Dr Sebastian Crutch


Personal Profile

Name: Sebastian Crutch Email: s.crutch@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Dr Tel: 08451 555 000
Department: Neurodegenerative Diseases Fax: 020 7676 2066
Position: Principal Research Fellow Address: Dementia Research Centre, National Hospital, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG
Research Domain: Neuroscience Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

My research has focused on the neuropsychological investigation of language and perceptual function in individuals with neurodegenerative disease and stroke. I am involved in a number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies characterising the progression and evolution of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and am particularly interested in visual disorders and disease progression in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). I also use neuropsychology and transcortical magnetic stimulation to investigate refractory access disorders, and abstract and concrete conceptual knowledge.

Research Activities

Neuropsychological investigations of language and perception in dementia and stroke

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

External Collaborators



    • Slattery C, Beck J, Harper L, Adamson G, Abdi Z, Uphill J, Campbell T, Druyeh R, Mahoney C, Rohrer J, Kenny J, Lowe J, Leung K, Barnes J, Clegg S, Blair M, Nicholas J, Guerreiro R, Rowe J, Ponto C, Zerr I, Kretzschmar H, Gambetti P, Crutch S, Warren J, Rossor M, Fox N, Collinge J, Schott J, Mead S (2014). Trem2 variants increase risk of typical early-onset Alzheimer's disease but not of prion or frontotemporal dementia.. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 85(8), e3 - . doi:10.1136/jnnp-2014-308883.7
    • Troche J, Crutch S, Reilly J (2014). Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns.. Front Psychol, 5, 360 - . doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00360
    • Witoonpanich P, Crutch SJ, Warren JD, Rossor MN (2014). The undiscovered syndrome: Macdonald Critchley's case of semantic dementia.. Neurocase, , 1 - 5. doi:10.1080/13554794.2014.910307
    • Yong KX, Shakespeare TJ, Cash D, Henley SM, Warren JD, Crutch SJ (2014). (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.. Cortex, 57C, 92 - 106. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.03.010
    • Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, Hampel H, Molinuevo JL, Blennow K, DeKosky ST, Gauthier S, Selkoe D, Bateman R, Cappa S, Crutch S, Engelborghs S, Frisoni GB, Fox NC, Galasko D, Habert MO, Jicha GA, Nordberg A, Pasquier F, Rabinovici G, Robert P, Rowe C, Salloway S, Sarazin M, Epelbaum S, de Souza LC, Vellas B, Visser PJ, Schneider L, Stern Y, Scheltens P, Cummings JL (2014). Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria.. Lancet Neurol, 13(6), 614 - 629. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70090-0
    • Downey LE, Fletcher PD, Golden HL, Mahoney CJ, Agustus JL, Schott JM, Rohrer JD, Beck J, Mead S, Rossor MN, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2014). Altered body schema processing in frontotemporal dementia with C9ORF72 mutations.. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, , - . doi:10.1136/jnnp-2013-306995


