Prof Roger Lemon


Personal Profile

Name: Roger Lemon Email:
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7837 3611
Department: IoN Motor Neurosci & Mov Disorders Fax: 020 7813 8107
Position: Professor of Neurophysiology Address: Institute of Neurology , UCL, 12 Queen Square, London , WC1N 3BG
Research Domain: Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

My laboratory is devoted to understanding the cortical control of hand and finger movements in humans and in non-human primate models. We are particularly interested in the circuits which control skilled movements of the hands and digits: how are these movements encoded in identified cortical output neurons and how do populations of these neurons work together to generate specific hand movements? Our work has provided evidence that neurons with direct cortico-motoneuronal projections from primary motor cortex to spinal motoneurons are particularly important in hand control. We have developed multiple electrode techniques which allow us to make simultaneous recording, in the awake monkey, of spike trains from small arrays of identified output neurons, together with local field potentials from the same electrode sites. Neurons are identified by antidromic activation and synaptic activation from other cortical sites. We now make simultaneous recordings from different parts of the cortical motor network., allowing us to address important issues such as how is information transmitted between different nodes in the network? Currently we are focusing on transmission of information related to shape, size and other properties of graspable objects through the posterior parietal area AIP, ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and primary motor cortex (M1), all components of the â??visuomotor grasping circuitâ??. In collaboration with colleagues at RIKEN-BSI in Japan we are now participating in an exciting new project looking at how these circuits are involved in a particularly important type of skilled hand behavior: the use of tools.

We also have a major interest in the comparative biology of hand function and its neural control.

Our interest is prompted not only by the need to understand how cortical circuits function to produce skilled hand and finger movements, but also because these movements are particularly affected by damage to the cortex, and its major descending pathways, for instance as a result of stroke, spinal injury or cerebral palsy. We use a variety of non-invasive techniques to conduct parallel studies in human volunteers and in patients.

Research Activities

Cortical Control of Skilled Hand Function

Functional imaging of language and object recognition in normal and neurologically damaged subjects.

Perceptual and neural mechanisms of body representation and of voluntary action

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Human Motor Cont

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof John Rothwell; Prof Cathy Price; Dr Peter Kirkwood; Prof David Green; Dr Joseph Devlin; Dr Duncan Austin; Prof Patrick Haggard; Prof Mitch Glickstein

External Collaborators



    • Kilner JM, Kraskov A, Lemon RN (2014). Do monkey F5 mirror neurons show changes in firing rate during repeated observation of natural actions?. J Neurophysiol, 111(6), 1214 - 1226. doi:10.1152/jn.01102.2012
    • Firmin L, Field P, Maier MA, Kraskov A, Kirkwood PA, Nakajima K, Lemon RN, Glickstein M (2014). Axon diameters and conduction velocities in the macaque pyramidal tract.. J Neurophysiol, 112(6), 1229 - 1240. doi:10.1152/jn.00720.2013
    • Pomeroy VM, Ward NS, Johansen-Berg H, van Vliet P, Burridge J, Hunter SM, Lemon RN, Rothwell J, Weir CJ, Wing A, Walker AA, Kennedy N, Barton G, Greenwood RJ, McConnachie A (2014). FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: Neural correlates and prognostic indicators. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STROKE, 9(2), 240 - 245. doi:10.1111/ijs.12179
    • Kraskov A, Philipp R, Waldert S, Vigneswaran G, Quallo MM, Lemon RN (2014). Corticospinal mirror neurons.. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 369(1644), 20130174 - . doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0174


    • Kilner JM, Lemon RN (2013). What we know currently about mirror neurons.. Curr Biol, 23(23), R1057 - R1062. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.10.051
    • Vigneswaran G, Philipp R, Lemon RN, Kraskov A (2013). M1 corticospinal mirror neurons and their role in movement suppression during action observation.. Curr Biol, 23(3), 236 - 243. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.12.006
    • Maier MA, Kirkwood PA, Brochier T, Lemon RN (2013). Responses of single corticospinal neurons to intracortical stimulation of primary motor and premotor cortex in the anesthetized macaque monkey.. J Neurophysiol, 109(12), 2982 - 2998. doi:10.1152/jn.01080.2012
    • Waldert S, Lemon RN, Kraskov A (2013). Influence of spiking activity on cortical local field potentials.. J Physiol, 591(Pt 21), 5291 - 5303. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2013.258228


