Dr Marcus Fruttiger


Personal Profile

Name: Marcus Fruttiger Email: m.fruttiger@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Dr Tel: 0044 20 7608 6872
Department: Inst Ophthalmology - Cell Biology Fax: 0044 20 7608 6810
Position: Reader of Experimental Ophthalmology Address: 11-43 Bath Street, , London, EC1V 9EL
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Cardiometabolic Science, Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

Abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina is a pathological feature in numerous blinding diseases. It is therefore important to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control vascular growth in the retina. We combine human tissue analysis and murine model systems based on reverse genetics and transgenic approaches to study the role of specific genes in development and disease of the retinal vasculature. We are particularly interested in interactions between blood vessels and the non-vascular components of the retina such as glial cells, neurons and the retinal pigment epithelium which are known to play important roles in controlling vessel behaviour in the retina. Knowledge gained from such basic research will be an important foundation for the development of future therapeutic approaches aiming to cure vascular pathologies in the human retina.

Research Activities


Hugh Davson Professor of Biomedical Research

Signal Transduction in Vascular Endothelial Cells

eye development

eye pathology

retinal glia


vascular cells

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof John Greenwood; Dr Virginia Calder; Dr Patric Turowski; Prof Arne Akbar; Prof Karl Matter; Prof Maria Balda; Prof Stephen Moss

External Collaborators



    • Sewduth RN, Jaspard-Vinassa B, Peghaire C, Guillabert A, Franzl N, Larrieu-Lahargue F, Moreau C, Fruttiger M, Dufourcq P, Couffinhal T, Duplàa C (2014). The ubiquitin ligase PDZRN3 is required for vascular morphogenesis through Wnt/planar cell polarity signalling.. Nat Commun, 5, 4832 - . doi:10.1038/ncomms5832
    • Fruttiger M (2014). TGF beta signalling in the developing retinal vasculature. ANGIOGENESIS, 17(3), 715 - 715.
    • Ham A, Kim M, Kim JY, Brown KM, Fruttiger M, D'Agati VD, Lee HT (2014). Selective deletion of the endothelial sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor exacerbates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury.. Kidney Int, 85(4), 807 - 823. doi:10.1038/ki.2013.345
    • Steri V, Ellison TS, Gontarczyk AM, Weilbaecher K, Schneider JG, Edwards D, Fruttiger M, Hodivala-Dilke KM, Robinson SD (2014). Acute depletion of endothelial β3-integrin transiently inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice.. Circ Res, 114(1), 79 - 91. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.301591
    • Aboualaiwi WA, Muntean BS, Ratnam S, Joe B, Liu L, Booth RL, Rodriguez I, Herbert BS, Bacallao RL, Fruttiger M, Mak TW, Zhou J, Nauli SM (2014). Survivin-induced abnormal ploidy contributes to cystic kidney and aneurysm formation.. Circulation, 129(6), 660 - 672. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005746
    • Fan J, Ponferrada VG, Sato T, Vemaraju S, Fruttiger M, Gerhardt H, Ferrara N, Lang RA (2014). Crim1 maintains retinal vascular stability during development by regulating endothelial cell Vegfa autocrine signaling.. Development, 141(2), 448 - 459. doi:10.1242/dev.097949
    • Sim DA, Keane PA, Fung S, Karampelas M, Sadda SR, Fruttiger M, Patel PJ, Tufail A, Egan CA (2014). Quantitative analysis of diabetic macular ischemia using optical coherence tomography.. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(1), 417 - 423. doi:10.1167/iovs.13-12677
    • Scott A, Powner MB, Fruttiger M (2014). Quantification of vascular tortuosity as an early outcome measure in oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR).. Exp Eye Res, 120, 55 - 60. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2013.12.020
    • Powner MB, McKenzie JA, Christianson GJ, Roopenian DC, Fruttiger M (2014). Expression of neonatal Fc receptor in the eye.. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(3), 1607 - 1615. doi:10.1167/iovs.13-12574
    • Sim DA, Keane PA, Rajendram R, Karampelas M, Selvam S, Powner MB, Fruttiger M, Tufail A, Egan CA (2014). Patterns of peripheral retinal and central macula ischemia in diabetic retinopathy as evaluated by ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography.. Am J Ophthalmol, 158(1), 144 - 153.e1. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2014.03.009
    • Ito TK, Yokoyama M, Yoshida Y, Nojima A, Kassai H, Oishi K, Okada S, Kinoshita D, Kobayashi Y, Fruttiger M, Aiba A, Minamino T (2014). A crucial role for CDC42 in senescence-associated inflammation and atherosclerosis.. PLoS One, 9(7), e102186 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102186
    • Tual-Chalot S, Mahmoud M, Allinson KR, Redgrave RE, Zhai Z, Oh SP, Fruttiger M, Arthur HM (2014). Endothelial depletion of Acvrl1 in mice leads to arteriovenous malformations associated with reduced endoglin expression.. PLoS One, 9(6), e98646 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098646
    • Yokoyama M, Okada S, Nakagomi A, Moriya J, Shimizu I, Nojima A, Yoshida Y, Ichimiya H, Kamimura N, Kobayashi Y, Ohta S, Fruttiger M, Lozano G, Minamino T (2014). Inhibition of endothelial p53 improves metabolic abnormalities related to dietary obesity.. Cell Rep, 7(5), 1691 - 1703. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.04.046


