Prof Mike Ehrenstein

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Personal Profile

Name: Mike Ehrenstein Email: m.ehrenstein@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel:
Department: Inflammation Fax:
Position: Professor of Experimental Rheumatology Address: Rayne Building, 5 University Street, London, WC1E 6JF
Research Domain: Infection, Immunology & Inflammation, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

My research group focusses on translational research in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease. We have been studying regulatory (immune suppressing) T cells in these diseases in an effort to harness/manipulate these lymphocytes to treat patients more effectively. One approach we have been taking is to use novel biologic therapies as a tool to understand and manipulate the aberrant immune responses found in patients with autoimmunity . Over the last few years there has been a re-emphasis on research into the processes of the human immune system. This has been partly due to the increasingly sophisticated tools available to dissect out immunological processes.

Our results so far indicate that regulatory T cells are defective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We have identified a potential molecular explanation for this defect , which could represent a novel therapeutic target. In addition, after anti-TNF therapy we have observed the induction of an "adaptive" regulatory T cell population, which suppresses via different mechanisms to the "natural" regulatory T cells found in healthy individuals. Partly based on these results, we are developing a biomarker to predict response to anti-TNF therapy, which will enable this treatment to be given to only those patients that will respond. Our long-term goal is to define the cellular and molecular mechanisms that switch off inflammation.

On going projects include:

1. The balance between pro-inflammatory (e.g. Th17) and regulatory T cell subsets in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis and how we can alter this balance in favour of tolerance.
2. The immunological consequences of B cell depletion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus particularly with regard to immunoregulation. We are now devising a clinical trial to test the importance of the B cell cytokine BAFF in lupus patients who have been treated with rituximab
3. Abnormal signalling in conventional and regulatory T cells.





Research Activities

Immunoregulation in rheumatic disease

Interaction of membrane proteins and lipids on immune cell function and immune synapse formation.

Rheumatology

Transcription and chromatin

Understaning the cellular players and soluble medi

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Dr Geoffrey Bellingan; Dr Richard Jenner; Prof Mala Maini; Dr Sian Henson; Prof Tony Segal; Prof Claudia Mauri; Prof Derek Gilroy; Dr John Ioannou; Prof David Isenberg; Prof Mervyn Singer; Prof Arne Akbar; Dr Liz Jury; Prof Chris Boshoff; Prof Greg Towers

External Collaborators

Publications

    2014

    • Ellis SD, McGovern JL, van Maurik A, Howe D, Ehrenstein MR, Notley CA (2014). Induced CD8(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis are modulated by p38 phosphorylation and monocytes expressing membrane TNF-α and CD86.. Arthritis Rheumatol, , - . doi:10.1002/art.38761

    2013

    • Carter LM, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR (2013). ELEVATED SERUM B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR CHARACTERIZES DISEASE RELAPSE FOLLOWING RITUXIMAB IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS.
    • Flores-Borja F, Bosma A, Ng D, Reddy V, Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg DA, Mauri C (2013). CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cells maintain regulatory T cells while limiting TH1 and TH17 differentiation.. Sci Transl Med, 5(173), 173ra23 - . doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3005407
    • Zhang Y, Meyer-Hermann M, George LA, Figge MT, Khan M, Goodall M, Young SP, Reynolds A, Falciani F, Waisman A, Notley CA, Ehrenstein MR, Kosco-Vilbois M, Toellner KM (2013). Germinal center B cells govern their own fate via antibody feedback.. J Exp Med, 210(3), 457 - 464. doi:10.1084/jem.20120150
    • Rapetti L, Chavele KM, Evans CM, Ehrenstein MR (2013). B cell resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis contributes to their ineffective control by regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis.. Ann Rheum Dis, , - . doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204049
    • Carter LM, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR (2013). Elevated serum B-cell activating factor (BAFF / BLyS) is associated with rising anti-dsDNA antibody levels and flare following B-cell depletion therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus.. Arthritis Rheum, , - . doi:10.1002/art.38074