    • Lemon R (2012). Spinal cord injury: harnessing spike timing to induce plastic change.. Curr Biol, 22(24), R1039 - R1040. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.004
    • Lemon RN, Landau W, Tutssel D, Lawrence DG (2012). Lawrence and Kuypers (1968a, b) revisited: copies of the original filmed material from their classic papers in Brain.. Brain, 135(Pt 7), 2290 - 2295. doi:10.1093/brain/aws037
    • Prescott MJ, Brown VJ, Flecknell PA, Garrod K, Lemon RN, Parker AJ, Ryder K, Schultz W, Scott L, Watson J, Whitfield L (2012). Response to Westlund's commentary: 'Can conditioned reinforcers and variable-Ratio Schedules make food- and fluid control redundant?'. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, 204(1), 206 - 209. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.08.038
    • Quallo MM, Kraskov A, Lemon RN (2012). The activity of primary motor cortex corticospinal neurons during tool use by macaque monkeys.. J Neurosci, 32(48), 17351 - 17364. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1009-12.2012


    • Balkwill F, Whitehead S, Willis P, Gaymond N, Kent A, Page C, Lovell-Badge R, Morris R, Lemon R, Banks D (2011). Safety of medicines and the use of animals in research. LANCET, 378(9786), 127 - 128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60984-7
    • Davare M, Kraskov A, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN (2011). Interactions between areas of the cortical grasping network.. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 21(4), 565 - 570. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2011.05.021
    • Hikishima K, Quallo MM, Komaki Y, Yamada M, Kawai K, Momoshima S, Okano HJ, Sasaki E, Tamaoki N, Lemon RN, Iriki A, Okano H (2011). Population-averaged standard template brain atlas for the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). NEUROIMAGE, 54(4), 2741 - 2749. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.061
    • Kraskov A, Prabhu G, Quallo MM, Lemon RN, Brochier T (2011). Ventral premotor-motor cortex interactions in the macaque monkey during grasp: response of single neurons to intracortical microstimulation.. J Neurosci, 31(24), 8812 - 8821. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0525-11.2011
    • Vigneswaran G, Kraskov A, Lemon RN (2011). Large identified pyramidal cells in macaque motor and premotor cortex exhibit "thin spikes": implications for cell type classification.. J Neurosci, 31(40), 14235 - 14242. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3142-11.2011


    • Prescott MJ, Brown VJ, Flecknell PA, Gaffan D, Garrod K, Lemon RN, Parker AJ, Ryder K, Schultz W, Scott L, Watson J, Whitfield L (2010). Refinement of the use of food and fluid control as motivational tools for macaques used in behavioural neuroscience research Report of a Working Group of the NC3Rs. J NEUROSCI METH, 193(2), 167 - 188. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.09.003
    • Lemon RN (2010). What drives corticospinal output?. F1000 Biol Rep, 2, 51 - . doi:10.3410/B2-51
    • Davare M, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN (2010). Causal connectivity between the human anterior intraparietal area and premotor cortex during grasp.. Curr Biol, 20(2), 176 - 181. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.063
    • Quallo MM, Price CJ, Ueno K, Asamizuya T, Cheng K, Lemon RN, Iriki A (2010). Creating a population-averaged standard brain template for Japanese macaques (M. fuscata).. Neuroimage, 52(4), 1328 - 1333. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.006
    • Lemon RN, Edgley SA (2010). Life without a cerebellum.. Brain, 133(Pt 3), 652 - 654. doi:10.1093/brain/awq030
    • Loh MN, Kirsch L, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN, Davare M (2010). Information about the weight of grasped objects from vision and internal models interacts within the primary motor cortex.. J Neurosci, 30(20), 6984 - 6990. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6207-09.2010


