Dr Chris Kay


Personal Profile

Name: Chris Kay Email: c.kay@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Dr Tel: 0207 679 7312
Department: Structural & Molecular Biology Fax: 0207 679 7096
Position: Reader in EPR Spectroscopy Address: Institute of Structural & Molecular Biology, Gower Street, London, WC1E 8BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Materials, Nanotechnology (Frontier Disciplines) Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

My group uses Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy to investigate the structure of novel materials and proteins. Our work is unashamedly collaborative and brings together biologists, chemists, materials scientists and physicists. There are 3 main themes:

Characterisation of the electronic structure and properties of bismuth dopants in silicon by EPR spectroscopy (Morley et al Nature Materials 2013, Balian et al Physical Review B 2012, Morley et al Nature Materials 2010).

Characterisation of the structure and properties of thin films of copper phthalocyanines by EPR Spectroscopy (Warner et al Nature 2013, Warner et al ASC Nano 2012).

Combining X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics and nitroxide spin-labeling EPR spectroscopy to obtain and verify structures of proteins in solution (Bagneris et al Nature Communications 2013, Webster et al Nucleic Acids Research 2012, Phan et al Nature, 2011, Grohmann et al Journal of the American Chemical Society 2010).

Research Activities

Molecular Spintronics

Nitroxide Spin labelling and distance measurements by EPR Spectoscopy

Education Description

MRes in Biosciences: tutor for the Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics stream.

MSc in Nanotechnology: introduction to EPR spectroscopy for materials characterisation

Biological and biomolecular sciences undergraduate degree streams:
BIOL1002 (Quantitive Biology) - course organiser
BIOC1007 (Principles and Practice of Biochemistry) - lecturer and tutor
BIOC3003 (Advanced Biomolecular Structure) - lecturer and tutor

UCL Collaborators

External Collaborators



    • Serri M, Wu W, Fleet LR, Harrison NM, Hirjibehedin CF, Kay CW, Fisher AJ, Aeppli G, Heutz S (2014). High-temperature antiferromagnetism in molecular semiconductor thin films and nanostructures.. Nat Commun, 5, 3079 - . doi:10.1038/ncomms4079


    • Driesener RC, Duffus BR, Shepard EM, Bruzas IR, Duschene KS, Coleman NJ, Marrison AP, Salvadori E, Kay CW, Peters JW, Broderick JB, Roach PL (2013). Biochemical and kinetic characterization of radical AdoMet enzyme HydG.. Biochemistry, , - . doi:10.1021/bi401143s
    • Morley GW, Lueders P, Mohammady MH, Balian SJ, Aeppli G, Kay CWM, Witzel WM, Jeschke G, Monteiro TS (2013). Quantum control of hybrid nuclear-electronic qubits. Nature Materials, 12, 103 - . doi:10.1038/NMAT3499
    • Schumacher FF, Sanchania VA, Tolner B, Wright ZV, Ryan CP, Smith ME, Ward JM, Caddick S, Kay CW, Aeppli G, Chester KA, Baker JR (2013). Homogeneous antibody fragment conjugation by disulfide bridging introduces 'spinostics'.. Sci Rep, 3, 1525 - . doi:10.1038/srep01525
    • Hall BA, Bagneris C, Barrett T, Kay CWM (2013). Structure of NEMO through EPR Spectroscopy and Multiscale Modelling.
    • Di Valentin M, Meneghin E, Orian L, Polimeno A, Büchel C, Salvadori E, Kay CW, Carbonera D (2013). Triplet-triplet energy transfer in fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein from diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana: Insights into the structure of the complex.. Biochim Biophys Acta, , - . doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.07.003
    • Challand MR, Salvadori E, Driesener RC, Kay CW, Roach PL, Spencer J (2013). Cysteine Methylation Controls Radical Generation in the Cfr Radical AdoMet rRNA Methyltransferase.. PLoS One, 8(7), e67979 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067979
    • Filidou V, Mamone S, Simmons S, Karlen SD, Anderson HL, Kay CW, Bagno A, Rastrelli F, Murata Y, Komatsu K, Lei X, Li Y, Turro NJ, Levitt MH, Morton JJ (2013). Probing the C60 triplet state coupling to nuclear spins inside and out.. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, 371(1998), 20120475 - . doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0475
    • Bagnéris C, Decaen PG, Hall BA, Naylor CE, Clapham DE, Kay CW, Wallace BA (2013). Role of the C-terminal domain in the structure and function of tetrameric sodium channels.. Nat Commun, 4, 2465 - . doi:10.1038/ncomms3465
    • Warner M, Morley GW, Stoneham AM, Gardener JA, Din S, Wu Z, Heutz S, Tupitsyn IS, Fisher AJ, Aeppli G, Kay CWM (2013). Potential for spin-based information processing in a thin-film molecular semiconductor. Nature, , - . doi:10.1038/nature12597


