Dr Aimee Spector

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Personal Profile

Name: Aimee Spector Email: a.spector@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Dr Tel: 020 7679 1844
Department: Clinical, Edu & Hlth Psychology Fax:
Position: Senior Lecturer Address: London, , London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Ageing, Neuroscience Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

My research broadly focuses on psychosocial interventions for dementia. For my PhD, I developed and evaluated a novel treatment for dementia called Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST). CST is now recommended by UK government guidelines (NICE, 2006) and is widely used in the UK and internationally. My research continues to develop CST, for example I am involved in a large clinical trial developing and evaluating carer-led CST (iCST) and another trial evaluating its longer-term benefits. Smaller projects have looked at detailed neuropsychological mechanisms of change and qualitative outcomes in CST. I currently lead a trial evaluating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia and have overseen a trial evaluating a sensory-based intervention for dementia ('Sonas'). Other interests include staff training, quality of life and the development of outcome measures and models in dementia. For example, I have published two new outcome measures for dementia and new conceptual 'Biopsychosocial' model for dementia.


Research Activities

Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) in Japan

Cognitive stimulation and rehabilitation for dementia

Promoting Independence in Dementia (PRIDE)

psychosocial research in dementia

Education Description

I coordinate the Older Adults teaching on the Clinical Psychology Doctorate (DClinPsy) and teach within this module. In the past I have coordinated academic seminars for the course, and facilitate one annually. I regularly supervise DClinPsy trainees for their major research and teach undergraduate psychology students on theories and therapies in dementia. I co-supervise three PhD students.

UCL Collaborators

Prof Gill Livingston; Prof Steve Morris; Dr Dorina Cadar; Dr Georgina Charlesworth; Prof Paul Higgs; Prof Susan Michie; Prof Andrew Steptoe

External Collaborators

Publications

    2014

    • Cove J, Stott J, Spector A, Jacobi N, Donovan H, Orrell M (2014). Effectiveness of weekly cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia and the additional impact of enhancing cognitive stimulation therapy with a carer training program. doi:10.2147/CIA.S66232
    • D’Amico F, Rehill A, Knapp M, Aguirre E, Donovan H, Hoare Z, Hoe JM, Russell I, Spector A, Streater A, Whitaker C, Woods RT, Orrell M (2014). Maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy: an economic evaluation within a randomised controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association (JAMDA): long-term care: management, applied research and clinical issues, , - .
    • Yates L, Orrell M, Leung P, Spector AE, Woods B, Orgeta V (2014). Making a Difference 3: Individualised CST – A manual for carers..
    • Spector AE (2014). Cognitive Stimulation therapy (CST) for dementia..
    • Charlesworth G, Sadek S, Schepers A, Spector AE (2014). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Anxiety in People with Dementia: a clinican guideline for a person-centered approach.. Behaviour Modification, , - .
    • D'Amico F, Rehill A, Knapp M, Aguirre E, Donovan H, Hoare Z, Russell I, Streater A, Spector AE, Whitaker C, Woods RT, Orrell M (2014). Maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy: an economic evaluation within a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, , - .
    • Yates L, Leung P, Orgeta V, Spector AE, Orrell M (2014). The development of individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (iCST) for dementia.. Clinical Interventions in Aging, , - .
    • Spector AE, Charlesworth G, King M, Hoe J, Lattimer M, Sadek S, Marston L, Rehill A, Qazi A, Knapp M, Orrell M (2014). Cognitive Behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia: A pilot randomised controlled trial..
    • Spector AE (2014). 'STAR': Training workshop.
    • Spector AE (2014). Cognitive Stimulation therapy (CST) for dementia..
    • Spector AE (2014). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia: A pilot Randomised Controlled Trial..
    • Aguirre E, Spector AE, Streater A, Hoe J, Woods B, Orrell M (2014). Making a Difference 2: an evidence based group program to offer maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) to people with dementia..
    • Orrell M, Aguirre E, Spector A, Hoare Z, Woods RT, Streater A, Donovan H, Hoe J, Knapp M, Whitaker C, Russell I (2014). Maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy for dementia: single-blind, multicentre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial.. Br J Psychiatry, 204(6), 454 - 461. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.137414
    • Cove J, Jacobi N, Donovan H, Orrell M, Stott J, Spector AE (2014). Effectiveness of weekly Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for people with dementia and the additional impact of enhancing CST with a carer training programme.. Clinical Interventions in Aging, , - .
    • Spector AE, Charlesworth G, King M, Hoe J, Lattimer M, Sadek S, Marston L, Rehill A, Qazi A, Knapp M, Orrell M (2014). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia: A pilot randomised controlled trial.. British Journal of Psychiatry, , - .
    • Aguirre E, Orrell M, Spector A (2014). Guidelines for adapting cognitive stimulation therapy to other cultures. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 1003 - 1007. doi:10.2147/CIA.S61849
    • Aguirre E, Hoare Z, Spector A, Woods RT, Orrell M (2014). The effects of a Cognitive Stimulation Therapy [CST] programme for people with dementia on family caregivers' health.. BMC Geriatr, 14, 31 - . doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-31
    • Hutson C, Orrell M, Dugmore O, Spector A (2014). Sonas: a pilot study investigating the effectiveness of an intervention for people with moderate to severe dementia.. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen, 29(8), 696 - 703. doi:10.1177/1533317514534756

