Prof Arne Akbar

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Personal Profile

Name: Arne Akbar Email: a.akbar@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel: +44 20 3108 2172
Department: Div of Infection & Immunity Fax:
Position: Professor of Immunology Address: Windeer Institute, 43 Cleveland St, , London, W1T 4JF
Research Domain: Global Health, Infection, Immunology & Inflammation, Personalised Medicine, Populations & Lifelong Health Web Page:  

Profile

Research Description

The main scientific focus of my group is the study of human T cell differentiation and longevity and whether end-stage differentiation can lead to the loss of immunity in ageing humans. Key landmarks that have been made by my group on T cell differentiation in the last 20 years include the first use of CD45R isoforms to identify primed and unprimed subsets of human T cells, the initial observation that memory populations of T cells are susceptible to apoptosis and have to be rescued by cytokines, dysfunctional apoptosis can lead to chronic inflammation and more recently, the potential role of telomere erosion in limiting human T cell memory to viruses. Throughout this time my group developed important new technologies such as 2 and 3-colour Flow-FISH which allows measuring of telomere lengths in different cell populations using flow cytometry. Furthermore, work that was aimed at understanding co-stimulatory molecule expression during CD8+ T cell differentiation involving a close collaboration with Drs. Alastair Lawson and Helene Finney at Celltech plc. resulted in the development of unique reagents. These constructs allow dissection of the complex array of signalling molecules and their respective roles in CD8 T cells subsets, specifically those close to end-stage differentiation. We are currently exploring mechanisms that regulate end-stage differentiation in primary human T cells.

My PhD project in Southampton was based on the study of human immunology and provided the initial impetus for the development of new human experimental models that has continued until the present time. My group was one of the first to describe the function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells in humans. More recently, we have used an in vivo deuterium labelling in young and old volunteers to examine turnover rates of regulatory cells in humans and demonstrate that regulatory T cells are highly proliferative and close to immune replicative senescence. Furthermore, we also find that this population is highly proliferative in the skin of healthy volunteers after antigen challenge in vivo.

Work from my group is funded extensively by the BBSRC. With support from the BBSRC Experimental Research into Ageing (ERA) initiative we developed and validated a new model for the study of a human memory T cell response in vivo. This involves the injection of a recall antigen (PPD) intradermally, followed by either the biopsy of the lesion for histological analysis of the immune infiltration, or the harvest of infiltrating cells using suction blister technology. The latter enables the functional and molecular analysis of infiltrating leucocyte populations. This work was published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. My group has also used this model for investigating the behaviour of regulatory T cells in humans during an immune response in vivo. At the moment we are using this model to investigate the causes for defective secondary responses to antigen injection in the skin of older humans.

Research Activities

Hugh Davson Professor of Biomedical Research

Immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection

Mechanisms regulating lymphocyte differentiation i

Molecular mechanisms of viral immunomodulation and immunosuppression

Understaning the cellular players and soluble medi

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof Dame Linda Partridge; Prof David Gems; Dr Geoffrey Bellingan; Prof John Greenwood; Prof Paul Griffiths; Prof William Rosenberg; Dr Virginia Calder; Prof Mala Maini; Dr Michael Jacobs; Prof Tony Segal; Prof Derek Gilroy; Prof Nigel Klein; Prof Geoffrey Dusheiko; Dr Richard Gilson; Prof Dominic Withers; Dr Marcus Fruttiger; Prof Mervyn Singer; Prof Mary Collins; Prof Karl Matter; Prof Mike Ehrenstein

External Collaborators

Publications

    2013

    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Sandhu D, Sobande TO, Agius E, Lacy KE, Riddell N, Montez S, Dintwe OB, Scriba TJ, Breuer J, Nikolich-Zugich J, Ogg G, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2013). Varicella zoster-specific CD4+Foxp3+ T cells accumulate after cutaneous antigen challenge in humans.. J Immunol, 190(3), 977 - 986. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1201331
    • Macaulay R, Akbar AN, Henson SM (2013). The role of the T cell in age-related inflammation.. Age (Dordr), 35(3), 563 - 572. doi:10.1007/s11357-012-9381-2
    • Griffiths SJ, Riddell NE, Masters J, Libri V, Henson SM, Wertheimer A, Wallace D, Sims S, Rivino L, Larbi A, Kemeny DM, Nikolich-Zugich J, Kern F, Klenerman P, Emery VC, Akbar AN (2013). Age-associated increase of low-avidity cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T cells that re-express CD45RA.. J Immunol, 190(11), 5363 - 5372. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1203267
    • Akbar AN, Reed JR, Lacy KE, Jackson SE, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Rustin MH (2013). Investigation of the cutaneous response to recall antigen in humans in vivo.. Clin Exp Immunol, 173(2), 163 - 172. doi:10.1111/cei.12107
    • Macaulay R, Riddell NE, Griffiths SJ, Akbar AN, Henson SM (2013). Differing HLA types influence inhibitory receptor signalling in CMV-specific CD8+ T cells.. Hum Immunol, 74(3), 302 - 309. doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2012.11.014
    • Hoare M, Shankar A, Shah M, Rushbrook S, Gelson W, Davies S, Akbar A, Alexander GJM (2013). gamma-H2AX+CD8+T lymphocytes cannot respond to IFN-alpha, IL-2 or IL-6 in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY, 58(5), 868 - 874. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.12.009
    • Comandini A, Naro C, Adamo R, Akbar AN, Lanna A, Bonmassar E, Franzese O (2013). Molecular mechanisms involved in HIV-1-Tat mediated inhibition of telomerase activity in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY, 54(2), 181 - 192. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.12.003

    2012

    • Solana R, Tarazona R, Aiello AE, Akbar AN, Appay V, Beswick M, Bosch JA, Campos C, Cantisán S, Cicin-Sain L, Derhovanessian E, Ferrando-Martínez S, Frasca D, Fulöp T, Govind S, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Hill A, Hurme M, Kern F, Larbi A, López-Botet M, Maier AB, McElhaney JE, Moss P, Naumova E, Nikolich-Zugich J, Pera A, Rector JL, Riddell N, Sanchez-Correa B, Sansoni P, Sauce D, van Lier R, Wang GC, Wills MR, Zieliński M, Pawelec G (2012). CMV and Immunosenescence: from basics to clinics.. Immun Ageing, 9(1), 23 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4933-9-23
    • Havenith SH, Yong SL, Henson SM, Piet B, Idu MM, Koch SD, Jonkers RE, Kragten NA, Akbar AN, van Lier RA, ten Berge IJ (2012). Analysis of stem-cell-like properties of human CD161++IL-18Rα+ memory CD8+ T cells.. Int Immunol, 24(10), 625 - 636. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxs069
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Sandhu D, Sobande T, Agius E, Ogg G, Rustin M, Akbar A (2012). Kinetics and antigen specificity of CD4+memory and regulatory T cells during cutaneous immune responses to varicella-zoster virus in young and old individuals.
    • Seidel J, Riddell N, Henson S, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Rustin M, Nestle F, Lacy K, Akbar A (2012). Increased CD4 and CD8 T-cell differentiation in elderly patients with melanoma.
    • Henson SM, Macaulay R, Franzese O, Akbar AN (2012). Reversal of functional defects in highly differentiated young and old CD8 T cells by PDL blockade.. Immunology, 135(4), 355 - 363. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2011.03550.x
    • Henson SM, Riddell NE, Akbar AN (2012). Properties of end-stage human T cells defined by CD45RA re-expression.. Curr Opin Immunol, 24(4), 476 - 481. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2012.04.001
    • High KP, Akbar AN, Nikolich-Zugich J (2012). Translational research in immune senescence: assessing the relevance of current models.. Semin Immunol, 24(5), 373 - 382. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2012.04.007
    • Lachmann R, Bajwa M, Vita S, Smith H, Cheek E, Akbar A, Kern F (2012). Polyfunctional T Cells Accumulate in Large Human Cytomegalovirus-Specific T Cell Responses. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 86(2), 1001 - 1009. doi:10.1128/JVI.00873-11
    • Sandhu D, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Agius E, Rustin M, Akbar A (2012). Early events in the recall response to varicella-zoster virus skin antigen in ageing.