    • Webster MPJ, Jukes R, Zamfir VS, Kay CWM, Bagnéris C, Barrett T (2012). Crystal structure of the UvrB dimer: insights into the nature and functioning of the UvrAB damage engagement and UvrB–DNA complexes. Nucleic Acids Research, 40, 8743-8758 - 8743-8758. doi:10.1093/nar/gks633
    • Salvadori E, Di Valentin M, Kay CWM, Pedone A, Barone V, Carbonera D (2012). The electronic structure of the lutein triplet state in plant light-harvesting complex II. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 14, 12238-12251 - 12238-12251. doi:10.1039/C2CP40877E
    • Valentini S, Cabreiro F, Ackerman D, Alam MM, Kunze MB, Kay CW, Gems D (2012). Manipulation of in vivo iron levels can alter resistance to oxidative stress without affecting ageing in the nematode C. elegans.. Mech Ageing Dev, 133(5), 282 - 290. doi:10.1016/j.mad.2012.03.003
    • Klose D, Klare JP, Grohmann D, Kay CWM, Werner F, Steinhoff H (2012). Simulation vs. Reality: A Comparison of In Silico Distance Predictions with DEER and FRET Measurements. Plos One, 7, - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039492
    • Warner M, Mauthoor S, Felton S, Wu W, Gardener JA, Din S, Klose D, Morley GW, Stoneham AM, Fisher AJ, Aeppli G, Kay CW, Heutz S (2012). Spin-based diagnostic of nanostructure in copper phthalocyanine-C60 solar cell blends.. ACS Nano, 6(12), 10808 - 10815. doi:10.1021/nn304156e
    • Balian SJ, Kunze MBA, Mohammady MH, Morley GW, Witzel WM, Kay CWM, Monteiro TS (2012). Measuring central-spin interaction with a spin bath by pulsed ENDOR: Towards suppression of spin diffusion decoherence. Phys. Rev. B, 86, 104428 - 104428. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.86.104428
    • Noimark S, Dunnill CW, Kay CWM, Perni S, Prokopovich P, Ismail S, Wilson M, Parkin IP (2012). Incorporation of methylene blue and nanogold into polyvinyl chloride catheters; a new approach for light-activated disinfection of surfaces. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22, 15388 - 15396. doi:10.1039/c2jm31987j


    • Phan G, Remaut H, Wang T, Allen W, Pirker K, Lebedev A, Henderson N, Geibel S, Volkan E, Yan J, Kunze M, Pinker J, Ford B, Kay C, Li H, Hultgren S, Thanassi D, Waksman G (2011). Crystal structure of the FimD usher bound to its cognate FimC:FimH substrate.. Nature, , 49 - 53. doi:10.1038/nature10109
    • Naik AJT, Ismail S, Kay C, Wilson M, Parkin IP (2011). Antimicrobial activity of polyurethane embedded with methylene blue, toluidene blue and gold nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus; illuminated with white light. MATER CHEM PHYS, 129(1-2), 446 - 450. doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.04.040