    2012

    • Chiu Y, Ostor AJ, Hammond A, Sokoll K, Anderson M, Buch M, Ehrenstein MR, Gordon P, Steer S, Bruce IN (2012). Access to the next wave of biologic therapies (Abatacept and Tocilizumab) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in England and Wales: addressing treatment outside the current NICE guidance.. Clin Rheumatol, 31(6), 1005 - 1012. doi:10.1007/s10067-011-1936-6
    • Chavele KM, Merry E, Ehrenstein MR (2012). Plasmablasts induce human CD4(+) T follicular helper cells via secretion of IL-6.
    • Ellis SDP, Ehrenstein MR, Notley CA (2012). Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces CD8(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
    • McGovern J, Notley CA, Nguyen D, Mauri C, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR (2012). Anti-TNF antibody therapy induces IL-17 suppressing regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    • McGovern JL, Nguyen DX, Notley CA, Mauri C, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR (2012). Th17 cells are restrained by Treg cells via the inhibition of interleukin-6 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis responding to anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody therapy.. Arthritis Rheum, 64(10), 3129 - 3138. doi:10.1002/art.34565
    • Lazarus MN, Turner-Stokes T, Chavele KM, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR (2012). B-cell numbers and phenotype at clinical relapse following rituximab therapy differ in SLE patients according to anti-dsDNA antibody levels.. Rheumatology (Oxford), 51(7), 1208 - 1215. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ker526
    • Montaudouin C, Anson M, Hao Y, Duncker SV, Fernandez T, Gaudin E, Ehrenstein M, Kerr WG, Colle JH, Bruhns P, Daeron M, Freitas AA (2012). Quorum sensing contributes to activated B cell homeostasis and to prevent autoimmunity. , , - .

    2011

    • Mankia S, Peters JE, Kang S, Moore S, Ehrenstein MR (2011). Tuberculosis and anti-TNF treatment: experience of a central London hospital.. Clin Rheumatol, 30(3), 399 - 401. doi:10.1007/s10067-010-1605-1
    • Notley CA, Brown MA, Wright GP, Ehrenstein MR (2011). Natural IgM is required for suppression of inflammatory arthritis by apoptotic cells.. J Immunol, 186(8), 4967 - 4972. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1003021
    • Turner-Stokes T, Lu TY, Ehrenstein MR, Giles I, Rahman A, Isenberg DA (2011). The efficacy of repeated treatment with B-cell depletion therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus: an evaluation.. Rheumatology (Oxford), 50(8), 1401 - 1408. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ker018
    • Wright GP, Ehrenstein MR, Stauss HJ (2011). Regulatory T-cell adoptive immunotherapy: potential for treatment of autoimmunity.. Expert Rev Clin Immunol, 7(2), 213 - 225. doi:10.1586/eci.10.96
    • Carter NA, Vasconcellos R, Rosser EC, Tulone C, Muñoz-Suano A, Kamanaka M, Ehrenstein MR, Flavell RA, Mauri C (2011). Mice lacking endogenous IL-10-producing regulatory B cells develop exacerbated disease and present with an increased frequency of Th1/Th17 but a decrease in regulatory T cells.. J Immunol, 186(10), 5569 - 5579. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100284
    • Cleanthous S, Newman S, Shipley M, Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg D, Cano S (2011). EXPLORING PATIENT UNCERTAINTY IN RHEUMATIC CONDITIONS: COMPARING THE VIEWS OF HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS AND PATIENTS IN A QUALITATIVE DESIGN.
    • Lazarus MN, Turner-Stokes TJ, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR (2011). B CELL NUMBERS AND PHENOTYPE AT CLINICAL RELAPSE FOLLOWING RITUXIMAB THERAPY DIFFER IN SLE PATIENTS ACCORDING TO ANTI-dsDNA ANTIBODY TITRES.
    • Ellis SD, Ehrenstein MR, Notley CA (2011). ANTI-CD3 MAB INDUCES CD8+FOXP3+T CELLS FROM THE PBMC OF RA PATIENTS.
    • Chavele KM, Ehrenstein MR (2011). Regulatory T-cells in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.. FEBS Lett, 585(23), 3603 - 3610. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2011.07.043
    • Wright GP, Stauss HJ, Ehrenstein MR (2011). Therapeutic potential of Tregs to treat rheumatoid arthritis.. Semin Immunol, 23(3), 195 - 201. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2011.07.004
    • Gupta RK, Ezeonyeji AN, Thomas AS, Scully MA, Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg DA (2011). A case of pure red cell aplasia and immune thrombocytopenia complicating systemic lupus erythematosus: response to rituximab and cyclophosphamide.. Lupus, 20(14), 1547 - 1550. doi:10.1177/0961203311411349
    • Rapetti L, Chavale K-M, Ehrenstein MR (2011). Regulatory T cell suppression of B cells is impaired in RA patients.
    • Arce F, Breckpot K, Stephenson H, Karwacz K, Ehrenstein MR, Collins M, Escors D (2011). Selective ERK activation differentiates mouse and human tolerogenic dendritic cells, expands antigen-specific regulatory T cells, and suppresses experimental inflammatory arthritis.. Arthritis Rheum, 63(1), 84 - 95. doi:10.1002/art.30099
    • Ellis SDP, Ehrenstein MR, Notley CA (2011). Anti-CD3 mAb induces CD8+FOXP3+regulatory T cells from the PBMC of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Notley CA, Brown MA, Ehrenstein MR (2011). The activation state of apoptotic cells differentially modulates antigen-induced arthritis.