    2011

    • Seidel JA, Riddell N, Henson S, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Lacy K, Rustin M, Akbar A (2011). Peripheral T cell activation and differentiation in elderly melanoma patients.
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Zhang Y, Akbar AN, Macallan DC (2011). Measurement of proliferation and disappearance of regulatory T cells in human studies using deuterium-labeled glucose.. Methods Mol Biol, 707, 243 - 261. doi:10.1007/978-1-61737-979-6_16
    • Libri V, Azevedo RI, Jackson SE, Di Mitri D, Lachmann R, Fuhrmann S, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Yong K, Battistini L, Kern F, Soares MV, Akbar AN (2011). Cytomegalovirus infection induces the accumulation of short-lived, multifunctional CD4+CD45RA+CD27+ T cells: the potential involvement of interleukin-7 in this process.. Immunology, 132(3), 326 - 339. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2010.03386.x
    • Hoare M, Shankar A, Rushbrook S, Davies S, Akbar A, Alexander G (2011). CD8+T CELLS WITH DOUBLE STRAND DNA BREAKS ACCUMULATE WITH INCREASED FIBROSIS STAGE IN CHRONIC HCV INFECTION AND FAIL TO RESPOND TO IFN-alpha.
    • Akbar AN, Henson SM (2011). Are senescence and exhaustion intertwined or unrelated processes that compromise immunity?. Nat Rev Immunol, 11(4), 289 - 295. doi:10.1038/nri2959
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Rustin MH, Nikolich-Zugich J, Akbar AN (2011). Immune responses in the skin in old age.. Curr Opin Immunol, 23(4), 525 - 531. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2011.05.008
    • Di Mitri D, Azevedo RI, Henson SM, Libri V, Riddell NE, Macaulay R, Kipling D, Soares MV, Battistini L, Akbar AN (2011). Reversible senescence in human CD4+CD45RA+CD27- memory T cells.. J Immunol, 187(5), 2093 - 2100. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100978
    • Wills M, Akbar A, Beswick M, Bosch JA, Caruso C, Colonna-Romano G, Dutta A, Franceschi C, Fulop T, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Goronzy J, Griffiths SJ, Henson S, Herndler-Brandstetter D, Hill A, Kern F, Klenerman P, Macallan D, Macualay R, Maier AB, Mason G, Melzer D, Morgan M, Moss P, Nikolich-Zugich J, Pachnio A, Riddell N, Roberts R, Sansoni P, Sauce D, Sinclair J, Solana R, Strindhall J, Trzonkowski P, van Lier R, Vescovini R, Wang G, Westendorp R, Pawelec G (2011). Report from the second cytomegalovirus and immunosenescence workshop.. Immun Ageing, 8(1), 10 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4933-8-10
    • Di Mitri D, Henson S, Riddell NE, Kipling D, Soares MVD, Battistini L, Akbar AN (2011). Reversible senescence in human CD4(+) CD45RA(+)CD27(-) memory T cells.
    • Wallace DL, Masters JE, De Lara CM, Henson SM, Worth A, Zhang Y, Kumar SR, Beverley PC, Akbar AN, Macallan DC (2011). Human cytomegalovirus-specific CD8(+) T-cell expansions contain long-lived cells that retain functional capacity in both young and elderly subjects.. Immunology, 132(1), 27 - 38. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2010.03334.x
    • Henson SM, Franzese O, Macaulay R, Akbar AN (2011). PD-1 acting through AKT mediates a proliferative defect in highly differentiated CD8+T cells.
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Sandhu D, Sobande T, Ogg G, Rustin M, Akbar AN (2011). Kinetics and antigen specificity of CD4(+) memory and regulatory T cells during cutaneous immune responses to Varicella zoster.
    • Sandhu D, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Agius E, Rustin M, Akbar A (2011). Early events in cutaneous delayed type hypsersensitivity response in ageing.