    2013

    • Spector AE, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, Orrell M (2013). Kognitive Anregung (CST) für Menschen mit Demenz: Evidenzbasiertes Praxis- und Gruppenhandbuch.
    • Aguirre E, Woods RT, Spector A, Orrell M (2013). Cognitive stimulation for dementia: a systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness from randomised controlled trials.. Ageing Res Rev, 12(1), 253 - 262. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2012.07.001
    • Hall L, Orrell M, Stott J, Spector A (2013). Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST): neuropsychological mechanisms of change.. Int Psychogeriatr, 25(3), 479 - 489. doi:10.1017/S1041610212001822
    • Shanahan N, Orrell M, Schepers AK, Spector A (2013). The development and evaluation of the DK-20: a knowledge of dementia measure.. Int Psychogeriatr, 25(11), 1899 - 1907. doi:10.1017/S1041610213001142
    • Spector AE (2013). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia: A pilot Randomised Controlled Trial.. , , - .
    • Yamanaka K, Kawano Y, Noguchi D, Nakaaki S, Watanabe N, Amano T, Spector A (2013). Effects of cognitive stimulation therapy Japanese version (CST-J) for people with dementia: A single-blind, controlled clinical trial. Aging and Mental Health, 17(5), 579 - 586. doi:10.1080/13607863.2013.777395
    • Forrester LT, Maayan N, Orrell M, Spector AE, Buchan LD, Soares-Weiser K (2013). Aromatherapy for Dementia.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, - . doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003150.pub2.
    • Spector A, Orrell M, Goyder J (2013). A systematic review of staff training interventions to reduce the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.. Ageing Res Rev, 12(1), 354 - 364. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2012.06.005

