Prof Timothy Arnett

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Personal Profile

Name: Timothy Arnett Email: t.arnett@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 3309
Department: Cell & Developmental Biology Fax:
Position: Professor of Mineralised Tissue Biology Address: Anatomy Building, UCL, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Biomedical Imaging (Frontier Disciplines), Cancer, Personalised Medicine, Reproduction & Development Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

Our work falls into 3 main areas:

1. ACIDOSIS. We discovered that a small pH reduction (acidosis) is necessary to activate osteoclasts to excavate resorption pits on bone surfaces. Simultaneously, acidosis prevents mineralisation of newly-formed bone by osteoblasts. The responses of bone cells to extracellular pH changes probably represent a primitive 'failsafe' to correct systemic acidosis by releasing alkaline bone mineral. Acidosis due to disease (eg, cancer, diabetes, kidney failure) or ageing could play a role in bone loss disorders. Current research is focused on understanding the mechanisms by which bone cells recognise and respond to pH changes in their environment.

2. HYPOXIA. We found that hypoxia (low oxygen) is a major stimulator of the formation of osteoclasts from mononuclear precursor cells present in blood and bone marrow. Osteoclast formation - and thus bone destruction - is strongly increased when oxygen is reduced to as little as 1% of the atmospheric level. In contrast, we observed that hypoxia blocks the growth and bone-forming capacity of osteoblasts. These observations may help to explain why bone is rapidly lost when the blood supply is reduced or disrupted , eg, as a result of inflammation, tumours, fractures, diabetes, airway diseases and ageing. Significantly, hypoxia also causes tissue acidosis (see above). Our results emphasise the critical role of the vasculature in the maintenance of bone health.

3. NUCLEOTIDES. ATP and other nucleotides, acting through P2 receptors, play important and complex regulatory roles as messenger molecules for cell-to-cell communication. We found that numerous P2 receptors are expressed by bone cells and that low concentrations of ATP stimulate both the formation and activity of osteoclasts, whilst selectively blocking mineralisation of newly formed bone by osteoblasts. Recent results show that skeletal changes can occur when P2 receptors are defective or deficient. This works suggests that the ATP , P2 cell signalling system offers potential for novel bone therapeutics.

Research Activities

'Fundamental' regulators of osteoclast and osteoblast function

Cell stress proteins as extracellular signals

H+ Sensing G- Protein Linked Receptors

Education Description

Bone / cartilage / digital histology / imaging. Initiatives with Bone Research Society; European Calcified Tissue Society

UCL Collaborators

Prof Brian Henderson; Dr Sajeda Meghji; Prof Geoff Burnstock; Prof Andrew Steptoe; Prof Steve Humphries

External Collaborators

Publications

    2014

    • Patel JJ, Butters OR, Arnett TR (2014). PPAR agonists stimulate adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast differentiation while inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity. Cell Biochemistry and Function, , - . doi:10.1002/cbf.3025
    • Wornham DP, Hajjawi MO, Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2014). Strontium potently inhibits mineralisation in bone-forming primary rat osteoblast cultures and reduces numbers of osteoclasts in mouse marrow cultures.. Osteoporos Int, , - . doi:10.1007/s00198-014-2791-5
    • Patel JJ, Butters OR, Arnett TR (2014). PPAR agonists stimulate adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast differentiation while inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 32(4), 368 - 377. doi:10.1002/cbf.3025