    2010

    • Pawelec G, Akbar A, Beverley P, Caruso C, Derhovanessian E, Fülöp T, Griffiths P, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Hamprecht K, Jahn G, Kern F, Koch SD, Larbi A, Maier AB, Macallan D, Moss P, Samson S, Strindhall J, Trannoy E, Wills M (2010). Immunosenescence and Cytomegalovirus: where do we stand after a decade?. Immun Ageing, 7, 13 - . doi:10.1186/1742-4933-7-13
    • Henson SM, Akbar AN (2010). Memory T‑Cell Homeostasis and Senescence during Aging. In Zanetti M, Schoenberger SP (Ed.), Memory T Cells (pp. - ). : Landers Bioscience.
    • van de Berg PJEJ, Griffiths SJ, Yong SL, Macaulay R, Bemelman FJ, Jackson S, Henson SM, ten Berge IJM, Akbar AN, van Lier RAW (2010). Cytomegalovirus Infection Reduces Telomere Length of the Circulating T Cell Pool. J IMMUNOL, 184(7), 3417 - 3423. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0903442
    • Booth NJ, McQuaid AJ, Sobande T, Kissane S, Agius E, Jackson SE, Salmon M, Falciani F, Yong K, Rustin MH, Akbar AN, Vukmanovic-Stejic M (2010). Different proliferative potential and migratory characteristics of human CD4+ regulatory T cells that express either CD45RA or CD45RO.. J Immunol, 184(8), 4317 - 4326. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0903781
    • Hoare M, Gelson WT, Das A, Fletcher JM, Davies SE, Curran MD, Vowler SL, Maini MK, Akbar AN, Alexander GJ (2010). CD4+ T-lymphocyte telomere length is related to fibrosis stage, clinical outcome and treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.. J Hepatol, 53(2), 252 - 260. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.03.005
    • Paris M, Jagger A, Noursadeghi M, Akbar A, Taams L (2010). Modulation of human monocyte function by effector and regulatory CD4(+) T cells.
    • Hayhoe RP, Henson SM, Akbar AN, Palmer DB (2010). Variation of human natural killer cell phenotypes with age: identification of a unique KLRG1-negative subset. Hum.Immunol, 71(7), 676 - 681.
    • Hoare M, Gelson WTH, Das A, Fletcher JM, Davies SE, Curran MD, Vowler SL, Maini MK, Akbar AN, Alexander GJM (2010). CD4+ T-lymphocyte telomere length is related to fibrosis stage, clinical outcome and treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J HEPATOL, 53(2), 252 - 260. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.03.005.
    • Agius E, Lacy K, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Papageorgiou AP, Hall S, Reed JR, Curnow J, Taams LS, Jagger A, Fuentes-Duculan J, Buckley C, Salmon M, Krueger J, Greenwood J, Klein N, Rustin M, Akbar AN (2010). Decreased TNF-alpha synthesis by macrophages restricts cutaneous immunosurveillance by memory CD4(+) T cells during ageing.
    • Akbar AN (2010). The silent war against CMV in CLL.. Blood, 116(16), 2869 - 2870. doi:10.1182/blood-2010-07-293431
    • Walton JA, Lydyard PM, Nathwani A, Emery V, Akbar A, Glennie MJ, Porakishvili N (2010). Patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia have an expanded population of CD4 perforin expressing T cells enriched for human cytomegalovirus specificity and an effector-memory phenotype.. Br J Haematol, 148(2), 274 - 284. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07964.x
    • Gelson W, Hoare M, Vowler S, Shankar A, Gibbs P, Akbar AN, Alexander GJM (2010). Features of Immune Senescence in Liver Transplant Recipients with Established Grafts. LIVER TRANSPLANT, 16(5), 577 - 587. doi:10.1002/lt.22033

    2009

    • Henson SM, Franzese O, Macaulay R, Libri V, Azevedo RI, Kiani-Alikhan S, Plunkett FJ, Masters JE, Jackson S, Griffiths S, Pircher HP, Soares MV, Akbar AN (2009). KLRG-1 signalling induced proliferative dysfunction and defective Aktser473 phosphorylation in highly differentiated human CD8+ T cells. Blood, 113, 6619 - 6628.
    • Agius A, Lacy KE, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Jagger AL, Papageorgiu A-P, Hall S, Reed J, Curnow SJ, Fuentes-Duclan J, Buckley CD, Salmon M, Taams LS, Krueger J, Greenwood J, Klein N, Rustin MHAAAAN (2009). Decreased TNF-a synthesis by macrophages restricts cutaneous immunosurveillance by memory CD4+ T cells during ageing. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 206, 1929 - 1940.
    • Wertheimer AM, Griffiths S, Njoroge S, Murray KO, Akbar AN, Nikolich-Zughich J (2009). CD8+LYMPHOCYTES FROM INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE RECOVERED FROM WNV POSSESS UNIQUE "AGE" PHENOTYPE. GERONTOLOGIST, 49, 25 - 25.
    • Agius E, Lacy KE, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Jagger AL, Papageorgiou AP, Hall S, Reed JR, Curnow SJ, Fuentes-Duculan J, Buckley CD, Salmon M, Taams LS, Krueger J, Greenwood J, Klein N, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2009). Decreased TNF-alpha synthesis by macrophages restricts cutaneous immunosurveillance by memory CD4+ T cells during aging. J.Exp.Med., 206(9), 1929 - 1940. doi:10.1084/jem.20090896
    • Weng NP, Akbar AN, Goronzy J (2009). CD28(-) T cells: their role in the age-associated decline of immune function. TRENDS IMMUNOL, 30(7), 306 - 312. doi:10.1016/j.it.2009.03.013
    • Henson SM, Franzese O, Macaulay R, Libri V, Azevedo RI, Kiani-Alikhan S, Plunkett FJ, Masters JE, Jackson S, Griffiths SJ, Pircher HP, Soares MV, Akbar AN (2009). KLRG1 signaling induces defective Akt (ser473) phosphorylation and proliferative dysfunction of highly differentiated CD8+ T cells.. Blood, 113(26), 6619 - 6628. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-01-199588
    • Henson SM, Akbar AN (2009). KLRG1--more than a marker for T cell senescence.. Age (Dordr), 31(4), 285 - 291. doi:10.1007/s11357-009-9100-9
    • Gelson W, Hoare M, Shankar A, Akbar A, Alexander G (2009). IMMUNE SENESCENCE CHARACTERISES LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS WITH ESTABLISHED GRAFTS.

    2008

    • van Baarle D, Nanlohy NM, Otto S, Plunkett FJ, Fletcher JM, Akbar AN (2008). Progressive telomere shortening of Epstein-Barr virus-specific memory T cells during HIV infection: contributor to exhaustion?. J Infect.Dis., 198(9), 1353 - 1357.
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Agius E, Booth N, Dunne PJ, Lacy KE, Reed JR, Sobande TO, Kissane S, Salmon M, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2008). The kinetics of CD4+Foxp3+ T cell accumulation during a human cutaneous antigen-specific memory response in vivo.. J Clin Invest, 118(11), 3639 - 3650. doi:10.1172/JCI35834
    • Henson SM, Macaulay R, Kiani-Alikhan S, Akbar AN (2008). The use of the inhibitory receptors for modulating the immune responses.. Curr Pharm Des, 14(26), 2643 - 2650.
    • Das A, Hoare M, Davies N, Lopes AR, Dunn C, Kennedy TF, Alexander G, Finney H, Lawson A, Plunkett FJ, Akbar AN, Bertoletti A, Maini MK (2008). Functional Skewing of the global CD8 T cell population in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 205, 2111 - 2124.
    • Scheel-Toellner D, Razza K, Assi L, Pilling D, Ross EJ, Lee WY, Curnow SJ, Buckley CD, Akbar A, N L, J M S, M (2008). Differential regulation of nuclear and mitochondrial Bc1-2 in T cell apoptosis. Apoptosis, 13(1), 109 - 117.