    • Morley GW, Warner M, Stoneham AM, Greenland PT, van Tol J, Kay CW, Aeppli G (2010). The initialization and manipulation of quantum information stored in silicon by bismuth dopants.. Nat Mater, 9(9), 725 - 729. doi:10.1038/nmat2828
    • Pauwels E, Declerck R, Verstraelen T, De Sterck B, Kay CWM, Van Speybroeck V, Waroquier M (2010). Influence of Protein Environment on the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Properties of Flavoprotein Radicals: A QM/MM Study. J PHYS CHEM B, 114(49), 16655 - 16665. doi:10.1021/jp109763t
    • Grohmann D, Klose D, Klare JP, Kay CW, Steinhoff HJ, Werner F (2010). RNA-binding to archaeal RNA polymerase subunits F/E: a DEER and FRET study.. J Am Chem Soc, 132(17), 5954 - 5955. doi:10.1021/ja101663d
    • Menzel R, Tran MQ, Menner A, Kay CWM, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP (2010). A versatile, solvent-free methodology for the functionalisation of carbon nanotubes. CHEM SCI, 1(5), 603 - 608. doi:10.1039/c0sc00287a


    • Pirker KF, Kay CWM, Stolze K, Tunega D, Reichenauer TG, Goodman BA (2009). Free radical generation in rosmarinic acid investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Free Radical Research, 43(1), 47 - 57. doi:10.1080/10715760802585236
    • Mennenga B, Kay CWM, Görisch H (2009). Quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the unusual disulfide ring formed by adjacent cysteine residues is essential for efficient electron transfer to cytochrome c550. Archives of Microbiology, 191(4), 361 - 367. doi:10.1007/s00203-009-0460-4
    • Severino JF, Goodman BA, Kay CWM, Stolze K, Tunega D, Reichenauer TG, Pirker KF (2009). Free radicals generated during oxidation of green tea polyphenols: Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 46(8), 1076 - 1088. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.01.004
    • Lovett JE, Hoffmann M, Cnossen A, Shutter ATJ, Hogben HJ, Warren , J E P, S I K, C W M T, C R A, H L (2009). Probing Flexibility in Porphyrin-Based Molecular Wires Using Double Electron Electron Resonance. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131(38), 13852 - 13859. doi:10.1021/ja905796z


    • Frank RAW, Kay CWM, Hirst J, Luisi BF (2008). Off-pathway, oxygen-dependent thiamine radical in the Krebs cycle. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(5), 1662 - 1668. doi:10.1021/ja076468k
    • Ramsay RR, Kay CWM (2008). Monoamine oxidases – kinetics, mechanism and consequences of inhibition.


    • Schleicher E, Hitomi K, Kay CWM, Getzoff ED, Todo T, Weber S (2007). Electron nuclear double resonance differentiates complementary roles for active site histidines in (6-4) photolyase.. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282(7), 4738 - 4747. doi:10.1074/jbc.M604734200
    • Kay CWM, EL Mkami H, Molla G, Pollegione L, Ramsay RR (2007). Characterization of the covalently bound anionic flavin radical in monoamine oxidase a by electron paramagnetic resonance. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 129(51), 16091 - 16097. doi:10.1021/ja076090q
    • Kay CWM, Grishin YA, Weber S, Möbius K (2007). An Improved TM110 Resonator for Continuous-Wave ENDOR Studies at X-Band. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 31(3-4), 599 - 609.
    • Kay CWM, El Mkami E, Cammack R, Evans RW (2007). Pulsed ELDOR determination of the intramolecular distance between the metal binding sites in Dicupric human serum transferrin and lactoferrin. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 129(16), 4868 - 4868. doi:10.1021/ja068966j
    • (2007). A Special Issue Dedicated to Professor Arthur Schweiger. Molecular Physics, 105(15-16), 2015 - 2201. doi:10.1080/00268970701778590