    • Scahill RI, Ridgway GR, Barnes J, Ryan NS, Clarkson MJ, Foster J, Crutch SJ, Schott JM, Ourselin S, Warren JD, Hardy J, Rossor MN, Fox NC (2013). Genetic influences on atrophy patterns in familial AD: a comparason of APP and PSEN-1 mutations. Journal of AD, 35, 199 - 212. doi:10.3233/JAD-121255
    • Crutch SJ, Schott JM, Rabinovici GD, Boeve BF, Cappa SF, Dickerson BC, Dubois B, Graff-Radford NR, Krolak-Salmon P, Lehmann M, Mendez MF, Pijnenburg Y, Ryan NS, Scheltens P, Shakespeare T, Tang-Wai DF, van der Flier WM, Bain L, Carrillo MC, Fox NC (2013). Shining a light on posterior cortical atrophy.. Alzheimers Dement, 9(4), 463 - 465. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2012.11.004
    • Crutch SJ, Lehmann M, Warren JD, Rohrer JD (2013). The language profile of posterior cortical atrophy.. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 84(4), 460 - 466. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-303309
    • Crutch SJ (2013). Seeing why they cannot see: Understanding the syndrome and causes of posterior cortical atrophy.. J Neuropsychol, , - . doi:10.1111/jnp.12011
    • Witoonpanich P, Cash DM, Shakespeare TJ, Yong KX, Nicholas JM, Omar R, Crutch SJ, Rossor MN, Warren JD (2013). Olfactory impairment in posterior cortical atrophy.. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 84(5), 588 - 590. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-304497
    • Ryan NS, Keihaninejad S, Shakespeare TJ, Lehmann M, Crutch SJ, Malone IB, Thornton JS, Mancini L, Hyare H, Yousry T, Ridgway GR, Zhang H, Modat M, Alexander DC, Rossor MN, Ourselin S, Fox NC (2013). Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for presymptomatic change in thalamus and caudate in familial Alzheimer's disease.. Brain, 136(Pt 5), 1399 - 1414. doi:10.1093/brain/awt065
    • Yong KX, Warren JD, Warrington EK, Crutch SJ (2013). Intact reading in patients with profound early visual dysfunction.. Cortex, 49(9), 2294 - 2306. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.01.009
    • Crutch SJ, Troche J, Reilly J, Ridgway GR (2013). Abstract conceptual feature ratings: the role of emotion, magnitude, and other cognitive domains in the organization of abstract conceptual knowledge.. Front Hum Neurosci, 7, 186 - . doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00186
    • Shakespeare TJ, Yong KXX, Frost C, Kim LG, Warrington EK, Crutch SJ (2013). Scene perception in posterior cortical atrophy: categorization, description and fixation patterns. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, - . doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00621
    • Downey LE, Blezat A, Nicholas J, Omar R, Golden HL, Mahoney CJ, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2013). Mentalising music in frontotemporal dementia. Cortex, 49(7), 1844 - 1855.


    • Hailstone JC, Ridgway GR, Bartlett JW, Goll JC, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2012). Accent processing in dementia. Neuropsychologia, 50(9), 2233 - 2244. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.05.027
    • Ridgway GR, Lehmann M, Barnes J, Rohrer JD, Warren JD, Crutch SJ, Fox NC (2012). Early-onset Alzheimer disease clinical variants: multivariate analyses of cortical thickness.. Neurology, 79(1), 80 - 84. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31825dce28
    • Goll JC, Ridgway GR, Crutch SJ, Theunissen FE, Warren JD (2012). Nonverbal sound processing in semantic dementia: a functional MRI study.. Neuroimage, 61(1), 170 - 180. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.02.045
    • Lehmann M, Barnes J, Ridgway GR, Ryan NS, Warrington EK, Crutch SJ, Fox NC (2012). Global gray matter changes in posterior cortical atrophy: a serial imaging study.. Alzheimers Dement, 8(6), 502 - 512. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.09.225
    • Downey LE, Mahoney CJ, Rossor MN, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2012). Impaired self-other differentiation in frontotemporal dementia due to the C9ORF72 expansion. Alzheimer's Research and Therapy, 4(5), - . doi:10.1186/alzrt145
    • Goll JC, Kim LG, Ridgway GR, Hailstone JC, Lehmann M, Buckley AH, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2012). Impairments of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.. Brain, 135(1), 190 - 200. doi:10.1093/brain/awr260
    • Crutch S, Williams P, Ridgway GR, Borgenicht L (2012). The role of polarity in antonym and synonym conceptual knowledge: Evidence from stroke aphasia and multidimensional ratings of abstract words. Neuropsychologia, 50(11), 2636 - 2644. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.07.015
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2012). Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge. Behavioural Neurology, 24(4), 265 - 276.
    • Crutch SJ, Lehmann M, Schott JM, Rabinovici GD, Rossor MN, Fox NC (2012). Posterior cortical atrophy.. Lancet Neurol, 11(2), 170 - 178. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70289-7