    2013

    • Burnstock G, Arnett TR, Orriss IR (2013). Purinergic signalling in the musculoskeletal system. Purinergic Signalling, 9(4), 541 - 572. doi:10.1007/s11302-013-9381-4
    • Arnett TR (2013). Osteocytes: Regulating the Mineral Reserves?. J Bone Miner Res, , - . doi:10.1002/jbmr.2119
    • Arnett TR (2013). Osteoclast Biology. Osteoporosis: Fourth Edition, , 149 - 160. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-415853-5.00008-X
    • Burnstock G, Arnett TR, Orriss IR (2013). Purinergic signalling in the musculoskeletal system.. Purinergic Signal, , - . doi:10.1007/s11302-013-9381-4
    • Orriss IR, Key ML, Hajjawi MOR, Arnett TR (2013). Extracellular ATP Released by Osteoblasts Is A Key Local Inhibitor of Bone Mineralisation. PLoS ONE, 8(7), - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069057
    • Biver G, Wang N, Gartland A, Orriss I, Arnett TR, Boeynaems J-M, Robaye B (2013). Role of the P2Y receptor in the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. STEM CELLS, , N/A - N/A. doi:10.1002/stem.1411

    2012

    • Syberg S, Brandao-Burch A, Patel JJ, Hajjawi MO, Arnett TR, Schwarz P, Jorgensen NR, Orriss IR (2012). Clopidogrel (plavix), a P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, inhibits bone cell function in vitro and decreases trabecular bone in vivo. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2012.02.121
    • Marenzana M, Chenu C, Pitsillides AA, Arnett TR (2012). Does the vasodilatory action of PTH help account for its osteogenic effects?. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2012.02.502
    • Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2012). P2Y receptors in bone. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Membrane Transport and Signaling, 1(6), 805 - 814.
    • Orriss IR, Key ML, Brandao-Burch A, Patel JJ, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2012). The regulation of osteoblast function and bone mineralisation by extracellular nucleotides: The role of p2x receptors.. Bone, 51(3), 389 - 400. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2012.06.013
    • Brandao-Burch A, Key ML, Patel JJ, Arnett TR, Orriss IR (2012). The P2X7 Receptor is an Important Regulator of Extracellular ATP Levels.. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 3, 41 - . doi:10.3389/fendo.2012.00041
    • Patel JJ, Utting JC, Key ML, Orriss IR, Taylor SE, Whatling P, Arnett TR (2012). Hypothermia inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation but stimulates osteoclastogenesis.. Exp Cell Res, 318(17), 2237 - 2244. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.06.021
    • Orriss IR, Taylor SE, Arnett TR (2012). Rat osteoblast cultures.. Methods Mol Biol, 816, 31 - 41. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-415-5_3
    • Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2012). Rodent osteoclast cultures.. Methods Mol Biol, 816, 103 - 117. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-415-5_8
    • Syberg S, Brandao-Burch A, Patel JJ, Hajjawi M, Arnett TR, Schwarz P, Jorgensen NR, Orriss IR (2012). Clopidogrel (Plavix), a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, inhibits bone cell function in vitro and decreases trabecular bone in vivo.. J Bone Miner Res, 27(11), 2373 - 2386. doi:10.1002/jbmr.1690

    2011

    • Orriss IR, Wang N, Burnstock G, Arnett TR, Gartland A, Robaye B, Boeynaems JM (2011). The P2Y(6) receptor stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts.. Endocrinology, 152(10), 3706 - 3716. doi:10.1210/en.2011-1073
    • Brandao-Burch A, Burnstock G, Arnett TR, Orriss IR (2011). The P2X7 receptor is an important regulator of extracellular ATP levels. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.262
    • Key ML, Arnett TR, Orriss IR (2011). The effect of acid on the expression of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.209
    • Patel JJ, Butters OR, Taylor SEB, Arnett TR (2011). PPAR agonists stimulate adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast differentiation in primary bone cell cultures. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.193