    • Franco CA, Blanc J, Parlakian A, Blanco R, Aspalter IM, Kazakova N, Diguet N, Mylonas E, Gao-Li J, Vaahtokari A, Penard-Lacronique V, Fruttiger M, Rosewell I, Mericskay M, Gerhardt H, Li Z (2013). SRF selectively controls tip cell invasive behavior in angiogenesis.. Development, 140(11), 2321 - 2333. doi:10.1242/dev.091074
    • Powner MB, Gillies MC, Zhu M, Vevis K, Hunyor AP, Fruttiger M (2013). Loss of Müller's Cells and Photoreceptors in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2. Ophthalmology, , - .
    • Fantin A, Vieira JM, Plein A, Denti L, Fruttiger M, Pollard JW, Ruhrberg C (2013). NRP1 acts cell autonomously in endothelium to promote tip cell function during sprouting angiogenesis.. Blood, 121(12), 2352 - 2362. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-05-424713
    • Sim DA, Keane PA, Zarranz-Ventura J, Fung S, Powner MB, Platteau E, Bunce CV, Fruttiger M, Patel PJ, Tufail A, Egan CA (2013). The effects of macular ischemia on visual acuity in diabetic retinopathy.. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 54(3), 2353 - 2360. doi:10.1167/iovs.12-11103
    • Sim DA, Keane PA, Mehta H, Fung S, Zarranz-Ventura J, Fruttiger M, Patel PJ, Egan CA, Tufail A (2013). Repeatability and reproducibility of choroidal vessel layer measurements in diabetic retinopathy using enhanced depth optical coherence tomography.. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 54(4), 2893 - 2901. doi:10.1167/iovs.12-11085
    • Sim DA, Keane PA, Zarranz-Ventura J, Bunce CV, Patel PJ, Tufail A, Egan CA, Fruttiger M (2013). Predictive Factors for the Progression of Diabetic Macular Ischemia. American Journal of Ophthalmology, , - . doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2013.05.033
    • Tual-Chalot S, Allinson KR, Fruttiger M, Arthur HM (2013). Whole mount immunofluorescent staining of the neonatal mouse retina to investigate angiogenesis in vivo.. J Vis Exp, (77), e50546 - . doi:10.3791/50546
    • Jalilian EJ, McKen JM, Sim DS, Coffey PC, Fruttiger MF (2013). Isolating endothelial progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells. DIABETIC MEDICINE, 30, 66 - 66.
    • Sim D, Fruttiger M (2013). Keeping blood vessels out of sight.. Elife, 2, e00948 - . doi:10.7554/eLife.00948


