Prof William Richardson


Personal Profile

Name: William Richardson Email:
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 6729
Department: Wolfson Inst for Biomedical Research Fax: 020 7209 0470
Position: Professor of Biology Address: Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, UCL, Gower St, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Ageing, Basic Life Sciences, Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine, Populations & Lifelong Health Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

We study the biology of CNS stem cells and their neuronal and glial progeny, in order to better understand their roles in normal CNS physiology. Stem cells in the adult forebrain generate new neurons for the olfactory bulb and hippocampus throughout life. The role of these adult-born neurons is not clear, although they appear to be involved in some aspects of olfactory and spatial memory function. Another population of stem-like cells - known as NG2 cells - is distributed uniformly throughout the brain and spinal cord. These generate many new oligodendrocytes during adult life, raising the intriguing possibility that late-forming myelin might modify the properties of neural circuits and contribute to neural plasticity. We found recently that NG2 cells also generate small numbers of projection neurons in the piriform cortex (primary olfactory cortex), raising further questions about adult neurogenesis and its potential role in plasticity. With collaborators at UCL and in the USA, we are also investigating the development of CNS glial cells (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) and their interactions with one another and with neurons. We specialize in the use of transgenic mouse technology to manipulate cells of interest in vivo. We also use chick, zebrafish and cell culture models where appropriate.

Research Activities

Axonal regeneration

Development and evolution of novel traits including vertebrate myelin and diopsid eyestalks

Neuron-glial interactions

Properties and functions of neural stem cells and their progeny in the embryonic and postnatal CNS.

Education Description

I teach undergraduate (2nd and 3rd year) and MSc level lectures. I supervise postgraduate (PhD) research students.

UCL Collaborators

Prof Steve Bolsover; Prof Adrian Thrasher; Prof David Becker; Prof Andrew Pomiankowski; Prof David Attwell; Prof Kevin Fowler; Prof Patrick Anderson; Dr Jeremy Cook

External Collaborators



    • Crawford AH, Stockley JH, Tripathi RB, Richardson WD, Franklin RJ (2014). Oligodendrocyte progenitors: adult stem cells of the central nervous system?. Exp Neurol, 260, 50 - 55. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.04.027
    • Paes de Faria J, Kessaris N, Andrew P, Richardson WD, Li H (2014). New Olig1 null mice confirm a non-essential role for Olig1 in oligodendrocyte development.. BMC Neurosci, 15, 12 - . doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-12
    • Pouwels PJW, Vanderver A, Bernard G, Wolf NI, Dreha-Kulczewksi SF, Deoni SCL, Bertini E, Kohlschütter A, Richardson W, Ffrench-Constant C, Köhler W, Rowitch D, Barkovich AJ (2014). Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies: Translational research progress and prospects. Annals of Neurology, 76(1), 5 - 19. doi:10.1002/ana.24194
    • McKenzie IA, Ohayon D, Li H, de Faria JP, Emery B, Tohyama K, Richardson WD (2014). Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.. Science, 346(6207), 318 - 322. doi:10.1126/science.1254960


    • Young KM, Psachoulia K, Tripathi RB, Dunn SJ, Cossell L, Attwell D, Tohyama K, Richardson WD (2013). Oligodendrocyte dynamics in the healthy adult CNS: evidence for myelin remodeling.. Neuron, 77(5), 873 - 885. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.01.006
    • Taveira-Marques R, Holz A, Tsai H-H, Arnold H-H, Rowitch DH, Kessaris N, Richardson WD (2013). Separate progenitors for somatic and visceral motor neurons in mouse spinal cord.. , In preparation, - .
    • Philips T, Bento-Abreu A, Nonneman A, Haeck W, Staats K, Geelen V, Hersmus N, Van Den Bosch L, Van Damme P, Robberecht W, Küsters B, Richardson WD (2013). Oligodendrocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain, 136(2), 471 - 482. doi:10.1093/brain/aws339
    • Panayiotou E, Panayi E, Lapathitis G, Francius C, Clotman F, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Malas S (2013). Pax6 is expressed in subsets of V0 and V2 interneurons in the ventral spinal cord in mice.. Gene Expr Patterns, 13(8), 328 - 334. doi:10.1016/j.gep.2013.06.004
    • Anthwal N, Pelling M, Claxton S, Mellitzer G, Collin C, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Gradwohl G, Ang SL (2013). Conditional deletion of neurogenin-3 using Nkx2.1iCre results in a mouse model for the central control of feeding, activity and obesity.. Dis Model Mech, 6(5), 1133 - 1145. doi:10.1242/dmm.011916