    2010

    • Shah M, Kola B, Bataveljic A, Arnett TR, Viollet B, Saxon L, Korbonits M, Chenu C (2010). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation regulates in vitro bone formation and bone mass. BONE, 47(2), 309 - 319. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2010.04.596
    • Orriss IR, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2010). The role of P2X receptors in osteoblast function. PURINERG SIGNAL, 6(1), 142 - 142.
    • Chantry AD, Heath D, Mulivor AW, Pearsall S, Baud'huin M, Coulton L, Evans H, Abdul N, Werner ED, Bouxsein ML, Key ML, Seehra J, Arnett TR, Vanderkerken K, Croucher P (2010). Inhibiting Activin-A Signaling Stimulates Bone Formation and Prevents Cancer-Induced Bone Destruction In Vivo. J BONE MINER RES, 25(12), 2357 - 2370. doi:10.1002/jbmr.142
    • Orriss IR, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2010). Purinergic signalling and bone remodelling.. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 10(3), 322 - 330. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2010.01.003
    • Arnett TR (2010). Acidosis, hypoxia and bone.. Arch Biochem Biophys, 503(1), 103 - 109. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2010.07.021
    • Utting JC, Flanagan AM, Brandao-Burch A, Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2010). Hypoxia stimulates osteoclast formation from human peripheral blood.. Cell Biochem Funct, 28(5), 374 - 380. doi:10.1002/cbf.1660
    • Orriss IR, Arnett TR, Robaye B, Boeynaems JM (2010). The role of the P2Y(6) receptor in osteoclast function. PURINERG SIGNAL, 6(1), 130 - 130.
    • Campbell G, Demetriou LA, Arnett TR (2010). Virtual histology in the classroom and beyond.. Med Educ, 44(11), 1124 - 1125. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03828.x

    2009

    • Orriss IR, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2009). Expression of multiple P2 receptor subtypes by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.03.559
    • Orriss IR, Burnstock G, Gartland A, Arnett TR (2009). Regulation of osteoblast function and mineralisation by extracellular nucleotides: The role of P2Y and P2X receptors. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.01.339
    • Orriss IR, Key ML, Colston KW, Arnett TR (2009). Inhibition of osteoblast function in vitro by aminobisphosphonates.. J Cell Biochem, 106(1), 109 - 118. doi:10.1002/jcb.21983
    • Taylor SEB, Key ML, Lander M, Orriss IR, Patel JJ, Arnett TR (2009). A novel method for the isolation and culture of rat long bone osteoblasts. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.03.600
    • Arnett TR, Burnstock G, Orriss IR (2009). Nucleotides and regulation of bone cell function. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.01.053
    • Orriss IR, Knight GE, Utting JC, Taylor SE, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2009). Hypoxia stimulates vesicular ATP release from rat osteoblasts.. J Cell Physiol, 220(1), 155 - 162. doi:10.1002/jcp.21745

    2008

    • Arnett TR (2008). Extracellular pH regulates bone cell function. Journal of Nutrition, 138(2), 415S - 418S.
    • Orriss IR, Key ML, Arnett TR (2008). Bisphosphonates inhibit osteoblast growth and bone formation. CALCIFIED TISSUE INT, 82, S113 - S113.
    • Orriss IR, Key ML, Colston KW, Arnett TR (2008). Inhibition of osteoblast function by bisphosphonates. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2007.12.153
    • Orriss IR, Evans HR, Gartland A, Arnett TR (2008). Microct analysis of P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptor knockout mice demonstrates significant changes in bone phenotype. CALCIFIED TISSUE INT, 83(1), 2 - 3.

    2007

    • Muzylak M, Arnett TR, Price JS, Horton MA (2007). The in vitro effect of pH on osteoclasts and bone resorption in the cat: Implications for the pathogenesis of FORL. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 213(1), 144 - 150. doi:10.1002/jcp.21103
    • Orriss IR, Utting JC, Key ML, Brandao-Burch A, Colston KW, Arnett TR (2007). Zoledronate potently inhibits the growth, survival and activity of normal rat osteoblasts.
    • Orriss IR, Utting JC, Brandao-Burch A, Colston K, Grubb BR, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2007). Extracellular nucleotides block bone mineralization in vitro: evidence for dual inhibitory mechanisms involving both P2Y2 receptors and pyrophosphate. Endocrinology, 148(9), 4208 - 4216. doi:10.1210/en.2007-0066
    • Orriss IR, Utting JC, Key ML, Brandao-Burch A, Colston K, Arnett TR (2007). Zoledronate potently inhibits the growth, function and survival of normal rat osteoblasts. CALCIFIED TISSUE INT, 80, S84 - S84.
    • Arnett TR (2007). Acid–base regulation of bone metabolism. International Congress Series, 1297, 255 - 267. doi:10.1016/j.ics.2006.08.005
    • Utting JC, Orriss IR, Brandao-Burch A, Key ML, Arnett TR (2007). Hypoxia inducible factors 1 alpha and 2 alpha are stabilised in human osteoclasts exposed to hypoxia. CALCIFIED TISSUE INT, 80, S95 - S96.
    • Arnett TR (2007). Acid and bone.