    2007

    • Plunkett FJ, Franzese O, Finney HM, Fletcher JM, Belaramani LL, Salmon M, Dokal I, Webster D, Lawson AD, Akbar AN (2007). The loss of telomerase activity in highly differentiated CD8+CD28-. J Immunol, 178(12), 7710 - 7719.
    • Colonna-Romano G, Akbar AN, Aquino A, Bulati M, Candore G, Lio D, Ammatuna P, Fletcher JM, Caruso C, Pawelec G (2007). Impact of CMV and EBV serospositivity on CD8 T lymphocytes in an old population from West Sicily. Experimental Gerontology, 42(10), 995 - 1002.
    • Akbar AN, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Taams LS, Macallan DC (2007). The dynamic co-evolution of memory and regulatory CD4+ T cells in the periphery.. Nat Rev Immunol, 7(3), 231 - 237. doi:10.1038/nri2037
    • Plunkett FJ, Franzese O, Finney HM, Fletcher JM, Belaramani LL, Salmon M, Dokal I, Webster D, Lawson AD, Akbar AN (2007). The loss of telomerase activity in higly differentiated CD8+CD28-CD27- T cells is associated with decreased Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation. The Journal of Immunology, 178(12), 7710 - 7719.
    • Akbar AN, Vukmanovic-Stejic M (2007). Telomerase in T lymphocytes: use it and lose it?. The Journal of Immunology, 178(11), 6689 - 6694.
    • Dheda K, Pooran A, Pai M, Miller RF, Lesley K, Booth HL, Scott GM, Akbar AN, Zumla A, Rook GA (2007). Interpretation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-gamma release assays (T-SPOT.TB) and factors that may modulate test results. Journal of Infection, 55(2), 169 - 173.

    2006

    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Zhang Y, Cook JE, Fletcher JM, McQuaid A, Masters JE, Rustin MHA, Taams LS, Beverley PCL, Macallan DC, Akbar AN (2006). Human CD4(+)CD25(hi)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are derived by rapid turnover of memory populations in vivo. J CLIN INVEST, 116(10), 2829 - 2829. doi:10.1172/JCI28941
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Reed JR, Lacy KE, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2006). Mantoux Test as a model for a secondary immune response in humans.. Immunol Lett, 107(2), 93 - 101. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2006.08.002
    • Lacy KE, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Reed JR, Akbar A, Rustin MHA (2006). Dissociation of cutaneous and systemic immunity with ageing.
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Zhang Y, Cook JE, Fletcher JM, McQuaid A, Masters JE, Rustin MHA, Taams LS, Beverley PCL, Macallan DC, Akbar AN (2006). Human CD4(+)CD25(hi)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are derived by rapid turnover of memory populations in vivo. J CLIN INVEST, 116(9), 2423 - 2433. doi:10.1172/JCI28941
    • Taams LS, Curnow SJ, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Akbar AN (2006). The generation and antigen-specificity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Inflamm.Allergy Drug Targets., 5(3), 149 - 156.
    • Wallace DL, Berard M, Soares MVD, Oldham J, Cook JE, Akbar AN, Tough DF, Beverley PCL (2006). Prolonged exposure of naive CD8(+) T cells to interleukin-7 or interleukin-15 stimulates proliferation without differentiation or loss of telomere length. IMMUNOLOGY, 119(2), 243 - 253. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2006.02429.x

    2005

    • Plunkett FJ, Franzese O, Belaramani LL, Fletcher JM, Gilmour KC, Sharifi R, Khan N, Hislop AD, Cara A, Salmon M, Gaspar HB, Rustin MH, Webster D, Akbar AN (2005). The impact of telomere erosion on memory CD8(+) T cells in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. MECH AGEING DEV, 126(8), 855 - 865.
    • Filer A, Parsonage G, Thomas A, Curnow SJ, Akbar A, Salmon M, Buckley CD (2005). Differential survival of leukocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Taams LS, van Amelsfort JMR, Tiemessen MM, Jacobs KMG, de Jong EC, Akbar AN, Bijlsma JWJ, Lafeber FPJG (2005). Modulation of monocyte/macrophage function by human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. HUM IMMUNOL, 66(3), 222 - 230. doi:10.1016/j.himimm.2004.12.006
    • van Baarle D, Tsegaye A, Miedema F, Akbar A (2005). Significance of senescence for virus-specific memory T cell responses: rapid ageing during chronic stimulation of the immune system.. Immunol Lett, 97(1), 19 - 29. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.10.003
    • Filer A, Parsonage G, Thomas A, Curnow J, Akbar A, Salmon M, Buckley CD (2005). Differential survival of leucocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Raza K, Falciani F, Curnow SJ, Ross EJ, Lee CY, Akbar AN, Lord JM, Gordon C, Buckley CD, Salmon M (2005). Early rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by a distinct and transient synovial fluid cytokine profile of T cell and stromal cell origin. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 7, R784 - R795. doi:10.1186/ar1733
    • Pawelec G, Akbar A, Caruso C, Solana E, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Wikby A (2005). Human immunosenescence: is it infectious?. Immunology Review, 205, 257 - 268.
    • Akbar AN, Fletcher JM (2005). Memory T cell homeostasis and senescence during aging. Current Opinion in Immunology, 17, 480 - 485.
    • Taams LS, Akbar AN (2005). Peripheral generation and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 293, 115 - 131.
    • Dunne PJ, Belaramani L, Fletcher JM, de Mattos SF, Lawrenz M, Soares MV, Rustin MH, Lam EW, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2005). Quiescence and functional reprogramming of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8+ T cells during persistent infection. Blood, 106, 558 - 565.
    • Taams LS, Palmer DB, Akbar AN, Robinson DS, Brown Z (2005). Regulatory T cells in human disease and their potential for therapeutic manipulation. Immunology, 118, 1 - 9.
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, McQuaid A, Birch KE, Reed JR, Macgregor C, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2005). Relative impact of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and tacrolimus on inhibition of T-cell proliferation in patients with atopic dermatitis. British Journal of Dermatology, 153, 750 - 757.
    • Birch KE, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Reed JR, Akbar AN, Rustin MH (2005). The immunomodulatory effects of regulatory T cells: implications for immune regulation in the skin. British Journal of Dermatology, 152, 409 - 417.
    • Hislop AD, Kuo M, Drake-Lee AB, Akbar AN, Bergler W, Hammerschmitt N, Khan N, Palendira U, Leese AM, Timms JM, Bell AI, Buckley CD, Rickinson AB (2005). Tonsillar homing of Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD8+ T cells and the virus-host balance. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115, 2546 - 2555.
    • Fletcher JM, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Dunne PJ, Birch KE, Cook JE, Jackson SE, Salmon M, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2005). Cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ T cells in healthy carriers are continuously driven to replicative exhaustion. The Journal of Immunology, 175(12), 8218 - 8225.
    • Filer A, Parsonage G, Thomas A, Curnow J, Akbar A, Salmon M, Buckley C (2005). Differential survival of leucocyte subsets by synovial, bone marrow and skin fibroblasts: Site-specific rescue of CD4 T cells versus activation-induced rescue of neutrophils.