    2010

    • McGovern J, Notley CA, Nguyen XD, Mauri C, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR (2010). Anti-TNF antibody therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but not TNF receptor blockade, induces IL-17 suppressing regulatory T cells.
    • Flores-Borja F, Cambridge G, Ng D, Turi M, Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg D, Mauri C (2010). Regulatory B cells prevent the differentiation of naive CD4(+)T-cells into TH1 and TH17 but favour FOXP3+Tregs development.
    • Ehrenstein MR (2010). Anti-TNF targets regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Arce F, Breckpot K, Stephenson H, Karwacz K, Ehrenstein MR, Collins M, Escors D (2010). Therapeutic application of selective ERK activation for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Notley CA (2010). The importance of natural IgM: scavenger, protector and regulator.. Nat Rev Immunol, 10(11), 778 - 786. doi:10.1038/nri2849
    • Notley CA, Ehrenstein MR (2010). The yin and yang of regulatory T cells and inflammation in RA.. Nat Rev Rheumatol, 6(10), 572 - 577. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2010.143
    • Wright GP, Notley CA, Uttenthal BJ, Xue SA, Ehrenstein MR, Stauss HJ (2010). Treating Immunopathology with Antigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells Generated by T Cell Receptor Gene Transfer.
    • Turner-Stokes TJ, Lu TY, Ehrenstein MR, Giles I, Rahman A, Isenberg DA (2010). THE EFFICACY OF REPEATED B-CELL DEPLETION THERAPY IN SLE.
    • Notley CA, Baker N, Ehrenstein MR (2010). Secreted IgM enhances B cell receptor signaling and promotes splenic but impairs peritoneal B cell survival.. J Immunol, 184(7), 3386 - 3393. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0902640
    • Blair PA, Noreña LY, Flores-Borja F, Rawlings DJ, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2010). CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells exhibit regulatory capacity in healthy individuals but are functionally impaired in systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients.. Immunity, 32(1), 129 - 140. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.11.009
    • Jury EC, Flores-Borja F, Kalsi HS, Lazarus M, Isenberg DA, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2010). Abnormal CTLA-4 function in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.. Eur J Immunol, 40(2), 569 - 578. doi:10.1002/eji.200939781

    2009

    • Lewis MJ, Malik TH, Ehrenstein MR, Boyle JJ, Botto M, Haskard DO (2009). Immunoglobulin M is required for protection against atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.. Circulation, 120(5), 417 - 426. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.868158
    • Blair PA, Chavez-Rueda KA, Evans JG, Shlomchik MJ, Eddaoudi A, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2009). Selective targeting of B cells with agonistic anti-CD40 is an efficacious strategy for the generation of induced regulatory T2-like B cells and for the suppression of lupus in MRL/lpr mice.. J Immunol, 182(6), 3492 - 3502. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803052
    • Wright GP, Notley CA, Xue SA, Bendle GM, Holler A, Schumacher TN, Ehrenstein MR, Stauss HJ (2009). Adoptive therapy with redirected primary regulatory T cells results in antigen-specific suppression of arthritis.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(45), 19078 - 19083. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907396106

    2008

    • Jury EC, Flores-Borja F, Kalsi HS, Lazarus M, Isenberg DA, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2008). Abnormal cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 function in lupus patients is associated with induction of defective Foxp3+Treg.
    • Lewis MJ, Malik TH, Ehrenstein MR, Boyle JJ, Botto M, Haskard DO (2008). Hierarchical contributions of IgM and complement C1q in protection against murine atherosclerosis. FASEB JOURNAL, 22, - .
    • Flores-Borja F, Jury EC, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2008). Defects in CTLA-4 are associated with abnormal regulatory T cell function in rheumatoid arthritis.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(49), 19396 - 19401. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806855105
    • Lewis MJ, Malik TH, Ehrenstein MR, Boyle JJ, Botto M, Haskard DO (2008). Atheroprotective functions of IgM and complement C1q: do low IgM levels and impaired complement activity provide a new link between atherosclerosis and SLE?.
    • Flores-Borja F, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2008). Restoring the balance: harnessing regulatory T cells for therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Immunology, 38(4), 934 - 937.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Alves JD (2008). Antibodies and other biomarkers - pathological consequences (2).. Lupus, 17(3), 256 - 258. doi:10.1177/0961203307088253
    • Jury EC, Flores-Borja F, Isenberg DA, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2008). Abnormal CTLA-4 function in lupus patients is associated with induction of a defective population of FOXP3+regulatory T cells via TGF.
    • Blair PA, Chavez-Rueda KA, Abbas S, Schlomchik MJ, Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2008). CD21HI CD23+ CD24HI regulatory B cells in MRL/LPr mice and SLE patients.
    • Carter NA, Tulone C, Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2008). Chimeric mice with B cells deficient in IL-10 develop exacerbated collagen-induced arthritis and have an increased pro-inflammatory phenotype.
    • Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2008). The 'short' history of regulatory B cells.. Trends in Immunology, 29(1), 34 - 40.
    • Flores-Borja F, Jury EC, Ehrenstein MR (2008). Defective CTLA-4 function in regulatory T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A potential target for therapy.
    • Lewis MJ, Malik TH, Ehrenstein MR, Boyle JJ, Botto M, Haskard DO (2008). IgM deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis: A potential adverse consequence of B cell depletion therapy?.

