge, 1997) pp. 125-41. ISBN 0 415 15819 2 (hb) 0 415 15820 6 (pb)
  • ‘The Single Market, European Integration and Political Legitimacy' in David G. Mayes (ed.) The Evolution of the Single European Market (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1997) pp. 199-225. ISBN 1 85898 649 4 (hb).
  • ‘From Contracts to Pluralism?' in Paul Kelly (ed.) Impartiality, Neutrality and Justice (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998) pp. 9-34. ISBN 0 7486 1019 7 (hb).
  • ‘Health Care as a Public Service' in Richard Best et al., The Quest for Excellence. What is Good in Health Care? (London: King's Fund, 1998) pp. 205-219. ISBN 1 85717 146 2 (hb).
  • ‘Neue Regelmechanismen zur Wahrnehmung von Umweltverantwortung in Interaktion von Staat und Unternehmung' in Horst Steinmann and Gerd Rainer Wagner (eds) Umwelt und Wirtschaftsethik (Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag, 1998) pp. 203-213. ISBN 3 7910 1231 2 (hb).
  • ‘National Science and International Policy' (with Andrea Williams) in Arild Underdal (ed.) The Politics of International Environmental Management (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998) pp. 83-99. ISBN 0 7923 3685 2 (hb).
  • ‘Environmental Policy' in Ian Budge, Ivor Crewe, David McKay and Ken Newton, The New British Politics (Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998), pp. 568-85. ISBN 0582 28925 4 (pb).
  • ‘Between Representation and Constitutionalism in the European Union' in Albert Weale and Michael Nentwich (eds), Political Theory and European Union: Legitimacy, Constitutional Choice and Citizenship, (Routledge: London and New York, 1998), pp. 49-62. ISBN 0 415 17313 2.
  • ‘Government by Committee: Three Principles of Evaluation' in Thomas Christiansen and Emil Kirchner (eds), Committee Governance in the European Union (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 161-70 (0 7190 5552 0).
  • ‘Public Consultation and Public Policy on Risk’ in A. Weale (ed.), Risk, Democratic Citizenship and Public Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.43-52. (Contains material from ‘Science Advice, Democratic Responsiveness and Public Policy’, Science and Public Policy, 28:6 (2001) pp.413-21.
  • ‘Conclusion: Democratic Values and Risk Regulation’ in A. Weale (ed.), Risk, Democratic Citizenship and Public Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.127-44.
  • ‘Governance and Legitimacy’ (with Lynn Dobson) in E. Bomberg and A. Stubb (eds), The European Union: How Does it Work? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.156-73 (0 19 924766 8).
  • ‘Contractarian Theory, Deliberative Democracy and General Agreement’ in K. Dowding, R.E. Goodin and C. Pateman (eds), Justice and Democracy: Essays for Brian Barry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp.79-96.
  • ‘Politics as Collective Choice’ in A. Leftwich (ed.), What Is Politics? (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004), pp.86-99.
  • 47. ‘Party Competition and Deliberative Democracy’ in J. Bara and A. Weale (eds), Party Competition and Political Democracy, (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 271-86.
  • ‘Democratic Values, Political Legitimacy and European Governance’ in C. Ruzza and V. Della Sala (eds), Governance and Civil Society in the European Union (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006), pp.11-29.
  • 'The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Politics', in Jules Pretty, Andrew S. Ball, Ted Benton, Julia S. Guivant, David R. Lee, David Orr, Max J. Peffer and Hugh Ward (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Environment and Society (Los Angeles: Sage, 2007), pp.590-600.
  • ‘Governance, Government and the Pursuit of Sustainability’ in W. Neil Adger and Andrew Jordan (eds), Governing Sustainability (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 55-75.
  • 'La bioéthique au Royaume-Uni', in Brigitte Feuillet-Liger and Philippe Portier (eds), Droit Éthique et Religion: De L'Âge Théologique à L'Âge Bioéthique (Brussels: Éditions Bruylant, 2012), pp. 415-26.
  • 'Gesellschaftsvertrag und demokratische Deliberation', Regina Kreide, Claudia Landwehr and Katrin Toens (eds), Demokratie und Gerechtigkeit in Verteilungskonflikten (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2012), pp. 131-59.
  • '"Eigentum verpflichtet": A Social Contract Analysis', in Rüdiger Hahn, Henrik Janzen and Dirk Matten (Hrgs.), Die gesellschaftliche Verantwortung des Unternehmens (Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel, 2012), pp. 93-106.