    • Anttonen T, Kirjavainen A, Belevich I, Laos M, Jokitalo E, Pirvola U, Richardson WD, Brakebusch C (2012). Cdc42-dependent structural development of auditory supporting cells is required for wound healing at adulthood. Scientific Reports, 2, - . doi:10.1038/srep00978
    • Clarke LE, Young KM, Hamilton NB, Li H, Richardson WD, Attwell D (2012). Properties and fate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, motor cortex, and piriform cortex of the mouse.. J Neurosci, 32(24), 8173 - 8185. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0928-12.2012
    • Hari L, Miescher I, Shakhova O, Sommer L, Suter U, Chin L, Taketo M, Richardson WD, Kessaris N (2012). Temporal control of neural crest lineage generation by wnt/β-catenin signaling. Development (Cambridge), 139(12), 2107 - 2117. doi:10.1242/dev.073064
    • Tsai HH, Li H, Fuentealba LC, Molofsky AV, Taveira-Marques R, Zhuang H, Tenney A, Murnen AT, Fancy SP, Merkle F, Kessaris N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Richardson WD, Rowitch DH (2012). Regional astrocyte allocation regulates CNS synaptogenesis and repair.. Science, 337(6092), 358 - 362. doi:10.1126/science.1222381
    • Molofsky AV, Krenick R, Ullian E, Tsai H-H, Deneen B, Richardson WD, Barres BA, Rowitch DH (2012). Astrocytes and disease: a neurodevelopmental perspective. GENES & DEVELOPMENT, 26(9), 891 - 907. doi:10.1101/gad.188326.112
    • Chittka A, Nitarska J, Grazini U, Richardson WD (2012). Transcription factor positive regulatory domain 4 (PRDM4) recruits protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) to mediate histone arginine methylation and control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.. J Biol Chem, 287(51), 42995 - 43006. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.392746


    • Tripathi RB, Clarke LE, Burzomato V, Kessaris N, Anderson PN, Attwell D, Richardson WD (2011). Dorsally and ventrally derived oligodendrocytes have similar electrical properties but myelinate preferred tracts.. J Neurosci, 31(18), 6809 - 6819. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6474-10.2011
    • Li H, de Faria JP, Andrew P, Nitarska J, Richardson WD (2011). Phosphorylation regulates OLIG2 cofactor choice and the motor neuron-oligodendrocyte fate switch.. Neuron, 69(5), 918 - 929. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.01.030
    • Rinholm JE, Hamilton NB, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Bergersen LH, Attwell D (2011). Regulation of oligodendrocyte development and myelination by glucose and lactate.. J Neurosci, 31(2), 538 - 548. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3516-10.2011
    • Causeret F, Ensini M, Teissier A, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Lucas de Couville T, Pierani A (2011). Dbx1-expressing cells are necessary for the survival of the mammalian anterior neural and craniofacial structures.. PLoS One, 6(4), e19367 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019367
    • Richardson WD, Young KM, Tripathi RB, McKenzie I (2011). NG2-glia as multipotent neural stem cells: fact or fantasy?. Neuron, 70(4), 661 - 673. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.013
    • Calvo CF, Fontaine RH, Soueid J, Tammela T, Makinen T, Alfaro-Cervello C, Bonnaud F, Miguez A, Benhaim L, Xu Y, Barallobre MJ, Moutkine I, Lyytikkä J, Tatlisumak T, Pytowski B, Zalc B, Richardson W, Kessaris N, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alitalo K, Eichmann A, Thomas JL (2011). Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 directly regulates murine neurogenesis.. Genes Dev, 25(8), 831 - 844. doi:10.1101/gad.615311
    • Laranjeira C, Sandgren K, Kessaris N, Richardson W, Potocnik A, Vanden Berghe P, Pachnis V (2011). Glial cells in the mouse enteric nervous system can undergo neurogenesis in response to injury.. J Clin Invest, 121(9), 3412 - 3424. doi:10.1172/JCI58200