    2007

    • Ehrenstein MR (2007). B cell depletion therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
    • Mauri C, Blair AP, Chavez AK, Evans J, Eddaodi A, Ehrenstein MR (2007). Suppression of experimental lupus by "regulatory" transitional 2 B cells.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2007). If the treatment works, do we need to know why?: the promise of immunotherapy for experimental medicine.. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 204(10), 2249 - 2252.
    • Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2007). Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. B cells.. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 9(2), 205 - .
    • Evans JG, Chavez-Rueda KA, Eddaoudi A, Meyer-Bahlburg A, Rawlings DJ E, M M, C (2007). Novel suppressive function of transitional 2 B cells in experimental arthritis.. The Journal of Immunology, 15(178), 7868 - 7878.
    • Evans JG, Chavez-Rueda KA, Eddaoudi A, Meyer-Bahlburg A, Rawlings DJ, Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2007). Novel suppressive function of transitional 2 B cells in experimental arthritis.. J Immunol, 178(12), 7868 - 7878.
    • Leandro MJ, Ehrenstein MR (2007). B cell depletion in systemic lupus erythematosus.. Clin Med, 7(1), 57 - 59.
    • Nadkarni S, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2007). Anti-TNF-{alpha} therapy induces a distinct regulatory T cell population in patients with rheumatoid arthritis via TGF-{beta}. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 204(1), 33 - 39. doi:10.1084/jem.20061531
    • Ferry H, Potter PK, Crockford TL, Nijnik A, Ehrenstein MR, Walport MJ, Botto M, Cornall RJ (2007). Increased positive selection of B1 cells and reduced B cell tolerance to intracellular antigens in c1q-deficient mice.. J Immunol, 178(5), 2916 - 2922.
    • Isenberg DA, Manson JJ, Ehrenstein MR, Rahman A (2007). 50 years of anti-dsDNA antibodies - are we approaching journey's end. Rheumatology, 46, 1052 - 1056.
    • Lewis MJ, Malik TH, Ehrenstein MR, Boyle JJ, Botto M, Haskard DO (2007). Serum IgM plays an important protective role in murine atherosclerosis. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.04.015
    • Borg FA, Lachmann HJ, Ehrenstein MR (2007). Treatment resistant HLA-B27 associated juvenile idiopathic arthritis mimicking systemic juvenile arthritis: Management of secondary systemic amyloidosis and the failure of ANTI-TNF alpha therapy.

    2006

    • Ng K, P L, M J, Edwards J, C Ehrenstein M, R C, G I, D A (2006). Repeated B cell depletion in treatment of refactory systemic lupus erythemaosus.. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 65, 942 - 945.
    • Leandro MJ, Cambridge G, Ehrenstein MR, Edwards J, C (2006). Reconstitution of peripheral blood B cells after depletion with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 54(2), 613 - 620.
    • Jury EC, Isenberg DA, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2006). Atorvastatin restores Lck expression and lipid raft-associated signaling in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.. The Journal of Immunology, 177(10), 7416 - 7422.
    • Leandro MJ, Cambridge G, Ehrenstein MR, Edwards JCW (2006). Reconstitution of B cells after B cell-depletion therapy: comment on the article by Leandro et al - Reply. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 54(9), 3063 - 3063. doi:10.1002/art.22066