    • (2006). A Special Issue in Honour of Professor Keith McLauchlan. Molecular Physics, 104(10-11), 1529 - 1794.
    • Schnegg A, Kay CWM, Schleicher E, Hitomi K, Todo T, Möbius K, Weber S (2006). The g-tensor of the flavin cofactor in (6–4)photolyase: a 360 GHz/12.8 T electron paramagnetic resonance study. Molecular Physics, 104(10-11), 1627 - 1633. doi:10.1080/00268970600593108
    • Kay CWM, Mennenga B, Görisch H, Bittl R (2006). Substrate-binding in quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa studied by electron-nuclear double resonance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(14), 5267 - 5272. doi:10.1073/pnas.0509667103
    • Kay CWM, Mennenga B, Görisch H, Bittl R (2006). Structure of the Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Radical in Quinoprotein Ethanol Dehydrogenase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281(3), 1470 - 1476. doi:10.1074/jbc.M511132200
    • Kay CWM, Bacher A, Fischer M, Richter G, Schleicher E, Weber S (2006). Blue light-induced DNA repair by photolyase. In Silva E, Edwards AM (Ed.), Flavins: Photochemistry and Photobiology (pp. 151 - 182). : RSC publishing.
    • Kay CWM, Elsässer C, Bittl R, Farrell SR, Thorpe C (2006). Determination of the Distance between the Two Neutral Flavin Radicals in Augmenter of Liver Regeneration by Pulsed ELDOR. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(1), 76 - 77. doi:10.1021/ja057308g
    • Schnegg A, Okafuji A, Bacher A, Bittl R, Fischer M, Fuchs MR, Hegemann P, Joshi M, Kay CWM, Richter G, Schleicher E, Weber S (2006). Towards an identification of chemically different flavin radicals by means of their g-tensor. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 30(3-4), 345 - 358.


    • Kay CWM, Schleicher E, Hitomi K, Todo T, Bittl R, Weber S (2005). Determination of the G-Matrix Orientations in Flavin Radicals by High-Field/High-Frequency Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 43, S96 - S102.
    • Kay CWM, Bittl R, Bacher A, Richter G, Weber S (2005). Unambiguous determination of the g-matrix orientation in a neutral flavin radical by pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance at 94 GHz. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 10780 - 10781.
    • Kay CWM, Schleicher E, Bittl R, Bacher A, Richter G, Hitomi K, Ishikawa T, Todo T, Weber S (2005). The g-tensor of neutral flavin radicals. doi:10.1021/jp0259869
    • Kay CWM, Mennenga B, Görisch H, Bittl R (2005). Substrate-binding in quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa studied by electron paramagnetic resonance at 94 GHz. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 7974 - 7975.
    • Weber S, Kay CWM, Bacher A, Richter G, Bittl R (2005). Probing the N(5)-H Bond of the Isoalloxazine Moiety of Flavin Radicals by 9 GHz and 94 GHz Pulsed Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance. ChemPhysChem, 6, 292 - 299.
    • Schleicher E, Kowalczyk RM, Kay CWM, Richter G, Bacher A, Bittl R, Weber S (2005). Direct EPR-observation of the photo-induced triplet state of flavin mononucleotide. doi:10.1021/ja049554i


    • Schleicher E, Kowalczyk RM, Kay CWM, Hegemann P, Bacher A, Fischer M, Bittl R, Richter G, Weber S (2004). On the reaction mechanism of adduct formation in LOV domains of the plant blue-light receptor phototropin.. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126, 11067 - 11076.
    • Kay CWM, Mennenga B, Görisch H, Bittl R (2004). Characterisation of the PQQ cofactor radical in quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.. FEBS Letters, 564, 69 - 72.