    • Tripathi RB, Rivers LE, Young KM, Jamen F, Richardson WD (2010). NG2 glia generate new oligodendrocytes but few astrocytes in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of demyelinating disease.. J Neurosci, 30(48), 16383 - 16390. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3411-10.2010
    • Zawadzka M, Rivers LE, Fancy SPJ, Zhao C, Tripathi R, Jamen F, Young K, Goncharevich A, Pohl H, Rizzi M, Rowitch DH, Kessaris N, Suter U, Richardson WD, Franklin RJM (2010). CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells Produce Schwann Cells as well as Oligodendrocytes during Repair of CNS Demyelination. CELL STEM CELL, 6(6), 578 - 590. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2010.04.002
    • Panayi H, Panayiotou E, Orford M, Genethliou N, Mean R, Lapathitis G, Malas S, Li S, Xiang M, Kessaris N, Richardson WD (2010). Sox1 is required for the specification of a novel p2-derived interneuron subtype in the mouse ventral spinal cord. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(37), 12274 - 12280. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2402-10.2010
    • Young KM, Mitsumori T, Pringle N, Grist M, Kessaris N, Richardson WD (2010). An Fgfr3-iCreER(T2) transgenic mouse line for studies of neural stem cells and astrocytes.. Glia, 58(8), 943 - 953. doi:10.1002/glia.20976
    • Panayi H, Panayiotou E, Orford M, Genethliou N, Mean R, Lapathitis G, Li S, Xiang M, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Malas S (2010). Sox1 is required for the specification of a novel p2-derived interneuron subtype in the mouse ventral spinal cord. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(37), 12274 - 12280.


    • Psachoulia K, Jamen F, Young KM, Richardson WD (2009). Cell cycle dynamics of NG2 cells in the postnatal and ageing brain.. Neuron Glia Biol, 5(3-4), 57 - 67. doi:10.1017/S1740925X09990354
    • Genethliou N, Panayiotou E, Panayi H, Orford M, Mean R, Lapathitis G, Gill H, Raoof S, Gasperi RD, Elder G, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Malas S (2009). Sox1 links the function of neural patterning and Notch signalling in the ventral spinal cord during the neuron-glial fate switch. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, , - .
    • Li H, Richardson WD (2009). Genetics meets epigenetics: HDACs and Wnt signalling in oligodendrocyte development and regeneration.. Nature Neuroscience, 12(7), 815 - 817. doi:10.1038/nn0709-815
    • Li H, He Y, Richardson WD, Casacchia P (2009). Two-tier transcriptional control of oligodendrocyte differentiation.. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Epub in advance, - . doi:10.1016/j.conb.2009.08.004
    • Gomez-Sanchez JA, Lopez de Armentia M, Lujan R, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Cabedo H (2009). Sustained axon-glial signalling induces Schwann cell hyperproliferation, Remak bundle myelination and tumorigenesis.. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(36), 11304 - 11315. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1753-09.2009