    2004

    • Akbar AN, Beverley PCL, Salmon M (2004). Opinion - Will telomere erosion lead to a loss of T-cell memory?. NAT REV IMMUNOL, 4(9), 737 - 743. doi:10.1038/nri1440
    • Pawelec G, Akbar A, Caruso C, Effros R, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Wikby A (2004). Is immunosenescence infectious?. Trends Immunol, 25(8), 406 - 410. doi:10.1016/j.it.2004.05.006
    • Salmon M, Akbar AN (2004). Telomere erosion: a new link between HLA DR4 and rheumatoid arthritis?. TRENDS IMMUNOL, 25(7), 339 - 341. doi:10.1016/j.it.2004.05.002
    • Raza K, Curnow J, Taylor E, Lee K, Kitas G, Akbar A, Lord J, Gordon C, Buckley C, Salmon M (2004). Very early rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by a unique and transient synovial cytokine profile of T cell and stromal origin.
    • Curnow SJ, Wloka K, Faint JM, Amft N, Cheung CM, Savant V, Lord J, Akbar AN (2004). Topical glucocorticoid therapy directly induces up-regulation of functional CXCR4 on primed T lymphocytes in the aqueous humor of patients with uveitis. The Journal of Immunology, 172(11), 7154 - 7161.
    • Reed JR, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Fletcher JM, Soares MV, Cook JE, Orteu CH, Jackson SE, Birch KE, Foster GR, Salmon M, Beverley PC, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2004). Telomere erosion in memory T cells induced by telomerase inhibition at the site of antigenic challenge in vivo. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 199(10), 1433 - 1443. doi:10.1084/jem.20040178
    • Porakishvili N, Kardava L, Jewell AP, Yong K, Glennie MJ, Akbar AN, Lydyard PM (2004). Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia kill a perforin-mediated pathway. Haematologica, 89(4), 435 - 443.
    • Crowston JG, Chang LH, Daniels JT, Khaw PT, Akbar AN (2004). T lymphocyte mediated lysis of mitomycin C treated Tenon's capsule fibroblasts. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 88(3), 399 - 405.
    • Raza K, Curnow SJ, Taylor EJ, Lee KY, Akbar AN, Lord J, Kitas GD, Buckley CD, Gordon C, Salmon M (2004). VERY EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IS CHARACTERISED BY A UNIQUE AND TRANSIENT T CELL AND STROMAL CYTOKINE PROFILE. RHEUMATOLOGY, 43, 13 - 13.
    • Finney HM, Akbar AN, Lawson AD (2004). Activation of resting human primary T cells with chimeric receptors: costimulation from CD28, inducible costimulator, CD134 and CD137 in series with signals from the TCR zeta chain. The Journal of Immunology, 172(1), 104 - 113.
    • Soares MVD, Plunkett FJ, Verbeke CS, Cook JE, Faint JM, Belaramani LL, Fletcher JM, Hammerschmitt N, Rustin M, Bergler W, Beverley PCL, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2004). Integration of apoptosis and telomere erosion in virus-specific CD8(+) T cells from blood and tonsils during primary infection. BLOOD, 103(1), 162 - 167. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-06-1791
    • Reed JR, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Fletcher JM, Soares MVD, Cook JE, Orteu CH, Jackson SE, Birch KE, Foster GR, Salmon M, Beverley PCL, Rustin MHA, Akbar AN (2004). Telomere erosion in memory T cells induced by telomerase inhibition at the site of antigenic challenge in vivo. J EXP MED, 199(10), 1433 - 1443. doi:10.1084/jem.20040178

    2003

    • Taams L, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Salmon M, Akbar A (2003). Immune regulation by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: implications for transplantation tolerance.. Transpl Immunol, 11(3-4), 277 - 285. doi:10.1016/S0966-3274(03)00047-9
    • Reed J, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Salmon M, Rustin M, Akbar A (2003). CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells and the resolution of cutaneous antigen-specific inflammation in humans in vivo.
    • Borthwick NJ, Akbar AN, Buckley C, Pilling D, Salmon M, Jewell AP, Yong KL (2003). Transendothelial migration confers a survival advantage to activated T lymphocytes: role of LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 134, 246 - 252.
    • Wang K, Scheel-Toellner D, Wong SH, Craddock R, Caamano J, Akbar AN, Salmon M, Lord JM (2003). Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by Type 1 IFN depends on cross-talk between phosphoinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C-ë and NF-kB signalling pathways. The Journal of Immunology, 171, 1035 - 1041.
    • Akbar AN, Taams LS, Salmon M, Vukmanovic-Stejic M (2003). The peripheral generation of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Immunology, 109, 319 - 325.
    • Taams LS, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2003). Immune regulation by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: implications for transplantation tolerance. Transplant Immunology, 11, 277 - 285.

    2002

    • Porakishvili N, Jewell AP, Kwee Y, Akbar A, Lydyard PM (2002). CD4+PF+ T cells with regulatory phenotype in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL)..
    • Dunne PJ, Fains JM, Gudgeon NH, Fletcher JM, Soares MV, Hislop AD, Anels NE, Rickson AB, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2002). Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD8 (+) T cells that re-express CD45RA are apoptosis-resistant memory cells that retain replicative potential. Blood, 100(3), 933 - 940. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-01-0160
    • Reed JR, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Orteu CH, Bofill M, Poulter LW, Buckley CD, Salmon M, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2002). Identification of antigen-specific lymphocytes, CCR7 expression and the role of apoptosis during resolving cutaneous inflammation. J INVEST DERMATOL, 119(1), 299 - 299.
    • Taams LS, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Smith J, Dunne PJ, Fletcher JM, Plunkett FJ, Ebeling SB, Lombardi G, Rustin MH, Bijlma JW, Lafeber FP, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2002). Antigen-specific T cell suppression by human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. European Journal of Immunology, 32(6), 1621 - 1630.
    • Scheel-Toellner D, Wang K, Henriquez NV, Webb PR, Craddock R, Pilling D, Akbar AN, Salmon M, Lord JM (2002). Cytokine-mediated inhibition of apoptosis in non-transformed T cells and neutrophils can be dissociated from protein kinase B activation.. Eur J Immunol, 32(2), 486 - 493. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200202)32:2<486::AID-IMMU486>3.0.CO;2-U
    • Lord JM, Akbar AN, Kipling D (2002). Telomere-based therapy for immunosenescence. Trends Immunol, 23(4), 175 - 176.
    • Crowston JG, Chang LH, Constable PH, Daniels JT, Akbar AN, Khaw PT (2002). Apoptosis gene expression and death receptor signaling in mitomycin-C-treated human tenon capsule fibroblasts. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 43(3), 692 - 699.
    • Scheel-Toellner D, Wang K, Henriquez NV, Webb PR, Craddock R, Pilling D, Akbar AN, Salmon M, Lord JM (2002). Cytokine-mediated inhibition of apoptosis in non-transformed T cells and neutrophils can be dissociated from protein kinase B activation. Eur.J Immunol, 32(2), 486 - 493.
    • Chang L, Siriwardena D, Wilkins MR, Crowston JG, Akbar AN, Khaw PT (2002). In vivo production of interferon beta by human Tenon's fibroblasts; a possible mediator for the development of chronic conjunctival inflammation. The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 86(6), 611 - 615.