Occasional pieces

  • Greening the Machinery of Government with Tim O'Riordan. Friends of the Earth, London, 1990, pp. 37
  • Universities in Wonderland' Government and Opposition 25:3 (1990) pp. 275-86
  • ‘The Limits of Ecocentrism' Environmental Politics 2:2 (1993) pp. 340-43.
  • ‘Can Environment Stop at the Border?' European Brief 2:4 (1995), pp. 36-37.
  • ‘Xenotransplantation: A Question of Ethics' Financial Times Tuesday July 30 1996, p.9.
  • ‘Rationing Health Care: A Logical Solution to an Inconsistent Triad' (editorial) British Medical Journal, No 7129, 7 February 1998, p. 410
  • ‘NGOs and Democratic Theory’ in NGOs, Democratisation and the Regulatory State¸ (London: European Policy Forum, 2003), pp.23-28.
  • ‘Democratic Values, Public Consultation and Health Priorities’ in A. Oliver (ed.), Equity in Health and Health Care (London; The Nuffield Trust, 2004), pp.41-51. (1-902089-93-6).
  • ‘Political Ideals and Personal Encounters’ in Adam Oliver (ed.) Personal Histories in Health Research (London: The Nuffield Trust, 2005), pp. 173-89. (
  • '"Public Benefit" – Discuss', Third Sector, 7 February 2007, p.18.
  • ‘What Is so Good about Citizens’ Involvement in Healthcare?’ in Edward Andersson, Jonathan Tritter and Richard Wilson (eds), Health Democracy: The Future of Involvement in Health and Social Care (London: Involve and NHS National Centre for Involvement, 2007), pp. 37-43.
  • 'Justifying Healthcare Priority Will Not Be Easy' (with Peter Littlejohns and Sarah Clark), Health Services Journal, 13 September 2012.
  • 'To Whom Will GP Commissioners Answer?', Pulse, 17 Ocotber 2012.