    • Kessaris N, Pringle N, Richardson WD (2008). Specification of CNS glia from neural stem cells in the embryonic neuroepithelium. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 363(1489), 71 - 85. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.2013
    • Rivers LE, Young KM, Rizzi M, Jamen F, Psachoulia K, Wade A, Kessaris N, Richardson WD (2008). PDGFRA/NG2 glia generate myelinating oligodendrocytes and piriform projection neurons in adult mice.. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 1392 - 1401. doi:10.1038/nn.2220
    • Zhou L, Bar I, Achouri Y, Campbell K, De Backer O, Hebert JM, Jones K, Kessaris N, Lambert de Rouvroit C, O'Leary D, Richardson WD, Goffinet AM, Tissir F (2008). Early forebrain wiring: genetic dissection using conditional Celsr3 mutant mice. Science, 320(5878), 946 - 949. doi:10.1126/science.1155244
    • Richardson WD (2008). Oligodendrocyte specification. In Squire LR (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (pp. - ). : Academic Press.
    • Pontecorvi M, Goding CR, Richardson WD, Kessaris N (2008). Expression of Tbx2 and Tbx3 in the developing hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Gene Expression Patterns, 8(6), 411 - 417. doi:10.1016/j.gep.2008.04.006
    • Müller SM, Stolt CC, Terszowski G, Blum C, Amagai T, Kessaris N, Iannarelli P, Richardson WD, Wegner M, Rodewald H-R (2008). Neural crest origin of perivascular mesenchyme in the adult thymus. The Journal of Immunology, 180(8), 5344 - 5351.
    • Li HL, Richardson WD (2008). The evolution of Olig genes and their roles in myelination. NEURON GLIA BIOL, 4, 129 - 135. doi:10.1017/S1740925X0999025
    • Anselmi F, Hernandez H, Crispino G, Seydel A, Ortolano S, Roper SD, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Rickheit G, Filippov M, Monyer H, Mammano F (2008). ATP release through connexin hemichannels and gap junction transfer of second messengers propagate Ca2+ signals across the inner ear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(48), 18770 - 18775. doi:10.1073/pnas.0800793105


    • Li HL, Lu Y, Smith HK, Richardson WD (2007). Olig1 and Sox10 interact synergistically to drive Myelin Basic Protein transcription in oligodendrocytes. J NEUROSCI, 27(52), 14375 - 14382. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4456-07.2007
    • Del Barrio MG, Taveira-Marques R, Muruyama Y, Yuk DI, Li S, Wines-Samuelson M, Shen J, Smith HK, Xiang M, Rowitch D, Richardson WD (2007). A gene network involving Foxn4, Mash1 and Delta-like 4/Notch-1 specifies V2a and V2b spinal interneurons from a common progenitor pool. Development, 134, 3427 - 3436. doi:10.1242/dev.005868
    • Del Barrio MG, Taveira-Marques R, Smith HK, Richardson WD, Muroyama Y, Yuk D-I, Rowitch D, Li S, Xiang M, Wines-Samuelson M, Shen J (2007). A regulatory network involving Foxn4, Mash1 and delta-like 4/Notch1 generates V2a and V2b spinal interneurons from a common progenitor pool. Development, 134(19), 3427 - 3436. doi:10.1242/dev.005868
    • Young K, Fogarty M, Kessaris N, Richardson WD (2007). Subventricular zone stem cells are heterogeneous with respect to their embryonic origins and neurogenic fates in the adult olfactory bulb. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 8286 - 8296. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0476-07.2007
    • Billon N, Iannarelli P, Monteiro MC, Glavieux-Pardanaud C, Richardson WD, Kessaris N, Dani C, Dupin E (2007). The generation of adipocytes by the neural crest.. Development, 134, 2283 - 2292.
    • Costa MR, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Götz M, Hedin-Pereira C (2007). The marginal zone/layer I as a novel niche for neurogenesis and gliogenesis in developing cerebral cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(42), 11376 - 11388. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2418-07.2007


    • Kazakova N, Li H, Mora A, Jessen K, Mirsky R, Richardson WD, Smith HK (2006). A screen for mutations in zebrafish that affect myelin gene expression in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. Developmental Biology, 297, 1 - 13. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.03.020
    • Stolt CC, Schlierf A, Lommes P, Hillgärtner S, Werner T, Kosian T, Sock E, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Lefebvre VW, M (2006). SoxD proteins influence multiple stages of oligodendrocyte development and modulate SoxE protein function.. Developmental Cell, 11, 697 - 709.
    • Richardson WD, Kessaris N, Pringle NP (2006). Oligodendrocyte Wars.. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 11 - 18.
    • Kessaris N, Fogarty M, Iannarelli P, Grist M, Wegner M, Richardson WD (2006). Competing waves of oligodendrocytes in the forebrain and postnatal elimination of an embryonic lineage.. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 173 - 179. doi:10.1038/nn1620