    • Crutch SJ, Lehmann M, Gorgoraptis N, Kaski D, Ryan N, Husain M, Warrington EK (2011). Abnormal visual phenomena in posterior cortical atrophy.. Neurocase, 17(2), 160 - 177. doi:10.1080/13554794.2010.504729
    • Hoffland BS, Snik D, Bhatia KP, Baratelli E, Katschnig P, Schwingenschuh P, Crutch S, BP VDW, Edwards MJ (2011). Patients with primary cervical dystonia have evidence of discrete deficits in praxis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 82(6), 615 - 619. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.221937
    • Crutch SJ, Jackson EC (2011). Contrasting graded effects of semantic similarity and association across the concreteness spectrum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(7), 1388 - 1408. doi:10.1080/17470218.2010.543285
    • Goll JC, Kim LG, Hailstone JC, Lehmann M, Buckley A, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2011). Auditory object cognition in dementia.. Neuropsychologia, 49(9), 2755 - 2765. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.06.004
    • Hailstone JC, Ridgway GR, Bartlett JW, Goll JC, Buckley AH, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2011). Voice processing in dementia: a neuropsychological and neuroanatomical analysis.. Brain, 134(Pt 9), 2535 - 2547. doi:10.1093/brain/awr205
    • Lehmann M, Crutch SJ, Ridgway GR, Ridha BH, Barnes J, Warrington EK, Rossor MN, Fox NC (2011). Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry in posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease.. Neurobiol Aging, 32(8), 1466 - 1476. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.08.017
    • Lehmann M, Barnes J, Ridgway GR, Wattam-Bell J, Warrington EK, Fox NC, Crutch SJ (2011). Basic visual function and cortical thickness patterns in posterior cortical atrophy.. Cereb Cortex, 21(9), 2122 - 2132. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhq287
    • Kennedy J, Lehmann M, Sokolska MJ, Archer H, Warrington EK, Fox NC, Crutch SJ (2011). Visualizing the emergence of posterior cortical atrophy. Neurocase, , - . doi:10.1080/13554794.2011.588180


    • Rohrer JD, Ridgway GR, Crutch SJ, Hailstone J, Goll JC, Clarkson MJ, Mead S, Beck J, Mummery C, Ourselin S, Warrington EK, Rossor MN, Warren JD (2010). Progressive logopenic/phonological aphasia: erosion of the language network.. Neuroimage, 49(1), 984 - 993. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.08.002
    • Omar R, Hailstone JC, Warren JE, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2010). The cognitive organization of music knowledge: a clinical analysis.. Brain, 133(Pt 4), 1200 - 1213. doi:10.1093/brain/awp345
    • Rohrer JD, Crutch SJ, Warrington EK, Warren JD (2010). Progranulin-associated primary progressive aphasia: a distinct phenotype?. Neuropsychologia, 48(1), 288 - 297. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.09.017
    • Goll JC, Crutch SJ, Loo JHY, Rohrer JD, Frost C, Bamiou DE, Warren JD (2010). Non-verbal sound processing in the primary progressive aphasias.. Brain, 133(1), 272 - 285. doi:10.1093/brain/awp235
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2010). The differential dependence of abstract and concrete words upon associative and similarity-based information: Complementary semantic interference and facilitation effects.. Cogn Neuropsychol, 27(1), 46 - 71. doi:10.1080/02643294.2010.491359
    • Hailstone JC, Crutch SJ, Vestergaard MD, Patterson RD, Warren JD (2010). Progressive associative phonagnosia: a neuropsychological analysis.. Neuropsychologia, 48(4), 1104 - 1114. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.12.011
    • Rohrer JD, Crutch SJ, Warren JD, Rossor MN (2010). Dementia, 4th Edition. In Ames D, O'Brien J, Burns A (Ed.), Dementia, 4th Edition (pp. - ). : Hodder Arnold.
    • Goll JC, Crutch SJ, Warren JD (2010). Central auditory disorders: toward a neuropsychology of auditory objects.. Curr Opin Neurol, 23(6), 617 - 627. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e32834027f6
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2010). Spatially coded semantic information about geographical terms.. Neuropsychologia, 48(7), 2120 - 2129. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.04.003