    • Cintolesi P, Ritz T, Kay CWM, Timmel CR, Hore PJ (2003). Anisotropic recombination of an immobilized photoinduced radical pair in a 50-µT magnetic field: a model avian photomagnetoreceptor.. Chemical Physics, 294, 385 - 399.
    • Kay CWM (2003). The electronic structure of the photoexcited triplet state of free-base (tetraphenyl)porphyrin by time-resolved electron-nuclear double resonance and density functional theory. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125(45), 13861 - 13867.
    • Bittl R, Kay CWM, Weber S, Hegemann P (2003). Characterization of a flavin radical product in a C57M mutant of a LOV1 domain by electron paramagnetic resonance.. Biochemistry, 42, 8506 - 8512.
    • Kay CWM, Schleicher E, Kuppig A, Hofner H, Rudiger W, Schleicher M, Fischer M, Bacher A, Weber S, Richter G (2003). Blue light perception in plants. Detection and characterization of a light-induced neutral flavin radical in a C450A mutant of phototropin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278(13), 10973 - 10982. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205509200


    • Fuchs MRS, E S, A K, C W M T, J T B, R B, A R, G M, K W, S (2002). g-tensor of the neutral flavin radical cofactor of DNA photolyase revealed by 360-GHz electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 106(34), 8885 - 8890. doi:10.1021/jp0259869
    • Kay CWM, Mögling H, Schleicher E, Hitomi K, Möbius K, Todo T, Bacher A, Richter G, Weber S (2002). A comparative time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance study of the flavin cofactor photoreduction in Escherichia coli cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase and Xenopus laevis (6–4) photolyase.
    • Kay CWM, Kuppig A, Schleicher E, Bacher A, Richter G, Weber S (2002). Photochemistry of a C450A mutant of the LOV2 domain in phototropin: detection of a light-induced neutral flavin radical by EPR spectroscopy. doi:10.1021/ja049553q
    • Kay CWM, Weber S (2002). EPR of Radical-Intermediates in Flavoenzymes. In Gilbert BC, Davies MJ, Murphy DM (Ed.), (pp. 222 - 253). : The Royal Scoiety of Chemistry.
    • Kay CWM, Conti F, Fuhs M, Plato M, Weber S, Bordignon E, Carbonera D, Robinson BC, Renner MW, Fajer J (2002). Magnetic resonance studies and molecular orbital calculations on the doublet and triplet states of bacteriopurpurin: a potential second-generation photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 106(10), 2769 - 2778. doi:10.1021/jp013432k
    • Weber S, Kay CWM, Mögling H, Möbius K, Hitomi K, Todo T (2002). Photoactivation of the flavin cofactor in Xenopus Laevis (6-4) photolyase: Observation of a transient tyrosyl radical by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(3), 1319 - 1322. doi:10.1073/pnas.032469399


    • Kay CWM, Gromadecki U, Törring JT, Weber S (2001). An investigation of the structure of free-base porphycene by time-resolved electron nuclear double resonance and density functional theory on the photoexcited triplet state. Molecular Physics, 99(16), 1413 - 1420. doi:10.1080/002689798166639
    • Weber S, Richter G, Schleicher E, Bacher A, Möbius K, Kay CWM (2001). Substrate binding to DNA photolyase studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biophysical Journal, 81(2), 1195 - 1204.
    • Weber S, Möbius K, Richter G, Kay CWM (2001). The electronic structure of the flavin cofactor in DNA photolyase. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123(16), 3790 - 3798. doi:10.1021/ja003426m


    • Kay CWM, Elger G, Möbius K (1999). The photoexcited triplet state of free-base porphycene: a time-resolved EPR and electron spin echo investigation. Physical chemistry chemical physics, 1(17), 3999 - 4002. doi:10.1039/a903382c
    • Kay CWM, Feicht R, Schulz K, Sadewater P, Sancar A, Bacher A, Möbius K, Richter G, Weber S (1999). EPR, ENDOR, and TRIPLE resonance spectroscopy on the neutral flavin radical in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. Biochemistry, 38(51), 16740 - 16748. doi:10.1021/bi991442u
    • Richter G, Kay CWM, Struck K, Sadewater P, Möbius K, Weber S (1999). Radical intermediates in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: EPR and ENDOR studies.