    • Prabhu G, Shimazu H, Cerri G, Brochier T, Spinks RL, Maier MA, Lemon RN (2009). Modulation of primary motor cortex outputs from ventral premotor cortex during visually guided grasp in the macaque monkey. The Journal of Physiology, 587(5), 1057 - 1069. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.165571
    • Brochier T, Spinks RL, Umilta MA, Lemon RN (2009). Recording of EMG activity in the monkey during skilled grasping. In Nowak DA, Hermsdorfer J (Ed.), Sensorimotor Control of Grasping: Physiology and Pathophysiology (pp. 61 - 71). : Cambridge University Press.
    • Brochier T, Lemon RN (2009). Recordings from the motor cortex during skilled grasping. In Nowak D, Hermsdorfer J (Ed.), Sensorimotor Control of Grasping: Physiology and Pathophysiology (pp. 52 - 60). : Cambridge University Press.
    • Quallo MM, Price CJ, Ueno K, Asamizuya T, Cheng K, Lemon RN, Iriki A (2009). Gray and white matter changes associated with tool-use learning in macaque monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(43), 18379 - 18384. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909751106
    • Kraskov A, Dancause N, Quallo MM, Shepherd S, Lemon RN (2009). Corticospinal neurons in macaque ventral premotor cortex with mirror properties: a potential mechanism for action suppression?. Neuron, 64(6), 922 - 930. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.010
    • Donaldson C, Tallis R, Miller S, Sunderland A, Lemon R, Pomeroy V (2009). Effects of conventional physical therapy and functional strength training on upper limb motor recovery after stroke: a randomized phase II study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 23(4), 389 - 397. doi:10.1177/1545968308326635
    • Davare M, Montague K, Olivier E, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN (2009). Ventral premotor to primary motor cortical interactions during object-driven grasp in humans. Cortex, 45(9), 1050 - 1057. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2009.02.011


    • Al-Izki S, Kirkwood PA, Lemon RN, Enrique-Denton M (2008). Electrophysiological actions of the rubrospinal tract in the anaesthetised rat. Experimental Neurology, 212(1), 118 - 131. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.03.020
    • Schmidlin E, Brochier T, Maier MA, Kirkwood PA, Lemon RN (2008). Pronounced reduction of digit motor responses evoked from macaque ventral premotor cortex after reversible inactivation of the primary motor cortex hand area. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(22), 5772 - 5783. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0944-08.2008
    • Spinks RL, Kraskov A, Brochier T, Umilta MA, Lemon RN (2008). Selectivity for grasp in local field potential and single neuron activity recorded simultaneously from M1 and F5 in the awake macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(43), 10961 - 10971. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1956-08.2008
    • Davare M, Lemon R, Olivier E (2008). Selective modulation of interactions between ventral premotor cortex and primary motor cortex during precision grasping in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 586(11), 2735 - 2742.
    • Di Lazzaro V, Ziemann U, Lemon RN (2008). State of the art: Physiology of transcranial motor cortex stimulation. BRAIN STIMUL, 1(4), 345 - 362. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2008.07.004
    • Lemon RN (2008). Descending pathways in motor control. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 31, 195 - 218. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.31.060407.125547
    • Lemon RN (2008). An enduring map of the motor cortex. Experimental Physiology, 93(7), 798 - 802. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2007.039081