    2001

    • Plunkett FJ, Akbar AN (2001). IL-15--friend or foe in transplantation rejection?. Transplantation, 72(5), 771 - .
    • Plunkett FJ, Soares MVD, Annels N, Salmon M, Rickinson A, Akbar AN (2001). Analysis of telomere length in antigen specific CD8+T cells by fluorescent in situ hybridisation. MECH AGEING DEV, 122(12), 1353 - 1354.
    • Faint JM, Annels NE, Curnow SJ, Shields P, Pilling D, Hislop AD, Wu L, Akbar AN, Buckley CD, Moss PA, Adams DH, Rickinson AB, Salmon M (2001). Memory T cells constitute a subset of the human CD8+CD45RA+ pool with distinct phenotypic and migratory characteristics. The Journal of Immunology, 167(1), 212 - 220.
    • Plunkett FJ, Soares MVD, Annels N, Hislop A, Ivory K, Lowdell M, Salmon M, Rickinson A, Akbar AN (2001). The flow cytometric analysis of telomere length in antigen- specific CD8(+) T cells during acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. BLOOD, 97(3), 700 - 707.
    • Taams LS, Smith J, Rustin MH, Salmon M, Poulter LW, Akbar AN (2001). Human anergic/suppressive CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells: a highly differentiated and apoptosis-prone population. European Journal of Immunology, 31(4), 1122 - 1131.
    • Chang L, Crowston JG, Sabin CA, Khaw PT, Akbar AN (2001). Human tenon's fibroblast-produced ifnbeta and the prevention of t-cell apoptosis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 42(7), 1531 - 1538.
    • Buckley CD, Pilling D, Lord JM, Akbar AN, Scheel-Toellner D, Salmon M (2001). Fibroblasts regulate the switch from acute resolving to chronic persistent inflammation. Trends in Immunology, 22(4), 199 - 204.

    2000

    • Akbar AN, Soares MV, Plunkett FJ, Salmon M (2000). Differential regulation of CD8+ T cell senescence in mice and men. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 121(1-3), 69 - 76.
    • Plunkett FJ, Soares MVD, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2000). Regulation of apoptosis and replicative senescence in CD8+ T cell following acute viral infection. Apoptosis, 5(5), 431 - 434.
    • Orteu CH, Rustin MHA, O'Toole E, Sabin C, Salmon M, Poulter LW, Akbar AN (2000). The inhibition of cutaneous T cell apoptosis may prevent resolution of inflammation in atopic eczema. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 122(2), 150 - 156.
    • Lombardi G, Dunne PJ, Scheel-Toellner D, Sanyal T, Pilling D, Taams LS, Life P, Lord JM, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2000). Type 1 IFN maintains the survival of anergic CD4+ T cells. The Journal of Immunology, 165(7), 3782 - 3789.
    • Chang L, Crowston JG, Cordeiro MF, Akbar AN, Khaw PT (2000). The role of the immune system in conjunctival wound healing after glaucoma surgery. Survey of Ophthalmology, 45(1), 49 - 68.
    • Borthwick NJ, Lowdell M, Salmon M, Akbar AN (2000). Loss of CD28 expression on CD8(+) T cells is induced by IL-2 receptor gamma chain signalling cytokines and type I IFN, and increases susceptibility to activation-induced apoptosis. International Immunology, 12(7), 1005 - 1013.
    • Bofill M, Akbar AN, Amlot PL (2000). Follicular dendritic cells share a membrane-bound protein with fibroblasts. The Journal of Pathology, 191(2), 217 - 226.
    • Pilling D, Akbar AN, Shamsadeen N, Scheel-Toellner D, Buckley C, Salmon M (2000). High cell density provides potent survival signals for resting T-cells. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 46(1), 163 - 174.
    • Orteu C, Rustin M, O'Toole E, Salmon M, Poulter L, Akbar A (2000). The inhibition of cutaneous T cell apoptosis may prevent resolution of inflammation in atopic eczema. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 114(4), 877 - .
    • Akbar AN, Lord JM, Salmon M (2000). IFN-alpha and IFN-beta: a link between immune memory and chronic inflammation. Immunology Today, 21(7), 337 - 342.

    1999

    • Maini MK, Soares MVD, Zilch CF, Akbar AN, Beverley PCL (1999). Telomerase upregulation in an acute viral infection: a mechanism to maintain line replicative capacity of CD8+ T cells undergoing clonal expansion. The Journal of Immunology, 162, 4521 - 4526.
    • Maini MK, Soares MVD, Zilch CF, Akbar AN, Beverley PCL (1999). Virus-induced CD8(+) T cell clonal expansion is associated with telomerase up-regulation and telomere length preservation: A mechanism for rescue from replicative senescence. J IMMUNOL, 162(8), 4521 - 4526.
    • Kipling D, Wynford-Thomas D, Jones CJ, Akbar A, Aspinall R, Bacchetti S, Blasco MA, Broccoli D, DePinho RA, Edwards DR, Effros RB, Harley CB, Lansdorp PM, Linskens MH, Prowse KR, Newbold RF, Olovnikov AM, Parkinson EK, Pawelec G, Pontén J, Shall S, Zijlmans M, Faragher RG (1999). Telomere-dependent senescence.. Nat Biotechnol, 17(4), 313 - 314. doi:10.1038/7827
    • Pilling D, Akbar AN, Girdlestone J, Orteu CH, Borthwick NJ, Amft N, Scheel-Toellner D, Buckley CD, Salmon M (1999). Interferon-beta mediates stromal cell rescue of T cells from apoptosis. EUR J IMMUNOL, 29(3), 1041 - 1050.
    • Buckley CD, Pilling D, Henriquez NV, Parsonage G, Threlfall K, Scheel-Toellner D, Simmons DL, Akbar AN, Lord JM, Salmon M (1999). RGD peptides induce apoptosis by direct caspase-3 activation. Nature, 397(6719), 534 - 539.
    • Scheel-Toellner C, Pilling D, Hardie D, Akbar AN, Salmon M, Lord JM (1999). Inhibition of T cell apoptosis by interferon-beta gradually reverses nuclear translocation of protein kinase C delta. European Journal of Immunology, 29, 2603 - 2612.
    • Pilling D, Akbar AN, Girdlestone J, Orteu CH, Borthwick NJ, Amft N, Scheel-Toellner C, Buckley CD, Salmon M (1999). Interferon-beta is the principal mediator of stromal cell rescue of T cells from apoptosis. European Journal of Immunology, 29, 1041 - 1050.
    • Taams LS, Poulter LW, Rustin MHA, Akbar AN (1999). Phenotypic analysis of IL-10-treated macrophages using the monoclonal antibodies RFD1 and RFD7. PATHOBIOLOGY, 67(5-6), 249 - 252.
    • Faint JM, Pilling D, Akbar AN, Kitas GD, Bacon PAB, Salmon M (1999). Quantitative flow cytometry for the analysis of T cell receptor V-beta chain expression. Journal of Immunological Methods, 225, 53 - 60.