    2006

    • Brandao-Burch A, Arnett TR (2006). Activation of human osteoclasts by capsaicin.
    • Orriss IR, Utting J, Brandao-Burch A, Grubb BR, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2006). Bone mineralisation in vitro is inhibited by extracellular nucelotides.
    • Gasser JA, Ludwig M, Brandao-Burch A, Ingold P, Ritter V, Arnett TR, Seuwen K (2006). Reduced BMD in mice lacking the pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 but not OGR1..
    • Spencer GJ, Utting JC, Etheridge SL, Arnett TR, Genever PG (2006). Wnt signalling in osteoblasts regulates expression of the receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand and inhibits osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Journal of Cell Science, 119(7), 1283 - 1296.
    • Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2006). Edited Monograph: Nucleotides and Regulation of Bone Cell Function.
    • Orriss IR, Knight GE, Ranasinghe S, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2006). Osteoblast responses to nucleotides increase during differentiation. Bone, 39(2), 300 - 309.
    • Orriss I, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2006). P2Y nucleotide receptor function in osteoblasts.
    • Utting JC, Robins SP, Brandao-Burch A, Orriss IR, Behar J, Arnett TR (2006). Hypoxia inhibits the growth, differentiation and bone-forming capacity of rat osteoblasts. Experimental Cell Research, 312(10), 1693 - 1702. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.02.007

    2005

    • Orriss IR, Knight GE, Arnett TR, Burnstock G (2005). P2X2 but not P2X3 receptor knockout mice demonstrate increased bone mass and weight.
    • Orriss IR, Knight GE, Ranasinghe S, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2005). Purinergic receptor expression changes with osteoblast differentiation and maturation.
    • Dempster DW, Hughes-Begos CE, Plavetic-Chee K, Brandao-Burch A, Cosman F, Nieves J, Neubort S, Lu SS, Iida-Klein A, Arnett T, Lindsay R (2005). Normal human osteoclasts formed from peripheral blood monocytes express PTH type 1 receptors and are stimulated by PTH in the absence of osteoblasts. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 95(1), 139 - 148.
    • Arnett TR (2005). Estructura y remodelado del hueso. In Riancho Moral JA, Gonzales Macías J (Ed.), Manual Práctico de Osteoporosis y Enfermedades del Metabolismo Mineral (pp. 1 - 6). : Jarpyo Editores.
    • Utting JC, Orriss IR, Brandao-Burch A, Whatling P, Arnett TR (2005). Effect of temperature on bone cell function.
    • Utting JC, Lee A, Brandao-Burch A, Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2005). Hypoxia inhibits cartilage formation in micromass cultures.
    • Brandao-Burch A, Utting JC, Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2005). Acidosis inhibits bone formation by osteoblasts in vitro by preventing mineralization. Calcified Tissue International, 77, 167 - 174.