    • Lange CA, Luhmann UF, Mowat FM, Georgiadis A, West EL, Abrahams S, Sayed H, Powner MB, Fruttiger M, Smith AJ, Sowden JC, Maxwell PH, Ali RR, Bainbridge JW (2012). Von Hippel-Lindau protein in the RPE is essential for normal ocular growth and vascular development.. Development, 139(13), 2340 - 2350. doi:10.1242/dev.070813
    • Fruttiger MA, Jadeja S (2012). Notch signaling in vascular development. In Abraham D, Handler C, Dashwood M, Coghlan G (Ed.), Translational vascular medicine (pp. 45 - 57). : Springer London. doi:10.1007/978-0-85729-920-8_4
    • Shen W, Fruttiger M, Zhu L, Chung SH, Barnett NL, Kirk JK, Lee S, Coorey NJ, Killingsworth M, Sherman LS, Gillies MC (2012). Conditional Müllercell ablation causes independent neuronal and vascular pathologies in a novel transgenic model.. J Neurosci, 32(45), 15715 - 15727. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2841-12.2012
    • Reis M, Czupalla CJ, Ziegler N, Devraj K, Zinke J, Seidel S, Heck R, Thom S, Macas J, Bockamp E, Fruttiger M, Taketo MM, Dimmeler S, Plate KH, Liebner S (2012). Endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibits glioma angiogenesis and normalizes tumor blood vessels by inducing PDGF-B expression.. J Exp Med, 209(9), 1611 - 1627. doi:10.1084/jem.20111580
    • Powner MB, Vevis K, McKenzie JAG, Gandhi P, Jadeja S, Fruttiger M (2012). Visualization of gene expression in whole mouse retina by in situ hybridization. NATURE PROTOCOLS, 7(6), 1086 - 1096. doi:10.1038/nprot.2012.050
    • Len AC, Powner MB, Zhu L, Hageman GS, Song X, Fruttiger M, Gillies MC (2012). Pilot application of iTRAQ to the retinal disease Macular Telangiectasia.. J Proteome Res, 11(2), 537 - 553. doi:10.1021/pr200889t
    • Allinson KR, Lee HS, Fruttiger M, McCarty JH, Arthur HM (2012). Endothelial expression of TGFβ type II receptor is required to maintain vascular integrity during postnatal development of the central nervous system.. PLoS One, 7(6), e39336 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039336
    • McKenzie JA, Fruttiger M, Abraham S, Lange CA, Stone J, Gandhi P, Wang X, Bainbridge J, Moss SE, Greenwood J (2012). Apelin is required for non-neovascular remodeling in the retina.. Am J Pathol, 180(1), 399 - 409. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.09.035


    • Powner MB, Scott A, Zhu M, Munro PM, Foss AJ, Hageman GS, Gillies MC, Fruttiger M (2011). Basement membrane changes in capillaries of the ageing human retina.. Br J Ophthalmol, 95(9), 1316 - 1322. doi:10.1136/bjo.2011.204222
    • Tammela T, Zarkada G, Nurmi H, Jakobsson L, Heinolainen K, Tvorogov D, Zheng W, Franco CA, Murtomäki A, Aranda E, Miura N, Ylä-Herttuala S, Fruttiger M, Mäkinen T, Eichmann A, Pollard JW, Gerhardt H, Alitalo K (2011). VEGFR-3 controls tip to stalk conversion at vessel fusion sites by reinforcing Notch signalling.. Nat Cell Biol, 13(10), 1202 - 1213. doi:10.1038/ncb2331


    • Scott A, Fruttiger M (2010). Oxygen-induced retinopathy: a model for vascular pathology in the retina.. Eye (Lond), 24(3), 416 - 421. doi:10.1038/eye.2009.306
    • D'Amico G, Robinson SD, Germain M, Reynolds LE, Thomas GJ, Elia G, Saunders G, Fruttiger M, Tybulewicz V, Mavria G, Hodivala-Dilke KM (2010). Endothelial-Rac1 is not required for tumor angiogenesis unless alphavbeta3-integrin is absent.. PLoS One, 5(3), e9766 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009766
    • Mahmoud M, Allinson KR, Zhai Z, Oakenfull R, Ghandi P, Adams RH, Fruttiger M, Arthur HM (2010). Pathogenesis of arteriovenous malformations in the absence of endoglin.. Circ Res, 106(8), 1425 - 1433. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.211037
    • Scott A, Powner MB, Gandhi P, Clarkin C, Gutmann DH, Johnson RS, Ferrara N, Fruttiger M (2010). Astrocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stabilizes vessels in the developing retinal vasculature.. PLoS One, 5(7), e11863 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011863
    • Powner MB, Gillies MC, Tretiach M, Scott A, Guymer RH, Hageman GS, Fruttiger M (2010). Perifoveal müller cell depletion in a case of macular telangiectasia type 2.. Ophthalmology, 117(12), 2407 - 2416. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.04.001
    • Kuhnert F, Mancuso MR, Shamloo A, Wang HT, Choksi V, Florek M, Su H, Fruttiger M, Young WL, Heilshorn SC, Kuo CJ (2010). Essential regulation of CNS angiogenesis by the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR124.. Science, 330(6006), 985 - 989. doi:10.1126/science.1196554
    • Tavora B, Batista S, Reynolds LE, Jadeja S, Robinson S, Kostourou V, Hart I, Fruttiger M, Parsons M, Hodivala-Dilke KM (2010). Endothelial FAK is required for tumour angiogenesis. EMBO MOL MED, 2(12), 516 - 528. doi:10.1002/emmm.201000106
    • Parmalee NL, Schubert C, Merriam JE, Allikmets K, Bird AC, Gillies MC, Peto T, Figueroa M, Friedlander M, Fruttiger M, Greenwood J, Moss SE, Smith LEH, Toomes C, Inglehearn CF, Allikmets R (2010). Analysis of candidate genes for macular telangiectasia type 2. MOL VIS, 16(289-90), 2718 - 2726.