    1998

    • Hassan IS, Bannister BA, Akbar A, Weir W, Bofill M (1998). A study of the immunology of the chronic fatigue syndrome: correlation of immunologic parameters to health dysfunction.. Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 87(1), 60 - 67.
    • Orteu CH, Poulter LW, Rustin MH, Sabin CA, Salmon M, Akbar AN (1998). The role of apoptosis in the resolution of T cell-mediated cutaneous inflammation. The Journal of Immunology, 161(4), 1619 - 1629.
    • Dibbert B, Daigle I, Braun D, Schranz C, Weber M, Blaser K, Zangemeister-Wittke U, Akbar AN, Simon HU (1998). Role for Bcl-xL in delayed eosinophil apoptosis mediated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-5. Blood, 92(3), 778 - 783.
    • Akbar AN (1998). Life (and death) in the Fas lane. Gut, 43(1), 5 - 6.
    • Crowston JG, Akbar AN, Constable PH, Daniels JT, Khaw PT (1998). Antimetabolite induced apoptosis in Tenon's capsule fibroblasts.. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 39(2), 449 - 454.
    • Soares MVD, Borthwick NJ, Maini MK, Janossy G, Salmon M, Akbar AN (1998). Interleukin-7 dependent extrarhythmic expansion of CD45RA + T cells enables preservation of a naive repertoire. The Journal of Immunology, 161, 5909 - 5917.
    • Howie D, Spencer J, DeLord D, Pitzalis C, Wathen NC, Dogan A, Akbar A, MacDonald TT (1998). Extrathymic T cell differentiation in the human intestine early in life. The Journal of Immunology, 161(11), 5862 - 5872.
    • Riordan FA, Bravery CA, Mengubas K, Ray N, Borthwick NJ, Akbar AN, Hart SM, Hoffbrand AV, Mehta AB, Wickremasinghe RG (1998). Herbimycin A accelerates the induction of apoptosis following etoposide treatment or gamma-irradiation of bcr/abl-positive leukaemia cells. Oncogene, 16(12), 1533 - 1542.

    1997

    • Crowston JG, Salmon M, Khaw PT, Akbar AN (1997). T-lymphocyte-fibroblast interactions.. Biochem Soc Trans, 25(2), 529 - 531.
    • Hargreaves RG, Borthwick NJ, Gilardini Montani MS, Piccolella E, Carmichael P, Lechler RI, Akbar AN, Lombardi G (1997). Induction of apoptosis following antigen presentation by T cells: anergy and apoptosis are two separate phenomena. Transplant.Proc., 29(1-2), 1102 - 1104.
    • Hyde H, Borthwick NJ, Janossy G, Salmon M, Akbar AN (1997). Upregulation of intracellular glutathione by fibroblast-derived factor(s): enhanced survival of activated T cells in the presence of low Bcl-2. Blood, 89(7), 2453 - 2460.
    • Hargreaves RG, Borthwick NJ, Gilardini Montani MS, Piccolella E, Carmichael P, Lechler RI, Akbar AN, Lombardi G (1997). Dissociation of T cell anergy from apoptosis by blockade of Fas/Apo-1 (CD95) signaling. J Immunol, 158(7), 3099 - 3107.
    • Borthwick NJ, Akbar AN, MacCormac LP, Lowdell M, Craigen JL, Hassan I, Grundy JE, Salmon M, Yong KL (1997). Selective migration of highly differentiated primed T cells, defined by low expression of CD45RB, across human umbilical vein endothelial cells: effects of viral infection on transmigration. Immunology, 90(2), 272 - 280.
    • Akbar AN, Salmon M (1997). Cellular environments and apoptosis: tissue microenvironments control activated T-cell death. Immunol.Today, 18(2), 72 - 76.
    • Craigen JL, Yong KL, Jordan NJ, MacCormac LP, Westwick J, Akbar AN, Grundy JE (1997). Human cytomegalovirus infection up-regulates interleukin-8 gene expression and stimulates neutrophil transendothelial migration. Immunology, 92(1), 138 - 145.
    • Salmon M, Scheel-Toellner D, Huissoon AP, Pilling D, Shamsadeen N, Hyde H, D'Angeac AD, Bacon PA, Emery P, Akbar AN (1997). Inhibition of T cell apoptosis in the rheumatoid synovium. J Clin.Invest, 99(3), 439 - 446.

    1996

    • Gordon C, Matthews N, Schlesinger BC, Akbar AN, Bacon PA, Emery P, Salmon M (1996). Active systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with the recruitment of naive/resting T cells. Br.J Rheumatol., 35(3), 226 - 230.
    • Akbar AN, Borthwick NJ, Wickremasinghe RG, Panayiotidis P, Pilling D, Bofill M, Krajewski S, Reed JC, Salmon M (1996). Interleukin 2-receptor common gamma-chain signaling cytokines regulated activated t cell apoptosis in response to growth factor withdrawal:selective induction of anti-apoptotic (bcl-2,bcl-xL) but not pro-apoptotic (bax,bcl-xS) gene expression. European Journal of Immunology, 26(2), 294 - 299.
    • Akbar AN, Borthwick NJ, Pilling D, Salmon M (1996). Interleukin-2 receptor common gamma-chain signalling cytokines regulate activated T cell apoptosis by selectively inducing anti-apoptotic (bcl-2, bcl-x(L)) but not pro-apoptotic gene (bax, bcl-x(S)) expression.. FASEB J, 10(6), 414 - 414.
    • Pilling D, Akbar AN, Bacon PA, Salmon M (1996). CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells from adults respond to recall antigens after CD28 ligation. Int.Immunol, 8(11), 1737 - 1742.
    • Gombert W, Borthwick NJ, Wallace DL, Hyde H, Bofill M, Pilling D, Beverley PCL, Janossy G, Salmon M, Akbar AN (1996). Fibroblasts prevent apoptosis of IL-2-deprived T cells without inducing proliferation: A selective effect on Bcl-x(L) expression. IMMUNOLOGY, 89(3), 397 - 404.
    • Sfikakis PP, Souliotis VL, Akbar AN, Katsilambros N, Hoffbrand VA, Panayiotidis P (1996). Regulation of bcl-2 and fas expression in primary activation of human peripheral lymphocytes is not sensitive to dexamethasone or cyclosporin-A. Hum.Immunol, 50(2), 121 - 126.
    • Borthwick NJ, Bofill M, Hassan I, Panayiotidis P, Janossy G, Salmon M, Akbar AN (1996). Factors that influence activated CD8+ T-cell apoptosis in patients with acute herpesvirus infections: loss of costimulatory molecules CD28, CD5 and CD6 but relative maintenance of Bax and Bcl-X expression. Immunology, 88(4), 508 - 515.

    1995

    • Bofill M, Gombert W, Borthwick NJ, Akbar AN, McLaughlin JE, Lee CA, Johnson MA, Pinching AJ, Janossy G (1995). Presence of CD3+CD8+Bcl-2(low) lymphocytes undergoing apoptosis and activated macrophages in lymph nodes of HIV-1+ patients. Am.J Pathol., 146(6), 1542 - 1555.