    • Prabhu G, Voss M, Brochier T, Cattaneo L, Haggard P, Lemon R (2007). Excitability of human motor cortex inputs prior to grasp. The Journal of Physiology, 581(1), 189 - 201. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2006.123356
    • Adams M, Carlstedt T, Cavanagh J, Lemon RN, McKernan R, Priestley JV, Raisman G, Verhaagen J (2007). International spinal research trust research strategy. III: A discussion document. Spinal Cord, 45(1), 2 - 14. doi:10.1038/
    • Prabhu G, Lemon R, Haggard P (2007). On-line control of grasping actions: object-specific motor facilitation requires sustained visual input. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(46), 12651 - 12654. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4308-07.2007
    • Umilta MA, Brochier T, Spinks RL, Lemon RN (2007). Simultaneous recording of macaque premotor and primary motor cortex neuronal populations reveals different functional contributions to visuomotor grasp. Journal of Neurophysiology, 98(1), 488 - 501.
    • Courtine G, Bunge MB, Fawcett JW, Grossman RG, Kaas JH, Lemon R, Maier I, Martin J, Nudo RJ, Ramon-Cueto A, Rouiller EM, Schnell L, Wannier T, Schwab ME, Edgerton VR (2007). Can experiments in nonhuman primates expedite the translation of treatments for spinal cord injury in humans?. Nature Medicine, 13(5), 561 - 566. doi:10.1038/nm1595
    • Lemon R, Bolam JP (2007). Motor systems.. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17(6), 619 - 621. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2008.01.005
    • Lemon R (2007). The neurochip: promoting plasticity with a neural implant. Current Biology, 17(2), R54 - R55. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.12.017


    • Lang N, Harms J, Weyh T, Lemon RN, Paulus W, Rothwell JC, Siebner HR (2006). Stimulus intensity and coil characteristics influence the efficacy of rTMS to suppress cortical excitability. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117(10), 2292 - 2301. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.05.030
    • Townsend BR, Paninski L, Lemon RN (2006). Linear encoding of muscle activity in primary motor cortex and cerebellum. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96(5), 2578 - 2592.
    • Lemon RN (2006). Cortical mechanisms mediating visuomotor control of primate grasp. NEUROSCI RES, 55, S28 - S28.


    • Cattaneo L, Voss M, Brochier T, Prabhu G, Wolpert DM, Lemon RN (2005). A cortico-cortical mechanism mediating object-driven grasp in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(3), 898 - 903. doi:10.1073/pnas.0409182102
    • Lemon R, Dunnett SB (2005). Surveying the literature from animal experiments - Critical reviews may be helpful - not systematic ones. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 330(7498), 977 - 978.
    • Lang N, Siebner HR, Ward NS, Lee L, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN, Frackowiak RS (2005). How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22(2), 495 - 504.
    • Lemon RN, Griffiths J (2005). Comparing the function of the corticospinal system in different species: Organizational differences for motor specialization?. Muscle & Nerve, 32(3), 261 - 279.
    • Maier MA, Kirkwood PA, Nakajima K, Lemon RN (2005). The importance of direct vs. indirect corticospinal connections for dexterity and their evolution. In Roux V, Bril B (Ed.), Stone knapping : the necessary conditions for a uniquely hominin behaviour (pp. 257 - 272). : Macdonald Institute Monograph, Cambridge University.


    • Lemon RN, Kirkwood PA, Maier MA, Nakajima K, Nathan PW (2004). Direct and indirect pathways for corticospinal control of upper limb motoneurons in the primate. Progress In Brain Research, 143, 263 - 279. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(03)43026-4
    • Siebner HR, Lang N, Rizzo V, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Lemon RN, Rothwell JC (2004). Preconditioning of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence for homeostatic plasticity in the human motor cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(13), 3379 - 3385. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5316-03.2004
    • Lang N, Siebner HR, Ernst D, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Lemon RN, Rothwell JC (2004). Preconditioning with transcranial direct current stimulation sensitizes the motor cortex to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation and controls the direction of after-effects. Biological Psychiatry, 56(9), 634 - 639.
    • Chen R, Lemon R (2004). Subthalamic nucleus and gait disturbance - Interactions between basal ganglia and brainstem and spinal pathways?. NEUROLOGY, 63(7), 1150 - 1151.
    • Brochier T, Spinks RL, Umilta MA, Lemon RN (2004). Patterns of muscle activity underlying object-specific grasp by the Macaque monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 92(3), 1770 - 1782.
    • Kilner JM, Fisher RJ, Lemon RN (2004). Coupling of oscillatory activity between muscles is strikingly reduced in a deafferented subject compared with normal controls. Journal of Neurophysiology, 92(2), 790 - 796.
    • Lang N, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN (2004). Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the human motor cortex on corticospinal and transcallosal excitability. Experimental Brain Research, 156(4), 439 - 443.
    • Shimazu H, Maier MA, Cerri G, Kirkwood PA, Lemon RN (2004). Macaque ventral premotor cortex exerts powerful facilitation of motor cortex outputs to upper limb motoneurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(5), 1200 - 1211.
    • Lemon R (2004). Cortico-motoneuronal system and dexterous finger movements. J NEUROPHYSIOL, 92(6), 3601 - 3601. doi:10.1152/jn.00624.2004