    2005

    • Leandro MJ, Ehrenstein MR, Cambridge G, Edwards JC (2005). Reconstitution of peripheral blood B cells after depletion with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Jury EC, Isenberg DA, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2005). The HMG-coA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin targets lipid rafts in lupus T cells leading to restoration of their function.
    • Leandro MJ, Edwards JCW, Ehrenstein MR, Cambridge G, Isenberg DA (2005). Follow up study of B-lymphocyte depletion in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
    • Leandro MJ, Edwards JCW, Ehrenstein MR, Cambridge G, Isenberg DA (2005). Follow up study of B-lymphocyte depletion in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. doi:10.1186/ar1712
    • Pan-Hammarstrom Q, Jones AM, Lahdesmaki A, Zhou W, Gatti RA, Hammarstrom L, Gennery AR, Ehrenstein MR (2005). Impact of DNA ligase IV on nonhomologous end joining pathways during class switch recombination in human cells.. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 201, 189 - 194. doi:10.1084/jem.20040772
    • Leandro MJ, Cambridge G, Edwards JC, Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg DA (2005). B cell depletion in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal analysis of 24 patients.. Rheumatology, 44, 1542 - 1545.
    • Manson JJ, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2005). Natural serum IgM maintains immunological homeostasis and prevents autoimmunity.. Springer Seminars in Immunopathology, 26(4), 425 - 432.
    • Jury EC, Ehrenstein MR (2005). Statins: immunomodulators for autoimmune rheumatic disease?. Lupus, 14(3), 192 - 196.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Jury EC, Mauri C (2005). Statins for atherosclerosis--as good as it gets?. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 73 - 75.
    • Quartier P, Potter PK, Ehrenstein MR, Walport MJ, Botto M (2005). Predominant role of IgM-dependent activation of the classical pathway in the clearance of dying cells by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. European Journal of Immunology, 35(1), 252 - 260. doi:10.1002/eji.200425497
    • Jury EC, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2005). The immunomodulatory effects of atorvastatin may be mediated by disruption of membrane microdomains.
    • Jury EC, Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR (2005). Investigation into the effects of atorvastatin on lipid rafts and T cell function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus..
    • Ehrenstein MR, Evans J, Mathews C, Choudry F, Mauri C (2005). Regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis before and after anti-TNF? Therapy.
    • Cambridge G, Leandro MJ, Stohl W, Ehrenstein MR, Migone TS, Hilbert DM, Teodoresou M, Edwards JCW (2005). Relationship between circulating antibodies and BLyS following B cell depletion therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Tahir H, Moore S, Ehrenstein MR (2005). Comparison of anti-TNF therapy in daily practice.
    • Mathews CJ, Evans J, Choudry F, Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2005). Characterization of regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis before and after treatment with anti-TNF alpha therapy.

    2004

    • Ehrenstein MR, Evans JG, Singh A, Moore S, Warnes G, Isenberg DA, Mauri C (2004). Compromised function of regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis and reversal by anti-TNFalpha therapy.. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 200(3), 277 - 285. doi:10.1084/jem.20040165
    • Leandro MJ, Cambridge G, Edwards JCW, Teodorescu M, Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg DA (2004). SEROLOGICAL CHANGES FOLLOWING B LYMPHOCYTE DEPLETION THERAPY IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. RHEUMATOLOGY, 43, 25 - 25.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Mauri C (2004). Compromised function of regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis: Reversal by anti-TNF alpha therapy.
    • Isenberg DA, Leandro MJ, Ehrenstein MR, Edwards JCW, Manson J, Cambridge G (2004). Anti-CD20 in lupus.
    • Lawman S, Mauri C, Jury EC, Cook HT, Ehrenstein MR (2004). Atorvastatin inhibits autoreactive B cell activation and delays lupus development in New Zealand black/white F1 mice.. The Journal of Immunology, 173(12), 7641 - 7646.
    • Leandro MJ, Edwards JCW, Ehrenstein MR, Cambridge G, Isenberg DA (2004). B lymphocyte depletion in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus..
    • Ehrenstein MR, Evans JG, Singh A, Moore S, Isenberg DA, Mauri C (2004). DEFECTS IN THE GENERATION AND FUNCTION OF REGULATORY T CELLS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: REVERSAL BY ANTI-TNF alpha THERAPY. RHEUMATOLOGY, 43, 20 - 20.
    • Isenberg DA, Allen E, Farewell V, Ehrenstein MR, Hanna MG, Lundberg IE, Oddis C, Pilkington C, Plotz P, Scott D, Vencovsky J, Cooper R, Rider L, Miller F International Myositis and Clinical Studies GIMACS (2004). International consensus outcome measures for patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Development and initial validation of myositis activity and damage indices in patients with adult onset disease.. Rheumatology, 43(1), 49 - 54.
    • Cambridge G, Leandro MJ, Stohl W, Ehrenstein MR, Teodorescu M, Migone TS, Hilbert DM, Isenberg DA, Edwards JC (2004). Serological changes following B cell depletion therapy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Relationship with BLyS.
    • Leandro MJ, Ehrenstein MR, Edwards JCW, Manson J, Cambridge G, Isenberg DA (2004). TREATMENT OF REFRACTORY LUPUS NEPHRITIS WITH B LYMPHOCYTE DEPLETION. RHEUMATOLOGY, 43, 109 - 110.
    • Cambridge G, Leandro MJ, Isenberg DA, Teodorescu M, Ehrenstein MR, Edwards JCW (2004). B cell depletion therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus: Effect on autoantibody and anti-microbial antibody profiles..