    2004

    • Orriss IR, Burnstock G, Ranasinghe S, Arnett TR (2004). Purines and pyrimidines at low concentrations increase intracellular Ca2+ in osteoblasts.
    • Brandao-Burch A, Arnett TR (2004). Normal human osteoclasts are activated by acidosis.
    • Utting JC, Brandao-Burch A, Arnett TR (2004). Severe hypoxia increases osteoclast formation from human peripheral blood: amplification of resorption by acidosis.
    • Brandao-Burch A, Utting JC, Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2004). Osteoblast function is inhibited cooperatively by acidosis and hypoxia.
    • Utting JC, Brandao-Burch A, Arnett TR (2004). Effects of hypoxia and acidosis on the formation and activation of human osteoclasts: evidence for a key role of the vasculature in bone remodelling.
    • Orriss IR, Ranasinghe S, Knight G, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2004). Transient exposure to hypoxia stimulates ATP release from osteoblasts.
    • Arnett TA (2004). "Acid Test on Bone Disease" by Jerome Burne - full page article focussing on T.A. Arnett's work. The Times, , - .
    • Brandao-Burch A, Utting JC, Orriss IR, Arnett TR (2004). COOPERATIVE INHIBITION OF OSTEOBLAST FUNCTION BY ACIDOSIS AND HYPOXIA. CALCIFIED TISSUE INT, 74, S55 - S55.
    • Brandao-Burch A, Arnett TR (2004). Activation of normal human osteoclasts by acidosis.
    • Muzylak M, Arnett TR, Price J, Horton MA (2004). THE EFFECT OF HYPOXIA AND PH ON OSTEOCLAST FUNCTION IN THE CAT. CALCIFIED TISSUE INT, 74, S62 - S62.
    • Orriss IR, Burnstock G, Ranasinghe S, Arnett TR (2004). Purines and pyrimidines at low concentrations increase intracellular Ca2+ in osteoblasts.

    2003

    • Meghji S, Gibbons DC, Hoebertz A, Rosendaal M, Arnett TR (2003). Hypoxia stimulates of osteoclastic bone resorption.
    • Hoebertz A, Arnett TR (2003). Isolated osteoclast cultures. Methods in Molecular Medicine, 80, 53 - 64.
    • Arnett TR (2003). Regulation of bone cell function by acid-base balance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62, 511 - 520.
    • Arnett TR, Gibbons DC, Utting JC, Orriss IR, Hoebertz A, Rosendaal M, Meghji S (2003). Hypoxia is a major stimulator of osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 196(1), 2 - 8. doi:10.1002/jcp.10321
    • Brandao-Burch A, Meghji S, Arnett TR (2003). Acidosis strongly upregulates mRNA for cathepsin K, TRAP and TRAF-6 in bone.
    • Hoyle CHV, Arnett TR (2003). Histology@UCL.
    • Orriss IR, Brandao-Burch A, Utting JC, Arnett TR (2003). Hypoxia and acidosis disrupt bone nodule formation by rat osteoblasts.
    • Arnett TR, Massey HM, Utting JC, Orriss IR, Flanagan AM (2003). Hypoxia is a major stimulator of osteoclast formation from human peripheral blood.
    • Utting JC, Orriss IR, Brandao-Burch A, Arnett TR (2003). Severe hypoxia stimulates formation but not activity of rodent osteoclasts.
    • Meghji S, Gibbons DC, Hoebertz A, Rosendaal M, Arnett TR (2003). Hypoxia stimulates of osteoclastic bone resorption.
    • Hoebertz A, Arnett TR, Burnstock G (2003). Regulation of bone resorption and formation by purines and pyrimidines. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 24(6), 290 - 297.

    2002

    • Hoebertz A, Mahendran S, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2002). ATP and UTP at low concentrations strongly inhibit bone formation by osteoblasts: a novel role for the P2Y2 receptor in bone remodeling. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 86, 413 - 419.