    • Fogarty M, Richardson WD, Tekki-Kessaris N (2005). A subset of oligodendrocytes generated from radial glia in the dorsal spinal cord.. Development, 132, 1951 - 1959. doi:10.1242/dev.01777
    • Matsuoka T, Ahlberg PE, Kessaris N, Iannarelli P, Dennehy U, Richardson WD, McMahon AP, Koentges G (2005). Neural crest origins of the neck and shoulder.. Nature, 436, 347 - 355.
    • West H, Richardson WD, Fruttiger MA (2005). Stabilization of the retinal vascular network by reciprocal feedback between blood vessels and astrocytes.. Development, 132, 1855 - 1862. doi:10.1242/dev.01732


    • Ivanova A, Agochiya M, Amoyel M, Richardson WD (2004). Receptor tyrosine kinase zeta/beta in astrocyte progenitors in the developing chick spinal cord. Gene Expression Patterns, 4, 161 - 166.
    • Billon N, Terrinoni A, Jolicoeur C, McCarthy A, Richardson WD, Melino G, Raff M (2004). Roles for p53 and p73 during oligodendrocyte development.. Development, 131, 1211 - 1220.
    • Woodruff RF, Fruttiger M, Richardson WD, Franklin RJM (2004). Platelet-derived growth factor regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor numbers in adult CNS and their response following CNS demyelination. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 25, 252 - 262.
    • Kessaris N, Jamen F, Rubin LL, Richardson WD (2004). Cooperation between Sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor/MAPK signalling pathways in neocortical precursors. Development, 131, 1289 - 1298. doi:10.1242/dev.01027
    • Perry P, Sauer S, Billon N, Richardson WD, Spivakov M, Warnes G, Livesey FJ, Merkenschlager M, Fisher AG, Azuara V (2004). A dynamic switch in the replication timing of key regulator genes in embryonic stem cells upon neural induction. CELL CYCLE, 3(12), 1645 - 1650.


    • Pringle NP, Yu WP, Howell M, Colvin JS, Ornitz DM, Richardson WD (2003). FGFR3 expression by astrocytes and their precursors: evidence that astrocytes and oligodendrocytes originate in separate neuroepithelial domains. Development, 130, 93 - 102. doi:10.1242/dev.00184


    • Fu H, Qi Y, Tan M, Cai J, Takebayashi H, Nakafuku M, Richardson WD, Qiu M (2002). Dual origin of spinal oligodendrocyte progenitors and evidence for the cooperative role of Olig2 and Nkx2.2 in the control of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Development, 129, 681 - 693.
    • Rowitch DH, Lu QR, Kessaris N, Richardson WD (2002). An 'oligarchy' rules neural development. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 417 - 422.


    • Kessaris N, Pringle N, Richardson WD (2001). Ventral neurogenesis and the neuron-glial switch. Neuron, 31, 677 - 680.
    • Richardson WD (2001). Oligodendrocyte development. In K R Jessen WDR (Ed.), Glial Cell Development (pp. 21 - 54). : Oxford University Press.
    • van Heyningen P, Calver AR, Richardson WD (2001). Control of progenitor cell number by mitogen supply and demand. Current Biology, 11, 232 - 241. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00075-6
    • Tekki-Kessaris N, Woodruff R, Hall AC, Gaffield W K, S S, C D R, D H R, W D (2001). Hedgehog-dependent oligodendrocyte lineage specification in the telencephalon. Development, 128, 2545 - 2554.
    • Woodruff RH, Tekki-Kessaris N, Stiles CD, Rowitch DH, Richardson WD (2001). Oligodendrocyte development in the spinal cord and telencephalon: common themes and new perspectives. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 19, 379 - 385.