Recent (2000 onwards) Conference and Seminar presentations

  • ‘Can We Democratise Decisions on Risk and the Environment?. Paper presented at conference on ‘Modern State and European Governance’ TU Delft, Netherlands, 2 November 2000.
  • ‘Xenotransplantation: The Ethical Issues’, Presentation at Science for Public Understanding Student Conference, University College London, 13 February 2002.
  • ‘European Identity and Legitimacy’. Paper presented at Workshop on ‘European Citizenship and Identity’, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, 24 May 2002.
  • ‘Has the Creation of European Environmental Governance Increased Environmental Policy Capacity?’. Paper presented at ‘Colloquium Pioneers in Environmental Policy-Making’, Free University Berlin, Berlin, 19 October 2002.
  • ‘Can Social Contract Theory Provide an Answer to the Problem of Plural Values?’. Paper presented at conference on ‘Pluralism’, Manchester Centre for Political Thought, University of Manchester, Manchester, 29 November 2002.
  • ‘Risk Regulation and Democratic Values’. Paper presented at departmental seminar, Centre for Environmental Risk, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 5 February 2003.
  • ‘NGOs and Democratic Theory’. Paper presented at seminar organised by European Policy Forum, 29 April 2003.
  • Presentation at Panel Discussion ‘Are Elections Good for Us?’, Institute for Public Policy Research/Local Government Association, London, 15 July 2003.
  • ‘Democratic Citizenship, Political Legitimacy and Multilevel Governance’. Paper presented at conference on ‘Governance and Civil Society’, University of Trento, Italy, 11 December 2003.
  • ‘From Democracy to Welfare?’. Paper presented at conference on ‘Normative Principles and Welfare Research’, The Rokkan Centre, University of Bergen, Norway, 18 March 2004.
  • Presentation on public consultation and public policy, Nuffield Council on Bioethics Seminar ‘The Way We Reason’, 13 May 2004.
  • ‘Democratic Citizenship and European Union: The Case of Environmental Policy’, Seminar, Postgraduate School of Politics and International Studies, University of Hull, 26 November 2004.
  • ‘Democratic Citizenship and European Union: The Case of Social Policy’, Health and Social Care Seminar, London School of Economics, 10 March 2005.
  • ‘The Normative Logic of Two-Level Games’, University of Trento, 9 May 2006.
  • ‘Do the Social Sciences Endanger the Quality of Life?’, paper presented to British Academy Workshop ‘Working Together Across Disciplines: Challenges for the Natural and Social Sciences’, 12 May 2006.
  • 'Administrative Justice and the Democratic Process', Paper presented to ESRC Seminar on Administrative Justice, 26-27 September 2006, King's Manor, University of York.
  • Invited panellist at Dana Centre Public Discussion at 'God Rest Ye Merry Scientists', European Dana Alliance for the Brain, 14 December 2006.
  • 'Demonstrating Public Benefit' (with Rosamund McCarthy, Bates, Wells & Braithwaite solicitors), The Charities Act Conference, Directory of Social Change, 23 February 2007.
  • 'The Normative Logic of Two-Level Games' (with Deborah Savage), New Modes of Governance in the Shadow of Hierarchy, NewGov New Modes of Governance (FP6 Project), European University Institute, Florence, 30-31 March 2007.
  • 'Rights, Values and Welfare in Parliamentary Debates on Abortion', Workshop on Advanced Empirical Study of Deliberation, ECPR Joint Workshops, University of Helsinki, 7-12 May 2007.
  • Presentation to Public Involvement event, NHS Debate, organised by Commotion, Royal Society of Arts, 6 September 2007.
  • 'Public Participation and Public Reason', The Normative Implications of New Forms of Participation for Domestic Policy Processes, Cinefogo Workshop, organised by University of Trento, Rome 4-5 October 2007.
  • ‘Science, Food and Animals’, 11th Forum of National Ethics Councils (NEC Forum), Brdo, Slovenia 27 February 2008. (IN capacity as Chair NCOB.)
  • ‘What Exactly Is the Problem of Accountability in New Modes of Governance?’, New Modes of Governance Consortium Conference, Framework Programme 6, European University Institute, Florence, 5-6 June 2008.
  • ‘The Role of Ethics Advisory Bodies in Health Policy’, European Health Forum Gastein: Health Ethics: Balancing Economics, Policy and Justice, 1-2 October 2008. (In capacity as NCOB Chair.)
  • ‘Ethical Arguments Relevant to the Use of GM Crops’, Presentation for Conference on Transgenic Plants for Food Security in the Context of Development, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican, 15-19 May 2009. (In capacity as NCOB Chair.)
  • ‘The Right to Health versus Good Medical Care?’ Paper presented to conference in honour of Peter Jones, The Value and Limits of Rights, University of Newcastle, 25-26 February 2010.
  • 'Social Contracts and Democratic Deliberation'. Paper presented at the conference ‘Democracy and Justice in Distribution Conflicts’, University of Frankfurt, 4-6 March 2010.
  • Panel Presentation on 'Dialogue and Innovation in Contemporary Political Science, special issue of Political Studies (March 2010), Political Studies Association Annual Conference, 31 March 2010.
  • 'Our Considered Public Judgements', Presentation at Seminar 'Modelling Futures', Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Cambridge, 28 May 2010.
  • 'Our Considered Public Judgements', Presentation at Political Studies Specialist Group Conference, 'Deliberative and Participatory Democracy in the UK and Ireland', Glasgow Caledonian University, 23 June 2010.
  • 'Our Considered Public Judgements', Seminar, De Montfort University, 28 April 2010.
  • 'Social Values and Health Care Reform', London Public Policy Seminars, London School of Economics, 25 January 2011.
  • 'Are Social Contracts Good for You?', Department of Government Seminar, University of Essex, 15 February 2011.
  • 'The Deliberative Social Contract', Lecture to be delivered at the Center for Ethics and Global Politics, LUISS University, Rome 14 April 2011.
  • 'Social Contracts and Economic Justice', Colloquium Centre for Ethics and Global Politics, LUISS University, Rome 15 April 2011.
  • 'High Quality, Comprehensive and Without Barriers to Access? The Future of Healthcare in Europe' (with Sarah Clarke), Conference on 'The Future of Healthcare in Europe', University College, 13 May 2011.
  • 'Economic Justice and the Contract Method', Paper presented at conference on 'Contractarian Moral Theory: The 25th Anniversary of Morals by Agreement', York University, Toronto, Canada, 13-15 May 2011.
  • 'The Bioethics of Pluralism: A View from the United Kingdom', Fifteenth Anniversary Symposium of the Belgian Advisory Committee on Bioethics, 12 October 2011.
  • 'Can There Be Public Reasons of the Heart?', Workshop on 'Negotiating Religion: European Legacies, European Challenges', The European Institute, University College London, 23 November 2011.
  • 'The Ethics of Health Priorities', 'Fundamentos Éticos nas Prioridades em Saúde', Conference, Conselho Nacional de Ética para as Ciências da Vida, ('Fundamental Ethics for Priorities in Health', Portuguese National Council on Ethics for the Life Sciences) Lisbon, 29 November 2011.
  • 'Legitimacy and Political Contracting in the European Union', Conference on 'The Political Project of the European Union: Current State and Future Perspectives', Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, 9 December 2011.
  • 'L'ambiguïté morale de la normalité', Journées Annuelles d'Ethique, Comité Consultatif d'Ethique National, 21 January 2012.
  • 'Public Policy and the Democratic Intellect', Inaugural Lecture, University College London, 31 January 2012.
  • 'Social Value for Money in Health Care', Conference 'How Can We Set Priorities in Health Care Fairly?', Nuffield Trust/University College London, 15 February 2012.
  • 'Social Contract and Associative Obligation', Conference on 'Toleration and Pragmatism: Themes from the work of John Horton', Keele University, 17-18 February 2012.
  • 'Public Reasoning in the Social Contract for Health', Lenten Lecture Series, Centre for Medical Law and Ethics, King's College London, 1 March 2012.
  • 'Political Identity and the Social Contract', Mackenzie Lecture, Department of Politics, University of Glasgow, 5 March 2012.
  • 'Social Contract and Economic Justice', Seminar, Department of Politics, University of Exeter, 7 March 2012.
  • 'A Contractarian Theory of Democratic Justice', Paper for Conference on 'Justice, Democracy and Non-Domination', Department of Political Science, University College London, 15 June 2012.
  • 'Improving Governance for Global Health', Paper at Conference on 'Contemporary Debates in Global Health, Institute for Global Health, University College London, 3 October 2012.