    2003

    • Ehrenstein MR, Evans JG, Singh A, Moore S, Isenberg DA, Mauri C (2003). Expansion of regulatory (CD4+CD25hi) T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who respond to anti-TNF therapy.
    • Cambridge G, Leandro MJ, Edwards JC, Ehrenstein MR, Salden M, Bodman-Smith M, Webster AD (2003). Serologic changes following B lymphocyte depletion therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 48(8), 2146 - 2154. doi:10.1002/art.11181
    • Leandro MJ, Edwards JCW, Cambridge G, Ehrenstein MR (2003). B-cell repopulation occurs mainly from naive B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus treated with rituximab..
    • Lawman S, Ehrenstein MR (2003). Atorvastatin reduces MHC class II expression and ameliorates autoimmunity in the NZB/NV mouse model of lupus..
    • Leandro MJ, Ehrenstein MR, Edwards JCW, Manson J, Cambridge G, Isenberg DA (2003). Treatment of refractory lupus nephritis with B lymphocyte depletion..

    2002

    • Isenberg DA, Allen E, Farewell V, Ehrenstein MR, Cooper R, Hanna M, Lundberg I, Oddis C, Plotz P, Vencovsky J, Rider L, Miller F (2002). Development of disease activity and damage indices for myositis: Further testing of four tools in adult onset patients..
    • Cambridge G, Leandro MJ, Edwards JCW, Ehrenstein MR, Salden M, Webster D (2002). B lymphocyte depletion in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Serial studies of immunological parameters..
    • Baker N, Ehrenstein MR (2002). NATURAL IGM REGULATES B1 & MARGINAL ZONE B CELLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH AUTOIMMUNITY AND LYMPHOPROLIFERATION. RHEUMATOLOGY, 41, 26 - 26.
    • Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein M, Rahman A (2002). 'Oh come all ye faithful'; acquiring and maintaining a cohort.. Rheumatology, 41, 5 - 6.
    • Baker N, Ehrenstein MR (2002). Cutting edge: selection of B lymphocyte subsets is regulated by natural IgM. The Journal of Immunology, 169(12), 6686 - 6690.
    • Lawman S, Ehrenstein MR (2002). Many paths lead to lupus. Lupus, 11(12), 801 - 806.
    • Leandro MJ, Edwards JC, Cambridge G, Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg DA (2002). An open study of B lymphocyte depletion in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 46(10), 2673 - 2677. doi:10.1002/art.10541
    • Brown JS, Hussell T, Gilliland SM, Holden DW, Paton JC, Ehrenstein MR, Walport MJ, Botto M (2002). The classical pathway is the dominant complement pathway required for innate immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(26), 16969 - 16974. doi:10.1073/pnas.012669199
    • Ehrenstein MR, Hahn B (2002). T cell-B cell interactions. Lupus, 11(12), 790 - 792.

    2001

    • Sale JE, Bemark M, Williams GT, Jolly CJ, Ehrenstein MR, Rada C, Milstein C, Neuberger MS (2001). In vivo and in vitro studies of immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 356(1405), 21 - 28.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Rada C, Jones AM, Milstein C, Neuberger MS (2001). Switch junction sequences in PMS2-deficient mice reveal a microhomology- mediated mechanism of Ig class switch recombination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(25), 14553 - 14558. doi:10.1073/pnas.241525998

    2000

    • Ehrenstein MR, Cook HT, Neuberger MS (2000). Deficiency in serum immunoglobulin (Ig)M predisposes to development of IgG autoantibodies. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 191(7), 1253 - 1258.
    • Neuberger MS, Ehrenstein MR, Rada C, Sale J, Batista FD, Williams G, Milstein C (2000). Memory in the B-cell compartment: antibody affinity maturation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 355(1395), 357 - 360.
    • Neuberger MS, Sale JE, Cumbers SJ, Jolly CJ, Bemark MP, Ehrenstein MR, Lanoue A, Bruggemann M, Batista FD, Davies SL, Williams GT (2000). Diversification and selection mechanisms for the production of protein repertoires: lessons from the immune system. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 83(1-3), 53 - 60.