    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2009). The relationship between visual crowding and letter confusability: towards an understanding of dyslexia in posterior cortical atrophy.. Cogn Neuropsychol, 26(5), 471 - 498. doi:10.1080/02643290903465819
    • Crutch S, Connell S, Warrington EK (2009). The different representational frameworks underpinning abstract and concrete knowledge: Evidence from odd-one-out judgements. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(7), 1377 - 1390. doi:10.1080/17470210802483834
    • GutiĆ©rrez-Galve L, Lehmann M, Hobbs NZ, Clarkson MJ, Ridgway GR, Crutch S, Ourselin S, Schott JM, Fox NC, Barnes J (2009). Patterns of cortical thickness according to APOE genotype in Alzheimer's disease.. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 28(5), 476 - 485. doi:10.1159/000258100
    • Kolstoe SE, Ridha BH, Bellotti V, Wang N, Robinson CV, Crutch SJ, Keir G, Kukkastenvehmas R, Gallimore JR, Hutchinson WL, Hawkins PN, Wood SP, Rossor MN, Pepys MB (2009). Molecular dissection of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology by depletion of serum amyloid P component. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(18), 7619 - 7623. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902640106


    • Schott JM, Crutch SJ, Frost C, Warrington EK, Rossor MN, Fox NC (2008). Neuropsychological correlates of whole brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 46(6), 1732 - 1737. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.02.015
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2008). Contrasting patterns of comprehension for superordinate, basic-level, and subordinate names in semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients.. Cogn Neuropsychol, 25(4), 582 - 600. doi:10.1080/02643290701862290
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2008). Contrasting patterns of comprehension for superordinate, basic-level, and subordinate names in semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 25(4), 582 - 600. doi:10.1080/02643290701862290
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2008). The influence of refractoriness upon comprehension of non-verbal auditory stimuli. Neurocase, 14(6), 494 - 507. doi:10.1080/13554790802498955


    • Crutch SJ, Randlesome K, Warrington EK (2007). The variability of country map knowledge in normal and aphasic subjects: evidence from two new category-specific screening tests. Journal of Neuropsychology, 1(2), 171 - 187. doi:10.1348/174866407X194364
    • Warrington EK, Crutch S (2007). Semantic refractory access disorders. In Hart J, Kraut MA (Ed.), The Neural Bases of Semantic Memory (pp. 3 - 27). : Cambridge University Press.
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2007). Foveal crowding in posterior cortical atrophy: a specific early-visual-processing deficit affecting word reading. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 24(8), 843 - 866. doi:10.1080/02643290701754240
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2007). The semantic organisation of mass nouns: evidence from semantic refractory access dysphasia. Cortex, 43(8), 1057 - 1067.
    • Warrington EK, Crutch SJ (2007). A within-modality test of semantic knowledge: The Size/Weight attribute test. Neuropsychology, 21(6), 803 - 811.
    • Crutch SJ, Rossor MN, Warrington EK (2007). The quantitative assessment of apraxic deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 43(7), 976 - 986.
    • Crutch SJ, Rossor MN, Warrington EK (2007). A novel technique for the quantitative assessment of apraxic deficits: application to individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Neuropsychology, 1(2), 237 - 257. doi:10.1348/174866407X209943
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2007). Semantic priming in deep-phonological dyslexia: Contrasting effects of association and similarity upon abstract and concrete word reading. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 24(6), 583 - 602. doi:10.1080/02643290701577351
    • Warrington EK, Crutch SJ (2007). Selective category and modality effects in deep dyslexia. Neurocase, 13(3), 144 - 153. doi:10.1080/13554790701440462
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2007). Word form access dyslexia: Understanding the basis of visual reading errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60(1), 57 - 78. doi:10.1080/17470210600598676
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2007). Word form access dyslexia: Understanding the basis of visual reading errors. Q J EXP PSYCHOL, 60(1), 57 - 78. doi:10.1080/1747210600598676