    • Baker SN, Curio G, Lemon RN (2003). EEG oscillations at 600 Hz are macroscopic markers for cortical spike bursts. The Journal of Physiology, 550(2), 529 - 534.
    • Yang HW, Lemon RN (2003). An electron microscopic examination of the corticospinal projection to the cervical spinal cord in the rat: lack of evidence for cortico-motoneuronal synapses. Experimental Brain Research, 149(4), 458 - 469.
    • Baker SN, Pinches EM, Lemon RN (2003). Synchronization in monkey motor cortex during a precision grip task. II. effect of oscillatory activity on corticospinal output. Journal of Neurophysiology, 89(4), 1941 - 1953.
    • Spinks RL, Baker SN, Jackson A, Khaw PT, Lemon RN (2003). Problem of dural scarring in recording from awake, behaving monkeys: a solution using 5-fluorouracil. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90(2), 1324 - 1332.
    • Kilner JM, Salenius S, Baker SN, Jackson A, Hari R, Lemon RN (2003). Task-dependent modulations of cortical oscillatory activity in human subjects during a bimanual precision grip task. NeuroImage, 18(1), 67 - 73. doi:10.1006/nimg.2002.1322
    • Cerri G, Shimazu H, Maier MA, Lemon RN (2003). Facilitation from ventral premotor cortex of primary motor cortex outputs to macaque hand muscles. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90(2), 832 - 842.
    • Jackson A, Gee VJ, Baker SN, Lemon RN (2003). Synchrony between neurons with similar muscle fields in monkey motor cortex. Neuron, 38(1), 115 - 125. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00162-4


    • Maier MA, Armand J, Kirkwood PA, Yang HW, Davis JN, Lemon RN (2002). Differences in the corticospinal projection from primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area to macaque upper limb motoneurons: an anatomical and electrophysiological study. Cerebral Cortex, 12(3), 281 - 296. doi:10.1093/cercor/12.3.281
    • Parker GJM, Stephan KE, Barker GJ, Rowe JB, MacManus DG, Wheeler-Kingshott CAM, Ciccarelli O, Passingham RE, Spinks RL, Lemon RN, Turner R (2002). Initial demonstration of in vivo tracing of axonal projections in the macaque brain and comparison with the human brain using diffusion tensor imaging and fast marching tractography. NeuroImage, 15(4), 797 - 809.
    • Jackson A, Spinks RL, Freeman TCB, Wolpert DM, Lemon RN (2002). Rhythm generation in monkey motor cortex explored using pyramidal tract stimulation. The Journal of Physiology, 541(3), 685 - 699.
    • Kilner JM, Baker SN, Lemon RN (2002). A novel algorithm to remove electrical cross-talk between surface EMG recordings and its application to the measurement of short-term synchronisation in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 538(3), 919 - 930.
    • Lemon RN (2002). Basic physiology of transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Pascual-Leone A, Davey NJ, Rothwell J, Wassermann EM, Puri BK (Ed.), Handbook of transcranial magnetic stimulation (pp. 61 - 77). : Arnold.
    • Olivier E, Baker SN, Lemon RN (2002). Comparison of direct and indirect measurements of the central motor conduction time in the monkey. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113(4), 469 - 477.
    • Fisher RJ, Galea MP, Brown P, Lemon RN (2002). Digital nerve anaesthesia decreases EMG-EMG coherence in a human precision grip task. Experimental Brain Research, 145(2), 207 - 214.
    • Lemon RN, Maier MA, Armand J, Kirkwood PA, Yang HW (2002). Functional differences in corticospinal projections from macaque primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 508(48), 425 - 434.
    • Kirkwood PA, Maier MA, Lemon RN (2002). Interspecies comparisons for the C3-C4 propriospinal system: unresolved issues. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 508(35), 299 - 308.
    • Kilner JM, Alonso-Alonso M, Fisher RJ, Lemon RN (2002). Modulation of synchrony between single motor units during precision grip tasks in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 541(3), 937 - 948. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2001.013305