    1999

    • Ehrenstein MR (1999). Antinuclear antibodies and lupus: causes and consequences [editorial]. Rheumatology, 38(8), 691 - 693.
    • Ehrenstein MR (1999). Antinuclear antibodies and lupus: causes and consequences.. Rheumatology (Oxford), 38(8), 691 - 693.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Neuberger MS (1999). Deficiency in Msh2 affects the efficiency and local sequence specificity of immunoglobulin class-switch recombination: parallels with somatic hypermutation. The EMBO Journal, 18(12), 3484 - 3490.
    • Neuberger MS, Lanoue A, Ehrenstein MR, Batista FD, Sale JE, Williams GT (1999). Antibody diversification and selection in the mature B-cell compartment.. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 64, 211 - 216.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Neuberger MS (1999). Deficiency in MSH2 affects the efficiency and local sequence specificity of immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation.. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 42(9), S52 - S52.
    • Ravirajan CT, Rahman MA, Papadaki L, Griffiths MH, Kalsi J, Martin ACR, Ehrenstein MR, Latchman DS, Isenberg DA (1999). Genetic, structural and functional properties of an IgG DNA-binding monoclonal antibody from a lupus patient with nephritis (vol 28, pg 339, 1998). EUR J IMMUNOL, 29(9), 3052 - 3052.

    1998

    • Neuberger MS, Ehrenstein MR, Klix N, Jolly CJ, Yélamos J, Rada C, Milstein C (1998). Monitoring and interpreting the intrinsic features of somatic hypermutation.. Immunol Rev, 162, 107 - 116.
    • Ravirajan CT, Rahman MA, Papadaki L, Griffiths MH, Kalsi J, Martin AC, Ehrenstein MR, Latchman DS, Isenberg DA (1998). Genetic, structural and functional properties of an IgG DNA-binding monoclonal antibody from a lupus patient with nephritis. EUR J IMMUNOL, 28(1), 339 - 350.
    • Ehrenstein MR, O'Keefe TL, Davies SL, Neuberger MS (1998). Targeted gene disruption reveals a role for natural secretory IgM in the maturation of the primary immune response.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95(17), 10089 - 10093.
    • Ravirajan CT, Rahman MA, Papadaki L, Griffiths M, Kalsi J, Martin ACR, Ehrenstein MR, Latchman DS, Isenberg DA (1998). Genetic Structural and Functional Properties of a Human IgG Anti-DNA Antibody. European Journal of Immunology, 28, 339 - 350.
    • Rada C, Ehrenstein MR, Neuberger MS, Milstein C (1998). Hot spot focusing of somatic hypermutation in MSH2-deficient mice suggests two stages of mutational targeting.. Immunity, 9(1), 135 - 141.

    1997

    • Ravirajan CT, Rahman MA, Lucienne P, Kalsi JK, Martin ACR, Ehrenstein MR, Griffiths M, Latchman DS, Isenberg DA (1997). Genetic structural and functional properties of a human IgG anti-DNA autoantibody. European Journal of Immunology, 28, 339 - 350.

    1996

    • Ravirajan CT, Rahman MA, Papadaki L, Kalsi JK, Marti ACR, Ehrenstein MR, Griffiths M, Latchman DS, Isenberg DA (1996). Genetic, structural and functional properties of a human IgG anti-DNA antibody. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 39(9), 900 - 900.
    • Kalsi JK, Martin ACR, Hirabayashi Y, Ehrenstein M, Longhurst CM, Ravirajan C, Zvelebil M, Stollar D, Thornton JM, Isenberg DA (1996). Functional and modelling studies of the binding of Human monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies to DNA.. Molecular Immunology, 33, 471 - 483.
    • Longhurst C, Ehrenstein MR, Leaker B, Stevenson FK, Spellerberg M, Chapman C, Latchmen D, Isenberg DA, Cambridge G (1996). Analysis of immunoglobulin variable region genes of a human IgM anti-myeloperoxidase antibody derived from a patient with vasculitis.. Immunology, 87(2), 334 - 338.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Stoll T, Edwards JC (1996). Not all stoops are due to osteoporosis.. Ann Rheum Dis, 55(1), 21 - 23.

    1995

    • Ehrenstein MR, Conroy SE, Heath J, Latchman DS, Isenberg DA (1995). The occurrence, nature and distribution of flares in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a rheumatological view.. Br J Rheumatol, 34(3), 257 - 260.
    • Ehrenstein MR (1995). Combination therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.. Br J Rheumatol, 34(6), 580 - 581.
    • KALSI JK, EHRENSTEIN MR, LONGHURST C, ISENBERG DA, MARTIN A, THORNTON J (1995). STRUCTURAL-ANALYSIS OF AN IGG HUMAN ANTI-DNA ANTIBODY - BINDING TO Z-DNA. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 38(9), 177 - 177.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Katz DR, Griffiths MH, Papadaki L, Winkler TH, Kalden JR, Isenberg DA (1995). Human IgG anti-DNA antibodies deposit in kidneys and induce proteinuria in SCID mice.. Kidney Int, 48(3), 705 - 711.
    • RANKIN ECC, CHOY EHS, EHRENSTEIN MR, RAVIRAJAN CT, SOPWITH M, VETTERLEIN O, PANAYI GS, AISENBERG DA (1995). SEROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF REPEATED DOSES OF AN ENGINEERED HUMAN ANTI-TNF-ALPHA - ANTIBODY, CDP571, IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS (RA). ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 38(9), 758 - 758.

    1994

    • Isenberg DA, Ehrenstein MR, Longhurst C, Kalsi JK (1994). The origin, sequence, structure, and consequences of developing anti-DNA antibodies. A human perspective.. Arthritis Rheum, 37(2), 169 - 180.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Hartley B, Wilkinson LS, Isenberg DA (1994). Comparison of a monoclonal and polyclonal anti-idiotype against a human IgG anti-DNA antibody.. J Autoimmun, 7(3), 349 - 367. doi:10.1006/jaut.1994.1025
    • Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg DA (1994). Human IgG anti-DNA antibodies generated with a heteromyeloma cell line reflect serologic findings: comment on the article by Klinman et al.. Arthritis Rheum, 37(1), 148 - 150.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Longhurst CM, Latchman DS, Isenberg DA (1994). Serological and genetic characterization of a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G anti-DNA idiotype.. J Clin Invest, 93(4), 1787 - 1797. doi:10.1172/JCI117164
    • EHRENSTEIN MR, ISENBERG DA (1994). HUMAN-IGG ANTI-DNA ANTIBODIES GENERATED WITH A HETEROMYELOMA CELL-LINE REFLECT SEROLOGIC FINDINGS - COMMENT. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 37(1), 148 - 149.

    1993

    • EHRENSTEIN MR, LONGHURST CM, LATCHMAN D, ISENBERG DA (1993). LEVELS OF AN IGG ANTI-DNA IDIOTYPE FLUCTUATE WITH MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE IN SLE PATIENTS. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 36(9), S237 - S237.
    • LONGHURST C, EHRENSTEIN MR, LEAKER B, LATCHMAN D, ISENBERG DA, CAMBRIDGE G (1993). A HUMAN-IGM ANTIMYELOPEROXIDASE ANTIBODY SHOWS EVIDENCE FOR ANTIGEN SELECTION. BRIT J RHEUMATOL, 32, 36 - 36.
    • LONGHURST C, EHRENSTEIN MR, LEAKER B, LATCHMAN D, ISENBERG DA, CAMBRIDGE G (1993). A HUMAN-IGM ANTIMYELOPEROXIDASE ANTIBODY SHOWS EVIDENCE FOR ANTIGEN SELECTION. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 36(9), S278 - S278.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Swana M, Keeling D, Asherson R, Hughes GR, Isenberg DA (1993). Anti-DNA antibodies in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS). Br J Rheumatol, 32(5), 362 - 365.
    • Ehrenstein MR, McSweeney E, Swane M, Worman CP, Goldstone AH, Isenberg DA (1993). Appearance of anti-DNA antibodies in patients treated with interferon-alpha.. Arthritis Rheum, 36(2), 279 - 280.

    1992

    • EHRENSTEIN MR, ISENBERG D (1992). ISOTYPE SWITCH IN THE GENERATION OF HUMAN MONOCLONAL ANTI-DNA ANTIBODIES FROM A PATIENT WITH SLE. BRIT J RHEUMATOL, 31, 49 - 49.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Isenberg DA (1992). Hypergammaglobulinaemia and autoimmune rheumatic diseases.. Ann Rheum Dis, 51(11), 1185 - 1187.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Snaith ML, Isenberg DA (1992). Idiopathic myositis: a rheumatological view.. Ann Rheum Dis, 51(1), 41 - 44.
    • EHRENSTEIN MR, ISENBERG DA (1992). ISOTYPE SWITCH IN THE GENERATION OF HUMAN MONOCLONAL ANTI-DNA ANTIBODIES FROM A PATIENT WITH SLE. ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 35(9), S361 - S361.
    • EHRENSTEIN MR, LEAKER B, ISENBERG D, CAMBRIDGE G (1992). 2 HUMAN MONOCLONAL ANTIMYELOPEROXIDASE ANTIBODIES DERIVED FROM PERIPHERAL-BLOOD. BRIT J RHEUMATOL, 31, 48 - 48.
    • Ehrenstein MR, Leaker B, Isenberg D, Cambridge G (1992). Production of human monoclonal antibodies to myeloperoxidase.. Immunology, 77(4), 617 - 620.

    1984

    • DOCKRELL HM, EHRENSTEIN MR, PLAYFAIR JHL (1984). THE ROLE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN INTERMEDIATES IN MICE INFECTED WITH PLASMODIUM SPP. PARASITOLOGY, 89(OCT), R64 - R64.

    • Leandro M, J C, N C, G E, M R, Edwards J, C (). Bone marrow B-lineage cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following rituximab therapy.. Rheumatology, , - .