    • Crutch SJ (2006). Qualitatively different semantic representations for abstract and concrete words: Further evidence from the semantic reading errors of deep dyslexic patients. Neurocase, 12(2), 91 - 97.
    • Crutch SJ, Ridha BH, Warrington EK (2006). The different frameworks underlying abstract and concrete knowledge: Evidence from a bilingual patient with a semantic refractory access dysphasia. Neurocase, 12(3), 151 - 163.
    • Schott JM, Ridha BH, Crutch SJ, Healy DG, Uphill JB, Warrington EK, Rossor MN, Fox NC (2006). Apolipoprotein E genotype modifies the phenotype of Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology, 63(1), 155 - 156.
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2006). Partial knowledge of abstract words in patients with cortical degenerative conditions. Neuropsychology, 20(4), 482 - 489.
    • Crutch SJ, Rossor MN (2006). Artistic changes in Alzheimer's disease. In Rose FC (Ed.), The neurobiology of painting (pp. 147 - 161). : Elsevier.


    • Crutch SJ, Warren JD, Harding L, Warrington EK (2005). Computation of tactile object properties requires the integrity of praxic skills. Neuropsychologia, 43(12), 1792 - 1800.
    • Warrington EK, Crutch SJ (2005). Jargon dyslexia in an individual with semantic dementia: Further evidence for task-specificity in phonological output. Neurocase, 11(5), 351 - 362.
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2005). Gradients of semantic relatedness and their contrasting explanations in refractory access and storage semantic impairments. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22(7), 851 - 876.
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2005). Abstract and concrete concepts have structurally different representational frameworks. Brain, 128(3), 615 - 627.
    • Crutch SJ (2005). Apraxia. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, 5(1), 16 - 18.


    • Crutch S, Warrington EK (2004). The semantic organisation of proper nouns: the case of people and brand names. Neuropsychologia, 42(5), 584 - 596. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.10.009
    • Warrington EK, Crutch SJ (2004). A circumscribed refractory access disorder: A verbal semantic impairment sparing visual semantics. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21(2-4), 299 - 315.


    • Schott JM, Crutch SJ, Fox NC, Warrington EK (2003). Development of selective verbal memory impairment secondary to a left thalamic infarct: a longitudinal case study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74(2), 255 - 257.
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2003). The selective impairment of fruit and vegetable knowledge: A multiple processing channels account of fine-grain category specificity. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20(3-6), 355 - 372.
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2003). Spatial coding of semantic information: knowledge of country and city names depends on their geographical proximity. Brain, 126(8), 1821 - 1829.
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2003). Preservation of propositional speech in a pure anomic: the importance of an abstract vocabulary. Neurocase, 9(6), 465 - 481.


    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2002). Preserved calculation skills in a case of semantic dementia. Cortex, 38(3), 389 - 399.


    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2001). Refractory dyslexia: evidence of multiple task-specific phonological output stores. Brain, 124, 1533 - 1543.
    • Chan D, Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2001). A disorder of colour perception associated with abnormal colour after-images: a defect of the primary visual cortex. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 71(4), 515 - 517.
    • Crutch SJ, Isaacs R, Rossor MN (2001). Some workmen can blame their tools: artistic change in an individual with Alzheimer's disease. The Lancet, 357(9274), 2129 - 2133. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)05187-4
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (2001). Acalculia: deficits of operational and quantity number knowledge. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7(7), 825 - 834.
    • Chan D, Crutch S, Warrington E (2001). Abnormal colour after images in Alzheimer's disease: a defect of primary visual cortex. J NEUROL NEUROSUR PS, 71(1), 139 - 139.
    • Crutch S, Isaacs R (2001). The significance of an early diagnosis in Alzheimer's disease. CPD Bulletin Old Age Psychiatry, 3(1), 3 - 5.

    • Crutch S, Ridgway GR (). On the semantic elements of abstract words. Cortex, , - . doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.05.010
    • Crutch SJ, Warrington EK (). Different patterns of spoken and written word comprehension deficit in aphasic stroke patients. Cognitive Neuropsychology, , - .