    • Fruttiger M, Calver AR, Richardson WD (2000). Platelet-derived growth factor is constitutively secreted from neuronal cell bodies but not from axons.. Curr Biol, 10(20), 1283 - 1286.
    • Sun T, Jayatilake D, Afink GB, Ataliotis P, Nistér M, Richardson WD, Smith HK (2000). A human YAC transgene rescues craniofacial and neural tube development in PDGFRa knockout mice and uncovers a role for PDGFRa in prenatal lung growth. Development, 127, 4519 - 4529.
    • Richardson WD, Smith HK, Sun T, Pringle NP, Hall A, Woodruff R (2000). Oligodendrocyte lineage and the motor neuron connection. Glia, 29, 136 - 142.
    • Fruttiger M, Calver AR, Richardson WD (2000). Platelet-derived growth factor is constitutively secreted from neuronal cell bodies but not from axons. Current Biology, 10(20), 1283 - 1286.


    • Fruttiger M, Karlsson L, Hall AC, Abramsson A, Calver AR, Bostrom H, Willetts K, Bertold C, Heath JK, Betsholtz C, Richardson WD (1999). Defective oligodendrocyte development and severe hypomyelination in PDGF-A knockout mice. Development, 126, 457 - 467.


    • Pringle NP, Guthrie S, Lumsden A, Richardson WD (1998). Dorsal spinal cord neuroepithelium generates astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes. Neuron, 20, 883 - 893.
    • Calver AR, Hall AC, Yu W, Walsh FS, Heath JK, Betsholtz C, Richardson WD (1998). Oligodendrocyte population dynamics and the role of PDGF in vivo. Neuron, 20, 869 - 882.
    • Sun T, Pringle NP, Hardy A, Richardson WD, Smith HK (1998). Pax6 influences the time and site of origin of glial precursors in the ventral neural tube. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 12, 228 - 239.


    • Pringle NP, Nadon NL, Rhode D, Richardson WD, Duncan ID (1997). Normal temporal and spatial distribution of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the myelin-deficient (md) rat. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 47, 264 - 270.
    • Richardson WD, Pringle NP, Yu WP, Hall AC (1997). Origins of spinal cord oligodendrocytes: possible developmental and evolutionary relationships with motor neurons. Developmental Neuroscience, 19, 54 - 64.


    • Hall A, Giese NA, Richardson WD (1996). Spinal cord oligodendrocytes develop from ventrally derived progenitor cells that express PDGF alpha-receptors.. Development, 122(12), 4085 - 4094.
    • Fruttiger M, Calver AR, Krüger WH, Mudhar HS, Michalovich D, Takakura N, Nishikawa S, Richardson WD (1996). PDGF mediates a neuron-astrocyte interaction in the developing retina.. Neuron, 17(6), 1117 - 1131.
    • Pringle NP, Yu WP, Guthrie S, Roelink H, Lumsden A, Peterson AC, Richardson WD (1996). Determination of neuroepithelial cell fate: induction of the oligodendrocyte lineage by ventral midline cells and sonic hedgehog.. Dev Biol, 177(1), 30 - 42. doi:10.1006/dbio.1996.0142


    • Yu WP, Collarini EJ, Pringle NP, Richardson WD (1994). Embryonic expression of myelin genes: evidence for a focal source of oligodendrocyte precursors in the ventricular zone of the neural tube.. Neuron, 12(6), 1353 - 1362.


    • Mudhar HS, Pollock RA, Wang C, Stiles CD, Richardson WD (1993). PDGF and its receptors in the developing rodent retina and optic nerve.. Development, 118(2), 539 - 552.
    • Pringle NP, Richardson WD (1993). A singularity of PDGF alpha-receptor expression in the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube may define the origin of the oligodendrocyte lineage.. Development, 117(2), 525 - 533.
    • Ninkina NN, Wood JN, Stevens GEM, Richardson WD (1993). A novel Brn3-like POU transcription factor expressed in subsets of rat sensory and spinal cord neurons. Nucleic Acids Research, 21(14), 3175 - 3182.