    2012

    • Spector A, Charlesworth G, Orrell M, Hoe J, King M, Lattimer M, Qazi A, Harwood K (2012). Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety in people with dementia: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 13, - . doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-197
    • Schepers A, Charlesworth G, Spector AE (2012). CBT for anxiety and dementia: Challenges and Barriers..
    • Spector A, Orrell M, Schepers A, Shanahan N (2012). A systematic review of 'knowledge of dementia' outcome measures.. Ageing Res Rev, 11(1), 67 - 77. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2011.09.002
    • Spector A, Gardner C, Orrell M (2012). The impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy groups on people with dementia: views from participants, their carers and group facilitators. Ageing and Mental Health, 15(8), 945 - 950.
    • Schepers A, Orrell M, Shanahan N, Spector A (2012). The Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Questionnaire for Staff (SOCID-S): Development, reliability and validity. International Psychogeriatrics, 1, 1 - 10.
    • Goyder J, Orrell M, Wenborn J, Spector AE (2012). Staff training using STAR: A pilot study in UK care homes.. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(6), 911 - 920. doi:10.1017/S1041610211002559
    • Woods B, Aguirre E, Spector AE, Orrell M (2012). Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia. COCHRANE DATABASE OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS, (2), - . doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005562.pub2
    • Streater A, Spector A, Aguirre E, Hoe J, Hoare Z, Woods R, Russell I, Orrell M (2012). Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) in practice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.. Trials, 13, 91 - . doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-91
    • Schepers AK, Orrell M, Shanahan N, Spector A (2012). Sense of competence in dementia care staff (SCIDS) scale: development, reliability, and validity.. Int Psychogeriatr, 24(7), 1153 - 1162. doi:10.1017/S104161021100247X
    • Orrell M, Yates LA, Orgeta V, Burns A, Russell I, Woods RT, Hoare Z, Moniz-Cook E, Henderson C, Knapp M, Spector A (2012). Individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for dementia (iCST): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13, - . doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-172
    • Aguirre E, Hoare Z, Streater A, Spector A, Woods B, Hoe J, Orrell M (2012). Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for people with dementia—who benefits most?. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, , - . doi:10.1002/gps.3823
    • Spector AE, Lattimer M, Orrell M, Hoe J, King M, Qazi A, Harwood K, Charlesworth G (2012). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia: Study protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial..
    • Spector AE, Lattimer M, Orrell M, Hoe J, King M, Qazi A, Harwood K, Charlesworth G (2012). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia: Study protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial..
    • Spector A, Orrell M, Hall L (2012). Systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes in dementia from cognition-based psychological interventions. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 34(3-4), 244 - 255. doi:10.1159/000343931
    • Orrell M, Spector A, Woods B (2012). Should we use individual cognitive stimulation therapy to improve cognitive function in people with dementia?. BMJ (Online), 344(7844), 46 - 47. doi:10.1136/bmj.e633

    2011

    • Orgeta V, Spector AE, Qazi A, Orrell M (2011). Psychological treatment of depression and anxiety in dementia and MCI.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , - .
    • Svanberg E, Spector A, Stott J (2011). The impact of young onset dementia on the family: A literature review. International Psychogeriatrics, 23(3), 356 - 371. doi:10.1017/S1041610210001353
    • Spector AE (2011). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for anxiety in dementia..
    • Stott J, Spector A (2011). A review of the effectiveness of memory interventions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). International Psychogeriatrics, 23(4), 526 - 538. doi:10.1017/S1041610210001973
    • Sadek S, Charlesworth G, Orrell M, Spector A (2011). The development of a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) manual: A pilot randomised control trial of CBT for anxiety in people with dementia anxiety.

    2010

    • Olazaran J, Reisberg B, Cruz I, Pena-Cassanova J, Teodoro S, Woods B, Beck C, Auer S, Lai C, Spector A, Fazio S, Mittleman M, Bond J, Kivipelto M, Brodaty H, Teri L, Rojo JM, Orrell M, Feldman H, Muniz R (2010). Non-pharmacological therapies in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review of efficacy.. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 30, 161 - 178.
    • Spector A, Orrell M (2010). Using a Biopsychosocial model of dementia as a tool to guide clinical practice. International Psychogeriatrics, 22(Special Issue 6), 957 - 965. doi:10.1017/S1041610210000840
    • Shanahan N, Spector A, Orrell M, Schepers A (2010). The development of a knowledge of dementia measure for residential care staff: from conceptual development to empirical evaluation.. , , 1899 - 1907.
    • Aguirre E, Orrell M, Spector A (2010). Development of an evidence-based long term programme of maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for people with dementia.. Non-pharmacological Therapies for Dementia, , 197 - 215.
    • Aguirre E, Spector A, Orrell M (2010). Service-users involvement on the development of a maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) programme: A comparison of the views of people with dementia, staff and family carers.. Dementia, , 459 - 473.
    • Qazi A, Spector A, Orrell M (2010). User, carer and staff perspectives on managing anxiety in dementia: A Qualitative study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125 (1-3), 295-300 - .
    • Svanberg E, Stott J, Spector A (2010). 'Just Helping': Children Coping with a Parent with Young Onset Dementia.. Aging and Mental Health., 14 (6), 740 - 751.
    • Aguirre E, Spector A, Hoe J, Russell IT, Knapp M, Woods RT, Orrell M (2010). Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for dementia: a single-blind, multi-centre, randomized controlled trial of Maintenance CST vs. CST for dementia.. Trials, 11, 46 - . doi:10.1186/1745-6215-11-46
    • Spector A, Orrell M, Aguirre E (2010). Translating research into practice: A pilot study examining the use of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) after a one-day training course.. Non-pharmacological Therapies in Dementia., , 61 - 70.
    • Spector A, Orrell M, Woods B (2010). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST): effects on different areas of cognitive function for people with dementia.. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, , - . doi:10.1002/gps.2464

    2009

    • Orrell M, Spector A (2009). Psychology of Aging.