    1994

    • North ME, Akbar AN, Borthwick N, Sagawa K, Funauchi M, Webster AD, Farrant J (1994). Co-stimulation with anti-CD28 (Kolt-2) enhances DNA synthesis by defective T cells in common variable immunodeficiency. Clin.Exp.Immunol, 95(2), 204 - 208.
    • Bofill M, Akbar AN, Salmon M, Robinson M, Burford G, Janossy G (1994). Immature CD45RA(low)RO(low) T cells in the human cord blood. I. Antecedents of CD45RA+ unprimed T cells. J Immunol, 152(12), 5613 - 5623.
    • Akbar AN, Salmon M, Janossy G (1994). Role of bcl-2 and apoptosis in viral infections. Int.Arch.Allergy Immunol, 105(4), 359 - 362.
    • Akbar AN, Savill J, Gombert W, Bofill M, Borthwick NJ, Whitelaw F, Grundy J, Janossy G, Salmon M (1994). The specific recognition by macrophages of CD8+,CD45RO+ T cells undergoing apoptosis: a mechanism for T cell clearance during resolution of viral infections. J.Exp.Med., 180(5), 1943 - 1947.
    • Salmon M, Pilling D, Borthwick NJ, Viner N, Janossy G, Bacon PA, Akbar AN (1994). The progressive differentiation of primed T cells is associated with an increasing susceptibility to apoptosis. Eur.J Immunol, 24(4), 892 - 899.
    • Borthwick NJ, Bofill M, Gombert WM, Akbar AN, Medina E, Sagawa K, Lipman MC, Johnson MA, Janossy G (1994). Lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 infection. II. Functional defects of CD28- T cells.. AIDS, 8(4), 431 - 441.

    1993

    • North ME, Akbar A, Borthwick N, Webster AD, Farrant J (1993). Anti-CD28 enhances defective mitogen responses by mononuclear cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency.. Immunodeficiency, 4(1-4), 17 - 18.
    • Matthews N, Emery P, Pilling D, Akbar A, Salmon M (1993). Subpopulations of primed T helper cells in rheumatoid arthritis.. Arthritis Rheum, 36(5), 603 - 607.
    • Akbar AN, Salmon M, Savill J, Janossy G (1993). A possible role for bcl-2 in regulating T-cell memory--a 'balancing act' between cell death and survival. Immunol.Today, 14(11), 526 - 532.
    • Akbar AN, Borthwick N, Salmon M, Gombert W, Bofill M, Shamsadeen N, Pilling D, Pett S, Grundy JE, Janossy G (1993). The significance of low bcl-2 expression by CD45RO T cells in normal individuals and patients with acute viral infections. The role of apoptosis in T cell memory. J.Exp.Med., 178(2), 427 - 438.
    • Grundy JE, Pahal GS, Akbar AN (1993). Increased adherence of CD2 peripheral blood lymphocytes to cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts is blocked by anti-LFA-3 antibody. Immunology, 78(3), 413 - 420.

    1991

    • Akbar AN, Salmon M, Janossy G (1991). The synergy between naive and memory T cells during activation. Immunol Today, 12(6), 184 - 188.
    • Akbar AN, Salmon M, Ivory K, Taki S, Pilling D, Janossy G (1991). Human CD4+CD45R0+ and CD4+CD45RA+ T cells synergize in response to alloantigens. Eur.J Immunol, 21(10), 2517 - 2522.

    1990

    • Akbar AN, Amlot PL, Timms A, Lombardi G, Lechler R, Janossy G (1990). The development of primed/memory CD8+ lymphocytes in vitro and in rejecting kidneys after transplantation.. Clin Exp Immunol, 81(2), 225 - 231.
    • Akbar AN, Amlot PL, Ivory K, Timms A, Janossy G (1990). Inhibition of alloresponsive naive and memory T cells by CD7 and CD25 antibodies and by cyclosporine. Transplantation, 50(5), 823 - 829.

    1989

    • Heinrich G, Gram H, Kocher HP, Schreier MH, Ryffel B, Akbar A, Amlot PL, Janossy G (1989). Characterization of a human T cell-specific chimeric antibody (CD7) with human constant and mouse variable regions.. J Immunol, 143(11), 3589 - 3597.
    • Janossy G, Campana D, Akbar A (1989). Kinetics of T lymphocyte development.. Curr Top Pathol, 79, 59 - 99.
    • Akbar AN, Timms A, Janossy G (1989). Cellular events during memory T-cell activation in vitro: the UCHL1 (180,000 MW) determinant is newly synthesized after mitosis.. Immunology, 66(2), 213 - 218.

    1988

    • Akbar AN, Terry L, Timms A, Beverley PC, Janossy G (1988). Loss of CD45R and gain of UCHL1 reactivity is a feature of primed T cells. J.Immunol., 140(7), 2171 - 2178.

    1987

    • Akbar AN, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly PA, Giardina PJ, Hilgartner MW, Grady RW (1987). Modulation of the defective natural killer activity seen in thalassaemia major with desferrioxamine and alpha-interferon.. Clin Exp Immunol, 70(2), 345 - 353.
    • Robert-Guroff M, Giardina PJ, Robey WG, Jennings AM, Naugle CJ, Akbar AN, Grady RW, Hilgartner MW (1987). HTLV-III neutralizing antibody development in transfusion-dependent seropositive patients with beta-thalassemia.. J Immunol, 138(11), 3731 - 3736.

    1986

    • Akbar AN, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly PA, de Sousa M, Giardina PJ, Hilgartner MW, Grady RW (1986). Decreased natural killer activity in thalassemia major: a possible consequence of iron overload.. J Immunol, 136(5), 1635 - 1640.

    1985

    • Grady RW, Akbar AN, Giardina PJ, Hilgartner MW, de Sousa M (1985). Disproportionate lymphoid cell subsets in thalassaemia major: the relative contributions of transfusion and splenectomy.. Br J Haematol, 59(4), 713 - 724.
    • Akbar AN, Giardina PJ, Hilgartner MW, Grady RW (1985). Immunological abnormalities in thalassaemia major. I. A transfusion-related increase in circulating cytoplasmic immunoglobulin-positive cells.. Clin Exp Immunol, 62(2), 397 - 404.

    1984

    • Akbar AN, Jones DB, Wright DH (1984). Spontaneous and Concanavalin A-induced suppressor activity in control and Hodgkin's disease patients. Br.J Cancer, 49(3), 349 - 356.
    • Akbar AN, Jones DB (1984). Suppression of the mixed lymphocyte reaction by alloantigen-primed and -stimulated human spleen lymphocytes.. Immunology, 51(2), 361 - 366.

    1983

    • Hamblin TJ, Hussain J, Akbar AN, Tang YC, Smith JL, Jones DB (1983). Immunological reason for chronic ill health after infectious mononucleosis.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 287(6385), 85 - 88.