    • Collarini EJ, Kuhn R, Marshall CJ, Monuki ES, Lemke G, Richardson WD (1992). Down-regulation of the POU transcription factor SCIP is an early event in oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro.. Development, 116(1), 193 - 200.
    • Pringle NP, Mudhar HS, Collarini EJ, Richardson WD (1992). PDGF receptors in the rat CNS: during late neurogenesis, PDGF alpha-receptor expression appears to be restricted to glial cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage.. Development, 115(2), 535 - 551.
    • Hart IK, Richardson WD, Raff MC (1992). PDGF increases the expression of Fos and Jun in newly formed oligodendrocytes that have become resistant to the mitogenic effect of PDGF.. Glia, 6(4), 310 - 313. doi:10.1002/glia.440060409
    • Pollock RA, Richardson WD (1992). The alternative-splice isoforms of the PDGF A-chain differ in their ability to associate with the extracellular matrix and to bind heparin in vitro.. Growth Factors, 7(4), 267 - 277.


    • Pringle N, Collarini EJ, Hart IK, Raff MC, Richardson WD (1991). Platelet-derived growth factor in central nervous system gliogenesis.. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 633, 160 - 168.
    • Collarini EJ, Pringle N, Mudhar H, Stevens G, Kuhn R, Monuki ES, Lemke G, Richardson WD (1991). Growth factors and transcription factors in oligodendrocyte development.. J Cell Sci Suppl, 15, 117 - 123.


    • Eccleston PA, Collarini EJ, Jessen KR, Mirsky R, Richardson WD (1990). Schwann Cells Secrete a PDGF-like Factor: Evidence for an Autocrine Growth Mechanism involving PDGF.. Eur J Neurosci, 2(11), 985 - 992.
    • Raff MC, Hart IK, Richardson WD, Lillien LE (1990). An analysis of the cell-cell interactions that control the proliferation and differentiation of a bipotential glial progenitor cell in culture.. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 55, 235 - 238.


    • Pringle N, Collarini EJ, Mosley MJ, Heldin CH, Westermark B, Richardson WD (1989). PDGF A chain homodimers drive proliferation of bipotential (O-2A) glial progenitor cells in the developing rat optic nerve.. EMBO J, 8(4), 1049 - 1056.
    • Hart IK, Richardson WD, Bolsover SR, Raff MC (1989). PDGF and intracellular signaling in the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation.. J Cell Biol, 109(6 Pt 2), 3411 - 3417.
    • Hart IK, Richardson WD, Heldin CH, Westermark B, Raff MC (1989). PDGF receptors on cells of the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) cell lineage.. Development, 105(3), 595 - 603.
    • Hart IK, Richardson WD, Bolsover SR, Raff MC (1989). PDGF and intracellular signaling in the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Journal of Cell Biology, 109(6 II), 3411 - 3417. doi:10.1083/jcb.109.6.3411


    • Richardson WD, Pringle N, Mosley MJ, Westermark B, Dubois-Dalcg M (1988). A role for platelet-derived growth factor in normal gliogenesis in the central nervous system. Cell, 53(2), 309 - 319. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90392-3
    • Richardson WD, Mills AD, Dilworth SM, Laskey RA, Dingwall C (1988). Nuclear protein migration involves two steps: rapid binding at the nuclear envelope followed by slower translocation through nuclear pores.. Cell, 52(5), 655 - 664.
    • Richardson WD (1988). Introducing proteins into cultured animal cells.. J Cell Sci, 91 ( Pt 3), 319 - 322.
    • Raff MC, Lillien LE, Richardson WD, Burne JF, Noble MD (1988). Platelet-derived growth factor from astrocytes drives the clock that times oligodendrocyte development in culture.. Nature, 333(6173), 562 - 565. doi:10.1038/333562a0



    • Kalderon D, Roberts BL, Richardson WD, Smith AE (1984). A short amino acid sequence able to specify nuclear location. Cell, 39(3 PART 2), 499 - 509. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90457-4
    • Richardson WD, Westphal H (1984). Requirement for either early region 1a or early region 1b adenovirus gene products in the helper effect for adeno-associated virus. Journal of Virology, 51(2), 404 - 410.
    • Kalderon D, Richardson WD, Markham AF, Smith AE (1984). Sequence requirements for nuclear location of simian virus 40 large-T antigen. Nature, 311(5981), 33 - 38.