    2001

    • Hoyle CHV, Arnett TR (2001). UCL Digital Histology CD.
    • Meghji S, Morrison MS, Henderson B, Arnett TR (2001). pH dependence of bone resorption: mouse calvarial osteoclasts are activated by acidosis. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 280(1), 112 - 119.
    • Hoebertz A, Mahendran S, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2001). Inhibition of bone formation by extracellular ATP and UTP at physiologic levels: nucleotide effects on bone formation and resorption involve different P2 receptor subtypes.
    • Hoebertz A, Meghji S, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2001). Extracellular ADP is a powerful osteolytic agent: evidence for signaling through the P2Y1 receptor on bone cells. The FASEB Journal, 15(7), 1139 - 1148. doi:10.1096/fj.00-0395com
    • Hoebertz A, Mahendran S, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2001). Extracellular nucleotide effects on bone resorption and formation involve different P2 receptor subtypes. J BONE MINER RES, 16(6), 1175 - 1175.
    • Meghji S, Henderson B, Morrison MS, Arnett TR (2001). pH dependence of bone resorption: Mouse calvarial osteoclasts are activated by acidosis. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 280(1 43-1), - .
    • Arnett TR, Gibbons DC, Hoebertz A, Rosendaal M, Meghji S (2001). Profound stimulation of bone resorption by hypoxia.
    • Meghji S, Morrison MS, Henderson B, Arnett TR (2001). pH dependence of bone resorption: mouse calvarial osteoclasts are activated by acidosis.. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 280(1), E112 - E119.
    • Gibbons DC, Meghji S, Hoebertz A, Rosendaal M, Arnett TR (2001). Hypoxia is a powerful stimulator of bone resorption.

    2000

    • Sankararajah D, Pollington C, Hoebertz A, Morrison MS, Arnett TR (2000). 1,25(OH)2D3 and interleukin-1b stimulate extracellular acidification by cultured osteoblast-like cells from rat calvaria.
    • Senaratne SG, Primakov G, Mansi JL, Arnett TR, Colston KW (2000). Bisphosphonates induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. British Journal of Cancer, 82, 1459 - 1468.
    • Hoebertz A, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2000). Extracellular ADP is a powerful activator of rat osteoclasts.
    • Hoebertz A, Zanellato N, Arnett TR (2000). Low pH is a key requirement for osteoclast activation by RANKL.
    • Hoebertz A, Townsend-Nicholson A, Glass R, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (2000). Expression of P2 receptors in bone and cultured bone cells. Bone, 27(4), 503 - 510.
    • Hoebertz A, Meghji S, Burnstock G (2000). Stimulation of bone resorption by ADP and expression of the P2Y1 receptor for ADP by bone cells.
    • Arnett TR, Morrison MS, Henderson B, Meghji S (2000). HCO3 acidosis stimulates bone resorption in mouse calvaria by activating quiescent osteoclasts.

    1999

    • Hoebertz A, Nesbitt SA, Horton MA, Arnett TR (1999). Acid activation of osteoclasts derived from human osteoclastoma.
    • Hoebertz A, Townsend-Nicholson A, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (1999). Expression of P2 receptors in bone.
    • Dunina-Barkovskaya A, Arnett TR (1999). Small pH changes alter osteoclast membrane conductance.

    1998

    • Reddi K, Meghji S, Nair SP, Arnett TR, Miller AD, Preuss M, Wilson M, Henderson B, Hill P (1998). The Escherichia coli chaperonin 60 (groEL) is a potent stimulator of osteoclast formation. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 13(8), 1260 - 1266.
    • Reddi K, Meghji S, Nair SP, Arnett TR, Miller AD, Preuss M, Wilson M, Henderson B, Hill P (1998). The Escherichia coli chaperonin 60 (groEL) is a potent stimulator of osteoclast formation.. J Bone Miner Res, 13(8), 1260 - 1266. doi:10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.8.1260
    • Morrison M, Arnett TR (1998). ATP stimulates osteoclast formation.
    • Senaratne SG, Pirianov G, Arnett TR, Colston KW (1998). Direct effects of bisphosphonates on growth and viability of breast cancer cells.. J BONE MINER RES, 13(9), 1505 - 1505.
    • Morrison MS, Arnett TR (1998). pH effects on osteoclast formation and activation.
    • (1998). Methods in Bone Biology.
    • Murrills RJ, Dempster DW, Arnett TR (1998). Isolation and culture of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption assays. In Arnett TR, Henderson B (Ed.), Methods in Bone Biology (pp. 64 - 105). : Chapman and Hall.
    • Meghji S, Morrison M, Heron K, Henderson B, Arnett TR (1998). Extracellular ATP stimulates calvarial bone resorption.
    • Morrison M, Turin L, King BF, Burnstock G, Arnett TR (1998). ATP is a potent stimulator of the activation and formation of rodent osteoclasts. The Journal of Physiology, 511, 495 - 500.