    2008

    • Spector A, Orrell M, Woods B (2008). Cognitive Stimulation for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8(5), 751 - 757.
    • Holt FE, Birks TPH, Thorgrimsen LM, Spector AE, Wiles A, Orrell M (2008). Aroma Therapy for Dementia.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), - .

    2006

    • Woods B, Thorgrimsen L, Spector A, Royan L, Orrell M (2006). Improved quality of life and cognitive stimulation therapy in dementia.. Aging Ment Health, 10(3), 219 - 226. doi:10.1080/13607860500431652
    • Knapp M, Thorgrimsen L, Patel A, Spector A, Hallam A, Woods B, Orrell M (2006). Cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia: cost-effectiveness analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188(6), 574 - 580. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.010561
    • Spector AE, Orrell M (2006). Quality of life in dementia: a comparison of the perceptions of people with dementia and care staff in residential homes. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 20(3), 160 - 165.
    • Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, Orrell M (2006). Making a difference - an evidence based group program to offer cognitive stiumlation to people with dementia - manual for group leaders.
    • Thorgrimsen L, Spector A, Orrell M (2006). The use of aromatherapy in dementia care: A review. Journal of Dementia Care, 14(2), 33 - 36.
    • Spector A, Orrell M (2006). A review of the use of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for dementia. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 2(8), 3 - 6.

    2005

    • Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, Orrell M (2005). Our time: an evidence based group program to offer cognitive stimulation to people with dementia.
    • Orrell M, Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B (2005). A pilot study examining the effectiveness of maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (MCST) for people with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(5), 446 - 451. doi:10.1002/gps.1304

    2003

    • Thorgrimsen L, Selwood A, Spector A, Royan L, de Madariaga Lopez M, Woods RT, Orrell M (2003). Whose Quality of Life Is It Anyway?: The Validity and Reliability of the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) Scale. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 17(4), 201 - 208.
    • Clare L, Woods RT, Moniz-Cooke ED, Orrell M, Spector A (2003). Cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive training for early-stage Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , - .
    • Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, Royan L, Davies S, Butterworth M, Orrell M (2003). Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia: randomised controlled trial.. Br J Psychiatry, 183, 248 - 254.
    • Thorgrimsen LM, Orrell M, Spector A, Whitehead A (2003). Aromatherapy for dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , - .
    • Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, Royan L, Davies S, Butterworth M, Orrell M (2003). Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 183(3), 248 - 254. doi:10.1192/bjp.183.3.248

    2001

    • Spector A, Orrell M (2001). Reality Orientation: Dementia.. In (Ed.), In: Encyclopaedia of Care for the Elderly. (pp. - ). : Springer. New York..
    • Clare L, Woods RT, Moniz-Cook ED, Orrell M, Spector A (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation interventions targeting memory functioning in early-stage Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Review Protocol, (4), - .
    • Spector A, Orrell M, Davies S, Woods B (2001). Can reality orientation be rehabilitated? Development and piloting of an evidence-based programme of cognition-based therapies for people with dementia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 11(3/4), 377 - 397. doi:10.1080/09602010143000068

    2000

    • Tabet N, Birks J, Grimley Evans J, Orrell M, Spector A (2000). Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , CD002854 - .
    • Spector A, Woods B, Davies S, Orrell M (2000). Reality orientation for dementia: a systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness from randomized controlled trials. The Gerontologist, 40(2), 206 - 212.
    • Spector A, Orrell M, Davies S, Woods B (2000). WITHDRAWN: reality orientation for dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD001119 - .

    1999

    • Spector AE, Orrell M, Davies S, Woods B (1999). Developing an evidence based therapy programme.. Journal of Dementia Care, 7(5), 28 - 29.

    1998

    • Williams PS, Spector A, Orrell M, Rands G (1998). Aspirin for Vascular Dementia.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , - .
    • Spector A, Woods B, Davies S, Orrell MW (1998). Reminiscence Therapy in Dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , - .