Prof Greg Towers


Personal Profile

Name: Greg Towers Email:
Title: Prof Tel: 020 3108 2112
Department: Div of Infection & Immunity Fax:
Position: Professor of Molecular Virology Address: Cruciform Building, 90 Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Global Health, Infection, Immunology & Inflammation, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

We are interested in how retroviruses interact with the host and how these interactions dictate species-specific replication. For example, HIV-1 replicates in humans, chimpanzees and possibly gorillas but not in other primates like African monkeys. The reason for species specificity is not entirely clear but depends to some degree on species-specific antiviral factors called restriction factors. Restriction factors are part of the innate immune system and specifically target viruses and protect the host. A better understanding of restriction factors promises to improve animal models for infection, identify targets for antiviral therapies, and further facilitate the use of viral vectors for clinical and investigative gene delivery. We work on two restriction factors. The tripartite motif protein TRIM5 blocks infection by coating incoming viruses and then recruiting them to the proteasome for destruction. Antiviral specificity is determined by the sequence of the C-terminal viral binding B30.2 domain. Remarkably, on 2 separate occasions during primate evolution the B30.2 domain has been replaced by a protein called cyclophilin A (CypA) to make so called TRIMCyp proteins. It appears that, like the B30.2 domain, CypA is an excellent lentiviral binding protein and its plasticity allows point mutants to switch binding specificity between different lineages of primate lentiviruses. We also work on a restriction factors called tetherin, which tethers newly formed virions to infected cells preventing their release. Viruses are obliged to antagonise tetherin and HIV-1 does this using its Vpu protein, which causes tetherin destruction. Some SIVs without a Vpu protein sequester tetherin using their envelope proteins. We are considering the mechanisms of TRIM5 and tetherin and whether they restrict other viruses such as herpes viruses. We would also like to know how lentiviruses like HIV-1 manage to avoid activating pattern recognition pathways despite infecting immune cells and how viral uncoating and nuclear entry relate to this these processes. Our work is influenced by Leigh Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis. In Lewis Carroll's "Through the Looking Glass" the Red Queen said to Alice "It takes all the running you can do to stay in the same place". This is likened to the arms race that exists between pathogens and their hosts. Continuous evolutionary change (running) is required on both sides to maintain the status quo. We have shown that analysis of positive selection and sequence change in hosts (tetherin and TRIMCyp) and in viral capsids reveals how change influences restriction and replication. Remarkably, point mutations in either virus or host can switch between restriction and successful replication indicating that the balance between immunity and disease is often delicate. Our work is funded by The Wellcome Trust the Medical Research Council and the National Institute of Health Research UCL/UCLH Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre.

Research Activities


Host factors influencing viral tropism and antiviral innate immunity

Innate Immunity

Retrovirus in gene therapy and xenotransplantation

Transcription and chromatin

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof Benny Chain; Prof Peter Coveney; Prof Amanda Mocroft; Dr Richard Jenner; Prof Nigel Klein; Prof Mary Collins; Prof Mike Ehrenstein; Prof Andrew Phillips; Dr Mahdad Noursadeghi; Prof Deenan Pillay; Dr Yasu Takeuchi; Prof Chris Boshoff; Prof David Katz

External Collaborators



    • Ferguson D, Mattiuzzo G, Ham C, Stebbings R, Li B, Rose NJ, Mee ET, Smith D, Page M, Cranage MP, Almond N, Towers GJ, Berry NJ (2014). Early Biodistribution and Persistence of a Protective Live Attenuated SIV Vaccine Elicits Localised Innate Responses in Multiple Lymphoid Tissues.. PLoS One, 9(8), e104390 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104390
    • Towers GJ (2014). HIV-1 Capsid controls tropism through evasion of innate sensors.
    • Chan E, Towers GJ, Qasim W (2014). Gene Therapy Strategies to Exploit TRIM Derived Restriction Factors against HIV-1.. Viruses, 6(1), 243 - 263. doi:10.3390/v6010243
    • Hilditch L, Towers GJ (2014). A model for cofactor use during HIV-1 reverse transcription and nuclear entry.. Curr Opin Virol, 4C, 32 - 36. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2013.11.003
    • Mlcochova P, Watters SA, Towers GJ, Noursadeghi M, Gupta RK (2014). Vpx complementation of 'non-macrophage tropic' R5 viruses reveals robust entry of infectious HIV-1 cores into macrophages.. Retrovirology, 11(1), 25 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-11-25
    • Towers GJ, Noursadeghi M (2014). Interactions between HIV-1 and the Cell-Autonomous Innate Immune System.. Cell Host Microbe, 16(1), 10 - 18. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2014.06.009
    • Guiliano DB, Fussell H, Lenart I, Tsao E, Nesbeth DN, Fletcher AJ, Campbell EC, Yousaf N, Williams S, Santos S, Cameron A, Towers GJ, Kellam P, Hebert DN, Gould K, Powis SJ, Antoniou AN (2014). EDEM1 targets misfolded HLA-B27 dimers for endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation. , , - .


    • Kløverpris HN, Payne RP, Sacha JB, Rasaiyaah JT, Chen F, Takiguchi M, Yang OO, Towers GJ, Goulder P, Prado JG (2013). Early antigen presentation of protective HIV-1 KF11Gag and KK10Gag epitopes from incoming viral particles facilitates rapid recognition of infected cells by specific CD8+ T cells.. J Virol, 87(5), 2628 - 2638. doi:10.1128/JVI.02131-12
    • Mattiuzzo G, Rose NJ, Almond N, Towers GJ, Berry N (2013). Upregulation of TRIM5 alpha gene expression after live-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccination in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, but TRIM5 alpha genotype has no impact on virus acquisition or vaccination outcome. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 94, 606 - 611. doi:10.1099/vir.0.047795-0
    • Di Pietro A, Kajaste-Rudnitski A, Oteiza A, Nicora L, Towers GJ, Mechti N, Vicenzi E (2013). TRIM22 Inhibits Influenza A Virus Infection by Targeting the Viral Nucleoprotein for Degradation. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 87(8), 4523 - 4533. doi:10.1128/JVI.02548-12
    • Fletcher AJ, Towers GJ (2013). Inhibition of Retroviral Replication by Members of the TRIM Protein Family.. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 371, 29 - 66. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-37765-5_2
    • Bichel K, Price AJ, Schaller T, Towers GJ, Freund SMV, James LC (2013). HIV-1 capsid undergoes coupled binding and isomerization by the nuclear pore protein NUP358. RETROVIROLOGY, 10, - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-10-81
    • Rehwinkel J, Maelfait J, Bridgeman A, Rigby R, Hayward B, Liberatore RA, Bieniasz PD, Towers GJ, Moita LF, Crow YJ, Bonthron DT, Reis e Sousa C (2013). SAMHD1-dependent retroviral control and escape in mice. EMBO JOURNAL, 32(18), 2454 - 2462. doi:10.1038/emboj.2013.163
    • Kloverpris HN, Stryhn A, Harndahl M, Payne R, Towers GJ, Chen F, Riddell L, Walker BD, Ndung'u T, Leslie A, Buus S, Goulder P (2013). HLA-Specific Intracellular Epitope Processing Shapes an Immunodominance Pattern for HLA-B*57 That Is Distinct from HLA-B*58:01. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 87(19), 10889 - 10894. doi:10.1128/JVI.01122-13
    • Rasaiyaah J, Tan CP, Fletcher AJ, Price AJ, Blondeau C, Hilditch L, Jacques DA, Selwood DL, James LC, Noursadeghi M, Towers GJ (2013). HIV-1 evades innate immune recognition through specific cofactor recruitment.. Nature, , - . doi:10.1038/nature12769
    • Chan E, Mussolino C, Thrasher A, Cathomen T, Towers G, Qasim W (2013). Mimicry of anti-HIV retrotransposition events by TALEN mediated Cyclophilin insertion into the human TRIM5 locus.
    • Blondeau C, Pelchen-Matthews A, Mlcochova P, Marsh M, Milne RS, Towers GJ (2013). Tetherin Restricts Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and is Antagonised by Glycoprotein M.. J Virol, , - . doi:10.1128/JVI.02250-13


    • Tomlinson GS, Booth H, Petit SJ, Potton E, Towers GJ, Miller RF, Chain BM, Noursadesghi M (2012). Adherent human alveolar macrophages exhibit a transient pro-inflammatory profile that confounds responses to innate immune stimulation. PLoS One, 7, - .
    • Jauregui P, Crespo H, Glaria I, Lujan L, Contreras A, Rosati S, de Andres D, Amorena B, Towers GJ, Reina R (2012). Ovine TRIM5 alpha Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 86(17), 9504 - 9509. doi:10.1128/JVI.00440-12
    • Price AJ, Fletcher AJ, Schaller T, Elliott T, Lee K, Kewalramani VN, Chin JW, Towers GJ, James LC (2012). CPSF6 Defines a Conserved Capsid Interface that Modulates HIV-1 Replication. PLoS Pathog, 8(8), e1002896 - . doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002896
    • Berry NJ, Marzetta F, Towers GJ, Rose NJ (2012). Diversity of TRIM5 alpha and TRIMCyp sequences in cynomolgus macaques from different geographical origins. IMMUNOGENETICS, 64(4), 267 - 278. doi:10.1007/s00251-011-0585-x
    • Caines MEC, Bichel K, Price AJ, McEwan WA, Towers GJ, Willett BJ, Freund SMV, James LC (2012). Diverse HIV viruses are targeted by a conformationally dynamic antiviral. NATURE STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 19(4), 411 - 416. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2253
    • Kloverpris HN, Payne R, Sacha JB, Chen F, Rasaiyaah J, Towers G, Goulder P, Prado JG (2012). Early presentation of HIV-1 KF11Gag and KK10Gag protective epitopes facilitate rapid CD8+T cell activation and killing of virus infected cells. RETROVIROLOGY, 9, - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-9-S2-P255
    • Hughes R, Towers G, Noursadeghi M (2012). Innate immune interferon responses to human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.. Rev Med Virol, 22(4), 257 - 266. doi:10.1002/rmv.1708
    • Chan E, Schaller T, Tan CP, Thrasher AJ, Towers GJ, Qasim W (2012). Lentiviral Gene Therapy Against HIV-1 Using a Novel TRIM21-Cyclophilin A Fusion Restriction Factor.
    • Chan E, Schaller T, Eddaoudi A, Zhan H, Tan CP, Jacobsen M, Thrasher AJ, Towers GJ, Qasim W (2012). Lentiviral Gene Therapy Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, Using a Novel Human TRIM21-Cyclophilin A Restriction Factor. HUMAN GENE THERAPY, 23(11), 1176 - 1185. doi:10.1089/hum.2012.083


    • Chan E, Schaller T, Thrasher A, Towers G, Qasim W (2011). Lentivirus mediated protection against HIV-1 using a human TRIM21-Cyclophilin A fusion protein. HUM GENE THER, 22(10), A68 - A68.
    • Berry N, Ham C, Mee ET, Rose NJ, Mattiuzzo G, Jenkins A, Page M, Elsley W, Robinson M, Smith D, Ferguson D, Towers G, Almond N, Stebbings R (2011). Early potent protection against heterologous SIVsmE660 challenge following live attenuated SIV vaccination in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. PLoS One, 6(8), e23092 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023092
    • Petit SJ, Blondeau C, Towers GJ (2011). Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 M group Vpu domains involved in antagonizing tetherin.. J Gen Virol, 92(Pt 12), 2937 - 2948. doi:10.1099/vir.0.035931-0
    • Schaller T, Ocwieja KE, Rasaiyaah J, Price AJ, Brady TL, Roth SL, Hué S, Fletcher AJ, Lee K, KewalRamani VN, Noursadeghi M, Jenner RG, James LC, Bushman FD, Towers GJ (2011). HIV-1 capsid-cyclophilin interactions determine nuclear import pathway, integration targeting and replication efficiency.. PLoS Pathog, 7(12), e1002439 - . doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002439
    • Dietrich I, McMonagle EL, Petit SJ, Vijayakrishnan S, Logan N, Chan CN, Towers GJ, Hosie MJ, Willett BJ (2011). Feline tetherin efficiently restricts release of feline immunodeficiency virus but not spreading of infection.. J Virol, 85(12), 5840 - 5852. doi:10.1128/JVI.00071-11
    • Ocwieja KE, Brady TL, Ronen K, Huegel A, Roth SL, Schaller T, James LC, Towers GJ, Young JAT, Chanda SK, Konig R, Malani N, Berry CC, Bushman FD (2011). HIV Integration Targeting: A Pathway Involving Transportin-3 and the Nuclear Pore Protein RanBP2. PLOS PATHOG, 7(3), - . doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001313
    • McCormick AL, Parry CM, Crombe A, Goodall RL, Gupta RK, Kaleebu P, Kityo C, Chirara M, Towers GJ, Pillay D (2011). Impact of the N348I mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase on nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance in non-subtype B HIV-1.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 55(4), 1806 - 1809. doi:10.1128/AAC.01197-10
    • Garson JA, Kellam P, Towers GJ (2011). Analysis of XMRV integration sites from human prostate cancer tissues suggests PCR contamination rather than genuine human infection.. Retrovirology, 8, 13 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-8-13
    • Gray ER, Garson JA, Breuer J, Edwards S, Kellam P, Pillay D, Towers GJ (2011). No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a London HIV-1-positive patient cohort.. PLoS One, 6(3), e18096 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018096
    • Sauter D, Hué S, Petit SJ, Plantier JC, Towers GJ, Kirchhoff F, Gupta RK (2011). HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef.. Retrovirology, 8, 103 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-8-103
    • Katzourakis A, Hué S, Kellam P, Towers GJ (2011). Phylogenetic analysis of murine leukemia virus sequences from longitudinally sampled chronic fatigue syndrome patients suggests PCR contamination rather than viral evolution.. J Virol, 85(20), 10909 - 10913. doi:10.1128/JVI.00827-11
    • Sakuma T, Hué S, Squillace KA, Tonne JM, Blackburn PR, Ohmine S, Thatava T, Towers GJ, Ikeda Y (2011). No evidence of XMRV in prostate cancer cohorts in the Midwestern United States.. Retrovirology, 8, 23 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-8-23


    • Gupta RK, Kohli A, McCormick AL, Towers GJ, Pillay D, Parry CM (2010). Full-length HIV-1 Gag determines protease inhibitor susceptibility within in-vitro assays. AIDS, 24(11), 1651 - 1655. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283398216
    • Ylinen LM, Price AJ, Rasaiyaah J, Hué S, Rose NJ, Marzetta F, James LC, Towers GJ (2010). Conformational adaptation of Asian macaque TRIMCyp directs lineage specific antiviral activity.. PLoS Pathog, 6(8), e1001062 - . doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001062
    • Mallery DL, McEwan WA, Bidgood SR, Towers GJ, Johnson CM, James LC (2010). Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21). P NATL ACAD SCI USA, 107(46), 19985 - 19990. doi:10.1073/pnas.1014074107
    • Borrow P, Shattock RJ, Vyakarnam A (2010). Innate immunity against HIV: a priority target for HIV prevention research. Retrovirology, 7, 84 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-7-84
    • Pardieu C, Vigan R, Wilson SJ, Calvi A, Zang T, Bieniasz P, Kellam P, Towers GJ, Neil SJ (2010). The RING-CH ligase K5 antagonizes restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 particle release by mediating ubiquitin-dependent endosomal degradation of tetherin.. PLoS Pathog, 6(4), e1000843 - . doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000843
    • Fletcher AJ, Hué S, Schaller T, Pillay D, Towers GJ (2010). Hare TRIM5α restricts divergent retroviruses and exhibits significant sequence variation from closely related lagomorpha TRIM5 genes.. J Virol, 84(23), 12463 - 12468. doi:10.1128/JVI.01514-10
    • Hué S, Gray ER, Gall A, Katzourakis A, Tan CP, Houldcroft CJ, McLaren S, Pillay D, Futreal A, Garson JA, Pybus OG, Kellam P, Towers GJ (2010). Disease-associated XMRV sequences are consistent with laboratory contamination.. Retrovirology, 7(1), 111 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-7-111
    • Gupta RK, Kohli A, McCormick A, Towers G, Pillay D, Parry CM (2010). Full-length HIV-1 gag determines protease inhibitor susceptibility within in vitro assays.
    • Gupta RK, Kohli A, McCormick A, Towers G, Pillay D, Parry CM (2010). Full-length HIV-1 gag determines protease inhibitor susceptibility within in vitro assays.
    • Chan E, Schaller T, Klein N, Thrasher A, Towers G, Qasim W (2010). Lentiviral Delivery of TRIM-Cyclophilin Restriction Factors Against HIV-1.
    • Qasim W, Chan E, Schaller T, Thrasher A, Towers G (2010). Lentiviral mediated restriction of HIV by TRIM-Cyclophilin fusion proteins.
    • Gupta RK, Towers GJ (2010). Ultra Structural Characterisation of Tetherin - a Protein Capable of Preventing Viral Release from the Plasma Membrane. VIRUSES-BASEL, 2(4), 987 - 994. doi:10.3390/v2040987


    • Gupta RK, Towers GJ (2009). A tail of Tetherin: how pandemic HIV-1 conquered the world.. Cell Host Microbe, 6(5), 393 - 395. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2009.11.002
    • Gupta RK, Mlcochova P, Pelchen-Matthews A, Petit SJ, Mattiuzzo G, Pillay D, Takeuchi Y, Marsh M, Towers GJ (2009). Simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein counteracts tetherin/BST-2/CD317 by intracellular sequestration.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(49), 20889 - 20894. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907075106
    • Ylinen LM, Schaller T, Price A, Fletcher AJ, Noursadeghi M, James LC, Towers GJ (2009). Cyclophilin A levels dictate infection efficiency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid Escape Mutants A92E and G94D. Journal of Virology, 83, 2044 - 2047.
    • Wood A, Webb BL, Bartosch B, Schaller T, Takeuchi Y, Towers GJ (2009). Porcine endogenous retroviruses PERV A and A/C recombinant are insensitive to a range of divergent mammalian TRIM5alpha proteins including human TRIM5alpha.. Journal of General Virology, 90, 702 - 709.
    • Gupta KR, Hue S, Schaller T, Verschoor E, Pillay D, Towers GJ (2009). Mutation of a single residue renders human tetherin resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-mediated depletion.. PloS Pathogens, 5(e1000443), - .
    • Galla M, Schambach A, Grassman E, Towers G, Baum C (2009). Retroviral Particle Mediated mRNA Transfer: New Insights into Underlying Mechanisms.
    • McEwan W, Schaller T, Ylinen LM, Hosie MJ, Towers GJ, Willet BJ (2009). Truncation of TRIM5 in Feliformia explains the absence of retroviral restriction in cells of the domestic cat.. Journal of Virology, 83, 8270 - 8275.
    • Price AJ, Marzetta F, Lammers M, Ylinen LM, Schaller T, Wilson S, J T, G J J, L C (2009). Active site remodelling switches HIV specificity of antiretroviral TRIMCyp.. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, 16(10), 1036 - 1042.
    • Keckesova Z, Ylinen LM, Towers GJ, Gifford RJ, Katzourakis A (2009). Identification of a RELIK orthologue in the European hare (Lepus europaeus) reveals a minimum age of 12 million years for the lagomorph lentiviruses.. Virology, 384, 7 - 11.
    • Parry CM, Kohli A, Boinett CJ, Towers GJ, McCormick AL, Pillay D (2009). Gag determinants of fitness and drug susceptibility in protease inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Journal of Virology, 83(18), 9094 - 9101. doi:10.1128/JVI.02356-08
    • Tsang J, Chain BM, Miller RF, Webb BL, Barclay W, Towers GJ, Katz DR, Noursadeghi M (2009). HIV-1 infection of macrophages is dependent on evasion of innate immune cellular activation. AIDS, 23(17), 2255 - 2263. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328331a4ce


    • Wilson SJ, Webb BL, Ylinen LM, Verschoor E, Heeney JL, Towers GJ (2008). Independent evolution of an antiviral TRIMCyp in rhesus macaques.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(9), 3557 - 3562. doi:10.1073/pnas.0709003105
    • Galla M, Schambach A, Towers GJ, Baum C (2008). Cellular restriction of retroviral particle mediated mRNA transfer. Journal of Virology, 82, 3069 - 3077.
    • Wilson SJ, Webb BL, Maplanka C, Newman RM, Verschoor EJ, Heeney JL, Towers GJ (2008). Rhesus macaque TRIM5 alleles have divergent antiretroviral specificities. Journal of Virology, 82, 7243 - 7247.
    • Huthoff H, Towers GJ (2008). Restriction of retroviral replication by APOBEC3G/F and TRIM5alpha. Trends in Microbiology, 16(12), 612 - 619.


    • Schaller T, Hué S, Towers GJ (2007). An active TRIM5 protein in rabbits indicates a common antiviral ancestor for mammalian TRIM5 proteins.. J Virol, 81(21), 11713 - 11721. doi:10.1128/JVI.01468-07
    • Towers GJ (2007). The control of viral infection by tripartite motif proteins and cyclophilin A. Retrovirology, 4, 40 - .
    • Schaller T, Ylinen LM, Webb BL, Singh S, Towers GJ (2007). Fusion of cyclophilin A to Fv1 enables cyclosporine-sensitive restriction of human and feline immunodeficiency viruses. Journal of Virology, 81, 10055 - 10063.
    • Pion M, Stalder R, Correa R, Mangeat B, Towers GJ, Piguet V (2007). Identification of an arsenic sensitive block to primate lentiviral infection of human dendritic cells. Journal of Virology, 81, 12086 - 12090.
    • Piguet V, Pion M, Stalder RS, Correa R, Mangeat B, Towers G (2007). Identification of an arsenic sensitive block to primate lentiviral infection of human dendritic cells. JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY, 127, S74 - S74.


    • Towers GJ (2006). Restriction of retroviruses by TRIM5alpha. Future Virology, 1, 71 - 78.
    • Passerini LD, Keckesova Z, Towers GJ (2006). Retroviral transcription factors Fv1 and TRIM5alpha act independently and can compete for incoming virus before reverse transcription. Journal of Virology, 80, 2100 - 2105.
    • Ylinen LM, Keckesova Z, Webb BL, Gifford RJ, Smith TP, Towers GJ (2006). Isolation of an active Lv1 gene from cattle indicates that tripartite motif protein-mediated innate immunity to retroviral infection is widespread among mammals. Journal of Virology, 80, 7332 - 7338.
    • Keckesova Z, Ylinen LM, Towers GJ (2006). Cyclophilin A renders human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sensitive to Old World monkey but not human TRIM5 alpha antiviral activity.. J Virol, 80(10), 4683 - 4690. doi:10.1128/JVI.80.10.4683-4690.2006
    • Noser JA, Towers GJ, Sakuma R, Dumont JM, Collins MK, Ikeda Y (2006). Cyclosporine increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vector transduction of primary mouse cells. Journal of Virology, 80, 7769 - 7774.


    • Towers GJ (2005). Control of viral infectivity by tripartite motif proteins. Human Gene Therapy, 16, 1125 - 1132.
    • Eickholt BJ, Towers GJ, Ryves WJ, Eikel D, Adley K, Ylinen LM, Chadborn NH, Harwood AJ, Hau H, Williams RS (2005). Effects of valproic acid derivatives on inositol trisphosphate depletion, teratogenicity, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibition, and viral replication: a screening approach for new bipolar disorder drugs derived from the valproic acid core structure. Molecular Pharmacology, 67, 1426 - 1433.
    • Ylinen LM, Keckesova Z, Wilson SJ, Ranasinghe S, Towers GJ (2005). Differential restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac by TRIM5alpha alleles.. J Virol, 79(18), 11580 - 11587. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.18.11580-11587.2005


    • Ikeda Y, Ylinen LM, Kahar-Bador M, Towers GJ (2004). Influence of gag on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 species-specific tropism.. J Virol, 78(21), 11816 - 11822. doi:10.1128/JVI.78.21.11816-11822.2004
    • Kecksova Z, Ylinen LM, Towers GJ (2004). The human and African green monkey TRIM5alpha genes encode Ref1 and Lv1 retroviral restriction factor activities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(29), 10780 - 10785. doi:10.1073/pnas.0402474101


    • Hatziioannou T, Cowan S, Goff SP, Bieniasz PD, Towers GJ (2003). Restriction of multiple divergent retroviruses by Lv1 and Ref1. EMBO J, 22(3), 385 - 394.
    • Berthoux L, Towers GJ, Gurer C, Salomoni P, Pandolfi PP, Luban J (2003). As2O3 enhances retroviral reverse transcription and counteracts Ref1 antiviral activity. Journal of Virology, 77, 3167 - 3180.
    • Towers GJ, Goff SP (2003). Post entry restriction of retroviral infections. AIDS Review, 5, 156 - 164.
    • Besnier C, Ylinen L, Strange B, Lister A, Takeuchi Y, Goff SP, Towers G (2003). Characterization of murine leukaemia virus restriction in mammals. Journal of Virology, 77, 13403 - 13406.
    • Towers GJ, Hatziioannou T, Cowan S, Goff SP, Luban J, Bieniasz PD (2003). Cyclophilin modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to host restriction factors. Nature Medicine, 9(9), 1138 - 1143. doi:10.1038/nm910


    • Towers G, Collins MK, Takeuchi Y (2002). Abrogation of Ref1 restriction in human cells. Journal of Virology, 76(5), 2548 - 2550. doi:10.1128/jvi.76.5.2548-2550.2002
    • Besnier C, Takeuchi Y, Towers GJ (2002). Restriction of lentivirus in monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(18), 11920 - 11925. doi:10.1073/pnas.172384599


    • Bishop KN, Bock M, Towers G, Stoye JP (2001). Identification of the regions of Fv1 necessary for murine leukemia virus restriction. Journal of Virology, 75(11), 5182 - 5188.


    • Towers G, Bock M, Martin S, Takeuchi Y, Stoye JP, Danos O (2000). A conserved mechanism of retrovirus restriction in mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(22), 12295 - 12299.
    • Bock M, Bishop KN, Towers G, Stoye JP (2000). Use of a transient assay for studying the genetic determinants of Fv1 restriction. J Virol, 74(16), 7422 - 7430.



    • Best S, Le Tissier P, Towers G, Stoye JP (1996). Positional cloning of the mouse retrovirus restriction gene Fv1. Nature, 382(6594), 826 - 829. doi:10.1038/382826a0