My general areas of research are in Political Theory and Public Policy.

A long-standing interest has been the analysis of political principles and public policy, which was evident in my first book Equality and Social Policy (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978) and then in Political Theory and Social Policy (London: Macmillan, 1983), as well as in a number of published articles. See also the volume I edited for a group convened by the King’s Fund: Cost and Choice in Health Care (London: King Edward's Hospital Fund, 1988).

In recent years, this strand of my work has focused on questions of democracy and democratic theory, the key text of which is Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), which is a much revised and expanded version of a book originally published in 1999. That book develops the argument that democracy is best understood as a form of government resting on the principle that politics should enable citizens to advance their common interests under conditions of political equality and the recognition of human fallibility.

Alongside this strand of my work has gone an interest in understanding the democratic deficit of the European Union. Building upon two jointly edited volumes Citizenship, Democracy and Justice in the New Europe, with Percy Lehning (London and New York : Routledge, 1997) and Political Theory and European Union: Legitimacy, Constitutional Choice and Citizenship, with Michael Nentwich (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), I published Democratic Citizenship and the European Union (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005). This book uses an analysis of ‘we-intentions’ to understand the principled basis for policy development in the European Union.

My empirical public policy interests have focused on comparative environmental policy in Europe in particular. This stream of work began with a joint project with Timothy O’Riordan published as Controlling Pollution in the Round, with T. O'Riordan and Louise Kramme, (London: Anglo-German Foundation, 1991). The following year I published The New Politics of Pollution (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992), which has been widely cited. The culmination of this strand of work came with Environmental Governance in Europe: An Ever Closer Ecological Union?, with G. Pridham, M. Cini, D. Konstadakopulos, M. Porter and B. Flynn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

A particular interest of mine within environmental policy has been questions of risk, see in particular Innovation and Environmental Risk, jointly edited with Lewis Roberts, (London: Belhaven Press, 1991) and Risk, Democratic Citizenship and Public Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), which is a volume I edited growing out of a British Academy conference.

Recently I have become interested in the empirical analysis of political discourse using computer-aided software. This grew out of a Festschrift on the work of Ian Budge and the Comparative Manifestos Project, in a volume edited with Judith Bara: Democratic Politics and Party Competition: Essays in Honour of Ian Budge (London and New York: Routledge). Together with Judith Bara and Aude Bicquelet a paper emerging from this work has been published in a special issue of the Swiss Political Science Review: 'Analysing Parliamentary Debate with Computer Assistance', Swiss Political Science Review, 13:4, pp.577-605. (

The programme of research for my ESRC Professorial Fellowship is available under the designated site.

I have taught Politics for more than thirty-four years, and I still find it an enjoyable and rewarding experience.

I began by teaching courses in modern Political Theory and Political Ideologies at the University of York. At the University of East Anglia I continued to teach in these fields, but also taught Comparative Public Policy. For a number of years at Essex I taught a course in political analysis, covering the main analytical approached in political science, called Contemporary Political Theory. I have also taught in the field of Political Principles and Public Policy.

At UCL my main teaching responsibilities are the module 'Social Values and Public Policy', as well as PhD supervision and workshops. I currently supervise four PhDs and have temporary responsibility for two more.

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