    • Stephan KE, Parker GJM, Barker GJ, Rowe JB, MacManus DG, Passingham RE, Lemon RN, Turner R (2001). In vivo tracing of anatomical fibre tracts in the Macaque monkey brain by diffusion tenser imaging (DTI). NEUROIMAGE, 13(6), S258 - S258.
    • Jackson A, Lemon RN (2001). Motor control: forcing neurons to change. Current Biology, 11(17), R708 - R709.
    • Olivier E, Baker SN, Nakajima K, Brochier T, Lemon RN (2001). Investigation into non-mono synaptic corticospinal excitation of macaque upper limb single motor units. Journal of Neurophysiology, 86(4), 1573 - 1586.
    • Baker SN, Spinks R, Jackson A, Lemon RN (2001). Synchronization in monkey motor cortex during a precision grip task. I. Task-dependent modulation in single-unit synchrony. Journal of Neurophysiology, 85(2), 869 - 885.


    • Jackson A, Freeman TCB, Spinks RL, Wolpert DM, Lemon RN (2000). Effects of corticospinal activation on 15-35 hz oscillatory activity in macaque motor cortex. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 506 - 506.
    • Baker SN, Lemon RN (2000). Precise spatiotemporal repeating patterns in monkey primary and supplementary motor areas occur at chance levels. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84(4), 1770 - 1780.
    • Brochier T, Spinks RL, Lemon RN (2000). Specificity of muscular activation during skilled grasp of different objects in humans.. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 151 - 151.
    • Nakajima K, Maier MA, Kirkwood PA, Lemon RN (2000). Striking differences in transmission of corticospinal excitation to upper limb motoneurons in two primate species. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84(2), 698 - 709.
    • Kilner JM, Baker SN, Salenius S, Hari R, Lemon RN (2000). Does 15-30 Hz oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor cortex have a functional role?. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 151 - 151.
    • Kilner JM, Baker SN, Salenius S, Hari R, Lemon RN (2000). Human cortical muscle coherence is directly related to specific motor parameters. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(23), 8838 - 8845.
    • Lemon RN, Olivier E, Baker SN, Nakajima K, Brochier T (2000). Lack of non-monosynaptic corticospinal excitation or upper limb motor units tn unanaesthetised macaques. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 146 - 146.


    • Lemon RN (1999). Neural control of dexterity: what has been achieved?. Experimental Brain Research, 128(1-2), 6 - 12.
    • Baker SN, Philbin N, Spinks R, Pinches EM, Wolpert DM, MacManus DG, Pauluis Q, Lemon RN (1999). Multiple single unit recording in the cortex of monkeys using independently moveable microelectrodes. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 94, 5 - 17.
    • Turton A, Lemon RN (1999). The contribution of fast corticospinal input to the voluntary activation of proximal muscles in normal subjects and in stroke patients. EXP BRAIN RES, 129(4), 559 - 572.
    • Kilner JM, Baker SN, Salenius S, Jousmaki V, Hari R, Lemon RN (1999). Task-dependent modulation of 15-30 Hz coherence between rectified EMGs from human hand and forearm muscles. The Journal of Physiology, 516, 559 - 570.
    • Edgley SA, Lemon RN (1999). Experiments using transcranial magnetic brain stimulation in man could reveal important new mechanisms in motor control. The Journal of Physiology, 521, 565 - .
    • Baker SN, Kilner JM, Pinches EM, Lemon RN (1999). The role of synchrony and oscillations in the motor output. Experimental Brain Research, 128(1-2), 109 - 117.


    • Baker SN, Lemon RN (1998). Computer simulation of post-spike facilitation in spike-triggered averages of rectified EMG. Journal of Neurophysiology, 80, 1391 - 1406.
    • Lemon RN, Baker SN, Davis JA, Kirkwood PA, Maier MA, Yang HS (1998). The importance of the cortico-motoneuronal system for control of grasp. SENSORY GUIDANCE OF MOVEMENT, 218, 202 - 218.
    • Baker SN, Kilner JM, Ahmed A, Fitzgerald WJ, Mayston MJ, Lemon RN (1998). Use of a 'blind separation' algorithm to remove electrical cross-talk from multiple EMG recordings. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 509P, 168P - 168P.
    • Baker SN, Curio G, Lemon RN (1998). Non-monotonic recovery of 600 Hz sensory evoked potentials in a conscious monkey. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 511P, 56P - 56P.
    • Maier MA, Illert M, Kirkwood PA, Nielsen J, Lemon RN (1998). Does a C3-C4 propriospinal system transmit corticospinal excitation in the primate? An investigation in the macaque monkey. The Journal of Physiology, 511(1), 191 - 212.
    • Lemon RN (1998). Pathways and mechanisms subserving cortical control of the hand in primates. Current Science, 75(5), 458 - 463.
    • Armand J, Lemon RN, Olivier E, Edgley SA (1998). Postnatal development of corticospinal projections in the Macaque monkey. A combined anatomical and electrophysiological study. CAH PSYCHOL COGN, 17(4-5), 1040 - 1041.
    • Anissimova N, Nielsen J, Maier MA, Illert M, Kummel H, Lemon RN (1998). Presynaptic inhibition in the cat and monkey cervical spinal cord.. EUR J NEUROSCI, 10, 175 - 175.
    • Kilner JM, Baker SN, Salenius S, Hari R, Lemon RN (1998). 15-30 Hz coherence between rectified EMGs from human hand muscles has task-dependent modulation. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 509P, 175P - 175P.
    • Baker SN, Olivier E, Lemon RN (1998). An investigation of the intrinsic circuitry of the motor cortex of the monkey using intra-cortical microstimulation. Experimental Brain Research, 123, 397 - 411.


    • Lemon RN, Armand J, Olivier E, Edgley SA (1997). Skilled action and the development of the corticospinal tract in primates. In Connolly KJ, Forssberg H (Ed.), Neurophysiology and neuropsychology of motor development (pp. 162 - 176). : Cambridge University Press.
    • Dettmers C, Stephan KM, Lemon RN, Frackowiak RSJ (1997). Reorganisation of the executive motor system after stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 7, 187 - 200.
    • Maier MA, Olivier E, Baker SN, Kirkwood PA, Morris T, Lemon RN (1997). Direct and indirect corticospinal control of arm and hand motoneurons in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Journal of Neurophysiology, 78, 721 - 733.
    • Edgley SA, Eyre JA, Lemon RN, Miller S (1997). Comparison of activation of corticospinal neurons and spinal motor neurons by magnetic and electrical transcranial stimulation in the lumbosacral cord of the anaesthetized monkey. Brain, 120, 839 - 853.
    • Pinches EM, Baker SN, Lemon RN (1997). Quantitative assessment of phase locking in discharge of identified pyramidal tract neurones during 25 Hz oscillations in monkey motor cortex. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 501P, P36 - P37.
    • Davis JN, Lemon RN (1997). A comparison of population and single-unit activity recorded from identified corticomotoneuronal (CM) cells during precision grip in the macaque monkey. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 501P, P37 - P37.
    • Pinches EM, Baker SN, Lemon RN (1997). Quantitative assessment of phase locking in discharge of identified pyramidal tract neurones during 25 Hz oscillations in monkey motor cortex. The Journal of Physiology, 501P, 36 - 37.
    • Lemon RN (1997). Sensory gating during movement: how and why?. The Journal of Physiology, 504P, S16 - S16.
    • Armand J, Olivier E, Edgley SA, Lemon RN (1997). Postnatal development of corticospinal projections from motor cortex to the cervical enlargement in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 251 - 266.
    • Lemon RN (1997). Mechanisms of cortical control of hand function. Neuroscientist, 3, 389 - 398.
    • Baker SN, Olivier E, Lemon RN (1997). Coherent oscillations in monkey motor cortex and hand muscle EMG show task-dependent modulation. The Journal of Physiology, 501(1), 225 - 241.
    • Olivier E, Edgley SA, Armand J, Lemon RN (1997). An electrophysiological study of the postnatal development of the corticospinal system in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 267 - 276.
    • Davis JN, Lemon RN (1997). A comparison of population and single-unit activity recorded from identified corticomotoneuronal (CM) cells during precision grip in the macaque monkey. The Journal of Physiology, 501P, 37 - 37.