    • Kay CWM, Grishin Y, Di Valentin M, Möbius K (1998). Time-Resolved EPR & ENDOR Study of the Photoexcited Triplet State of Free-Base Tetraphenylbacteriochlorin.
    • Kay CWM, Möbius K (1998). A time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance study of the photoexcited triplet state of free-base porphycene. Molecular Physics, 95(5), 1013 - 1019. doi:10.1080/002689798166639


    • Huber M, Doubinskii AA, Kay CWM, Möbius K (1997). ENDOR on the triplet state of the primary electron donor in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides - One step forward in a still unfinished story. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 13(3-4), 473 - 485.
    • Kay CWM, Di Valentin M M, K (1997). Time-resolved EPR and ENDOR study of the photoexcited triplet state of free-base tetraphenylchlorin in a crystalline toluene matrix. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2, (12), 2563 - 2568. doi:10.1039/a702468a
    • Grishin YA, Kay CWM, Doubinskii AA, Möbius K (1997). A novel loop-gap resonator probehead for EPR and ENDOR at X-band. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 13(3-4), 387 - 392.


    • Di Valentin M, Kay CWM, Giacometti G, Möbius K (1996). A time-resolved electron nuclear double resonance study of the photoexcited triplet state of P680 in isolated reaction centers of photosystem II. Chemical Physics Letters, 248(5-6), 434 - 441. doi:10.1016/0009-2614(95)01347-4


    • Kay CWM, Di Valentin M, Möbius K (1995). A time-resolved electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) study of the photoexcited triplet state of free-base tetraphenylporphyrin. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 38(1-4), 111 - 118. doi:10.1016/0927-0248(94)00219-3
    • Kurreck H, Aguirrea S, Batchelor SN, Dieks H, vonGersdorff J, Kay CWM, Mössler H, Newman H, Niethammer D, Schlüpmann J, Sobek J, Speck M, Stabingis T, Sun L, Tian P, Wiehe A, Möbius K (1995). Mimicking primary processes in photosynthesis Photochemistry of covalently linked porphyrin quinones studied by EPR spectroscopy. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 38(1-4), 91 - 110. doi:10.1016/0927-0248(94)00218-5
    • Kay CWM, Kurreck H, Batchelor SN, Tian P, Schlupmann J M, K (1995). Photochemistry of a butylene linked porphyrin quinone donor-acceptor system studied by time-resolved and steady-state EPR spectroscopy. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 9(4), 459 - 480.


    • Batchelor SN, Kay CWM, McLauchlan KA, Smith PD, Yeung MT (1994). The photochemistry of propanone and its derivatives as studied using flash-photolysis ESR; electron spin polarization (CIDEP) in radical products. Molecular Physics, 82(2), 325 - 342. doi:10.1080/00268979400100244


    • Batchelor SN, Kay CWM, McLauchlan KA, Shkrob IA (1993). Time-resolved and modulation methods in the study of the effects of magnetic fields on the yields of free-radical reactions. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 97(50), 13250 - 13258. doi:10.1021/j100152a032
    • Batchelor SN, Kay CWM, McLauchlan KA, Yeung MT (1993). Electron spin polarization (CIDEP) and magnetic field effects (MFE) in systems involving sulfur-centered radicals. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 97(18), 4570 - 4572. doi:10.1021/j100120a002


    • Batchelor SN, Heikkila H, Kay CWM, McLauchlan KA, Shkrob IA (1992). Chemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP) in systems involving radical-ion pairs generated from singlet exciplexes; observation of positive electron exchange interactions. Chemical Physics, 162(1), 29 - 45. doi:10.1016/0301-0104(92)80218-K