    1997

    • Morrison MS, Arnett TR (1997). Effect of extracellular pH on resorption pit formation by chick osteoclasts.
    • Arnett TR, King BF (1997). Perspectives in Physiology: ATP as an osteoclast regulator?. The Journal of Physiology, 503, 236 - 236.
    • Meghji S, Morrison MS, Henderson B, Arnett TR (1997). H+ stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption in tissue culture.
    • Dempster DW, Stein LS, Kilb JM, Moonga BS, Arnett TR, Lindsay R (1997). Estrogen does not promote apoptosis in differentiated rat osteoclasts.
    • Arnett TR, King BF (1997). ATP as an osteoclast regulator?. J Physiol, 503 ( Pt 2), 236 - .
    • Arnett TR, Morrison MS, Henderson B, Meghji S (1997). 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors block calvarial resorption stimulated by HCO3-acidosis.
    • Morrison MS, Arnett TR (1997). The novel cyclooxygenase II inhibtor S-398 stimulates pit formation by rat osteoclasts.
    • Morrison MS, Arnett TR (1997). ATP stimulates resorption pit formation by rat osteoclasts.

    1996

    • West CA, Arnett TR, Farrow SM (1996). Expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA variants in rat bone.. Bone, 19(1), 41 - 46.
    • Arnett TR, Spowage M (1996). Modulation of the resorptive activity of rat osteoclasts by small changes in extracellular pH near the physiological range.. Bone, 18(3), 277 - 279.
    • Meghji S, Henderson B, Morrison MS, Arnett TR (1996). Ca2+ release from cultured mouse calvaria is very sensitive to ambient ph.
    • Arnett TR, Lindsay R, Kilb JM, Moonga BS, Dempster DW, Spowage M (1996). Selective toxic effects of tamoxifen on osteoclasts: Comparison with the effects of oestrogen. Journal of Endocrinology, 149(3), 503 - 508.

    1994

    • Arnett TR, Boyde A, Jones SJ, Taylor ML (1994). Effects of medium acidification by alteration of carbon dioxide or bicarbonate concentrations on the resorptive activity of rat osteoclasts.. J Bone Miner Res, 9(3), 375 - 379. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650090312

    1993

    • Lees B, Stevenson JC, Molleson T, Arnett TR (1993). Differences in proximal femur bone density over two centuries. Lancet, 341(8846), 673 - 675.

    1992

    • Gray C, Colston KW, Mackay AG, Taylor ML, Arnett TR (1992). Interaction of androgen and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: effects on normal rat bone cells.. J Bone Miner Res, 7(1), 41 - 46. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650070107
    • O'Neill RP, Jones SJ, Boyde A, Taylor ML, Arnett TR (1992). Effect of retinoic acid on the resorptive activity of chick osteoclasts in vitro.. Bone, 13(1), 23 - 27.
    • Gray C, Arnett TR, Jones SJ, Burnstock G, Hukkanen M, Terenghi G, Polak JM, Konttinen YT (1992). Rapid neural growth: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P-containing nerves attain exceptional growth rates in regenerating deer antler. Neuroscience, 50(4), 953 - 963.

    1991

    • Horton MA, Helfrich MH, Taylor ML, Arnett TR (1991). Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides and the anti-vitronectin receptor antibody 23C6 inhibit dentine resorption and cell spreading by osteoclasts. Experimental Cell Research, 195(2), 368 - 375.

    1990

    • Arnett TR, Dempster DW (1990). Protons and osteoclasts.. J Bone Miner Res, 5(11), 1099 - 1103. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650051102
    • Arnett TR (1990). Update on bone cell biology.. Eur J Orthod, 12(1), 81 - 90.