    • Bennett KM, Lemon RN (1996). Corticomotoneuronal contribution to the fractionation of muscle activity during precision grip in the monkey.. J Neurophysiol, 75(5), 1826 - 1842.
    • Baker SN, Olivier E, Lemon RN (1996). 20 Hz coherent oscillations in cortical and EMG recordings from a monkey performing a precision grip task.
    • Turton A, Wroe S, Trepte N, Fraser C, Lemon RN (1996). Contralateral and ipsilateral EMC responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation during recovery of arm and hand function after stroke. ELECTROMYOGR MOTOR C, 101(4), 316 - 328.
    • Dettmers C, Lemon RN, Stephan KM, Fink GR, Frackowiak RSJ (1996). Cerebral activation during the exertion of sustained static force in man. NEUROREPORT, 7(13), 2103 - 2110.
    • Dettmers C, Ridding MC, Stephan KM, Lemon RN, Rothwell JC, Frackowiak RS (1996). Comparison of regional cerebral blood flow with transcranial magnetic stimulation at different forces.. J Appl Physiol (1985), 81(2), 596 - 603.
    • Lemon RN, Olivier E, Edgley SA, Armand J (1996). Development of the corticospinal system in the primate. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 493P, S8 - S8.
    • Lemon RN, Johansson RS, Westling G (1996). Modulation of corticospinal influence over hand muscles during gripping tasks in man and monkey.. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 74(4), 547 - 558.
    • Olivier E, Maier MA, Baker SN, Philbin N, Morris T, Lemon RN (1996). Electrophysiological evidence for direct corticomotoneuronal (CM) connections in the anaesthetized squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
    • Maier MA, Illert M, Kirkwood PA, Nielsen J, Lemon RN (1996). Lack of evidence for C3-C4 propriospinal transmission of corticospinal excitation to forearm motoneurones in the anaesthetized macaque monkey.


    • Lemon RN, Johansson RS, Westling G (1995). Corticospinal control during reach, grasp, and precision lift in man.. J Neurosci, 15(9), 6145 - 6156.
    • Baker SN, Lemon RN (1995). Non-linear summation of responses in averages of rectified EMG.. J Neurosci Methods, 59(2), 175 - 181.
    • Baker SN, Olivier E, Lemon RN (1995). Task-related variation in corticospinal output evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the macaque monkey.. J Physiol, 488 ( Pt 3), 795 - 801.
    • Lemon RN, Bennett KMB (1995). Flexibility in the relationship of monkey cortico-motoneuronal cells to their target muscles.
    • Dettmers C, Fink GR, Lemon RN, Stephan KM, Passingham RE, Silbersweig D, Holmes A, Ridding MC, Brooks DJ, Frackowiak RS (1995). Relation between cerebral activity and force in the motor areas of the human brain.. J Neurophysiol, 74(2), 802 - 815.