    • Longbottom R, Fruttiger M, Douglas RH, Martinez-Barbera JP, Greenwood J, Moss SE (2009). Genetic ablation of retinal pigment epithelial cells reveals the adaptive response of the epithelium and impact on photoreceptors.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(44), 18728 - 18733. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902593106
    • Benedito R, Roca C, Sorensen I, Adams S, Gossler A, Fruttiger M, Adams RH (2009). The notch ligands Dll4 and Jagged1 have opposing effects on angiogenesis. Cell, 137(6), 1124 - 1135.
    • Arthur H, Allinson K, Mahmoud M, Zhai Z, Oakenfull R, Fruttiger M (2009). Endoglin deficiency leads to arteriovenous malformations during angiogenesis. doi:10.1016/j.mod.2009.06.508


    • Fruttiger MA (2008). VEGF gene regulation. In Ruhrberg C (Ed.), VEGF in development (pp. 30 - 39). : Springer New York. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-78632-2_3
    • Liebner S, Corada M, Bangsow T, Babbage J, Taddei A, Czupalla CJ, Reis M, Felici A, Wolburg H, Fruttiger M, von Melchner H, Plate KH, Gerhardt H, Dejana E (2008). W(n)over-tildet/beta-Catenin signalling controls development and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier.
    • Claxton S, Kostourou V, Jadeja S, Chambon P, Hodivala-Dilke K, Fruttiger M (2008). Efficient, inducible Cre-recombinase activation in vascular endothelium. Genesis., 46(2), 74 - 80.
    • Liebner S, Corada M, Bangsow T, Babbage J, Taddei A, Czupalla CJ, Reis M, Felici A, Wolburg H, Fruttiger M, Taketo MM, von Melchner H, Plate KH, Gerhardt H, Dejana E (2008). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling controls development of the blood-brain barrier. J.Cell Biol., 183(3), 409 - 417.


    • Fruttiger M (2007). Development of the retinal vasculature. Angiogenesis, 10(2), 77 - 88. doi:10.1007/s10456-007-9065-1
    • Fruttiger M (2007). Mechanisms of ocular angiogenesis.
    • Vana AC, Flint NC, Harwood NE, Le TQ, Fruttiger M, Armstrong RC (2007). Platelet-derived growth factor promotes repair of chronically demyelinated white matter. J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol., 66(11), 975 - 988.


    • Fruttiger M (2006). Development of the retinal vasculature.


    • Claxton S, Fruttiger MA (2005). Oxygen modifies artery differentiation and network morphogenesis in the retinal vasculature. Developmental dynamics, 233(3), 822 - 828. doi:10.1002/dvdy.20407
    • Fruttiger M (2005). Role of VEGF in diabetic retinopathy.
    • Fruttiger M (2005). Developmental versus Pathologic Retinal Neovascularization.
    • West H, Richardson WD, Fruttiger MA (2005). Stabilization of the retinal vascular network by reciprocal feedback between blood vessels and astrocytes.. Development, 132, 1855 - 1862. doi:10.1242/dev.01732
    • Hurskainen M, Eklund L, Hagg PO, Fruttiger M, Sormunen R, Ilves M, Pihlajaniemi T (2005). Abnormal maturation of the retinal vasculature in type XVIII collagen/endostatin deficient mice and changes in retinal glial cells due to lack of collagen types XV and XVIII. The FASEB journal, 19(11), 1564 - 1566. doi:10.1096/fj.04-3101fje


    • Woodruff RF, Fruttiger M, Richardson WD, Franklin RJM (2004). Platelet-derived growth factor regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor numbers in adult CNS and their response following CNS demyelination. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 25, 252 - 262.
    • Claxton S, Fruttiger MA (2004). Periodic Delta-like 4 expression in developing retinal arteries. Gene expression patterns, 5(1), 123 - 127. doi:10.1016/j.modgep.2004.05.004


    • Claxton S, Fruttiger M (2003). Role of arteries in oxygen induced vaso-obliteration. Experimental eye research, 77, 305 - 311. doi:10.1016/S0014-4835(03)00153-2
    • Gerhardt H, Golding M, Fruttiger M, Ruhrberg C, Lundkvist A, Abramsson A, Jeltsch M, Mitchell C, Alitalo K, Shima D, Betsholtz C (2003). VEGF guides angiogenic sprouting utilizing endothelial tip cell filopodia. The Journal of Cell Biology, , - . doi:10.1083/jcb.200302047


    • Fruttiger MA (2002). Development of the mouse retinal vasculature: angiogenesis versus vasculogenesis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 43, 522 - 527.
    • Stalmans I, Ng YS, Rohan R, Fruttiger M, Bouche A, Yuce A, Fujisawa H, Hermans B, Shani M, Jansen S, Hicklin D, Anderson DJ, Gardiner T, Hammes HP, Moons L, Dewerchin M, Collen D, Carmeliet P, D 'Amore PA (2002). Arteriolar and venular patterning in retinas of mice selectively expressing VEGF isoforms. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 109(3), 327 - 336. doi:10.1172/JCI0214362


    • Fruttiger M, Calver AR, Richardson WD (2000). Platelet-derived growth factor is constitutively secreted from neuronal cell bodies but not from axons. Current Biology, 10(20), 1283 - 1286.
    • Biscette O, Vongsvivut P, Fruttiger M, Fox M, Richardson W, Hitchcock P (2000). A murine model of retinal coloboma..
    • Fruttiger M, Calver AR, Richardson WD (2000). Platelet-derived growth factor is constitutively secreted from neuronal cell bodies but not from axons.. Curr Biol, 10(20), 1283 - 1286.


    • Fruttiger M, Karlsson L, Hall AC, Abramsson A, Calver AR, Bostrom H, Willetts K, Bertold C, Heath JK, Betsholtz C, Richardson WD (1999). Defective oligodendrocyte development and severe hypomyelination in PDGF-A knockout mice. Development, 126, 457 - 467.


    • Richardson W, Calver A, Fruttiger M, Hall A, Pringle N, Sun T, van Heyningen P (1998). Specification and growth of oligodendrocyte lineage cells.


    • Calver AR, Hall AC, Fruttiger M, Yu WP, Richardson WD (1997). Control of cell number in the oligodendrocyte lineage.


    • Fruttiger M, Calver AR, Krüger WH, Mudhar HS, Michalovich D, Takakura N, Nishikawa S, Richardson WD (1996). PDGF mediates a neuron-astrocyte interaction in the developing retina.. Neuron, 17(6), 1117 - 1131.
    • Friedlander M, Theesfeld CL, Sugita M, Thomas MA, Chang S, Coli G, Fruttiger MA, Richardson WD, Brooks PC, Cheresh DA (1996). Integrins alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) are selectively expressed in active human retinal and choroidal neovascular membranes.
    • Schäfer M, Fruttiger M, Montag D, Schachner M, Martini R (1996). Disruption of the gene for the myelin-associated glycoprotein improves axonal regrowth along myelin in C57BL/Wlds mice.. Neuron, 16(6), 1107 - 1113.
    • Friedlander M, Theesfeld CL, Sugita M, Fruttiger M, Thomas MA, Chang S, Cheresh DA (1996). Involvement of integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 in ocular neovascular diseases.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93(18), 9764 - 9769.


    • Fruttiger M, Schachner M, Martini R (1995). Tenascin-C expression during wallerian degeneration in C57BL/Wlds mice: possible implications for axonal regeneration.. J Neurocytol, 24(1), 1 - 14.
    • Fruttiger M, Montag D, Schachner M, Martini R (1995). Crucial role for the myelin-associated glycoprotein in the maintenance of axon-myelin integrity.. Eur J Neurosci, 7(3), 511 - 515.